[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) is an unusual nuclear redox factor in which the redox-active cysteines identified to date, C65 and C93, are surface inaccessible residues whose activities may be influenced by partial unfolding of APE1. To assess the role of the five remaining cysteines in APE1's redox activity, double-cysteine mutants were analyzed, excluding C65A, which is redox-inactive as a single mutant. C93A/C99A APE1 was found to be redox-inactive, whereas other double-cysteine mutants retained the same redox activity as that observed for C93A APE1. To determine whether these three cysteines, C65, C93, and C99, were sufficient for redox activity, all other cysteines were substituted with alanine, and this protein was shown to be fully redox-active. Mutants with impaired redox activity failed to stimulate cell proliferation, establishing an important role for APE1's redox activity in cell growth. Disulfide bond formation upon oxidation of APE1 was analyzed by proteolysis of the protein followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Within 5 min of exposure to hydrogen peroxide, a single disulfide bond formed between C65 and C138 followed by the formation of three additional disulfide bonds within 15 min; 10 total disulfide bonds formed within 1 h. A single mixed-disulfide bond involving C99 of APE1 was observed for the reaction of oxidized APE1 with thioredoxin (TRX). Disulfide-bonded APE1 or APE1-TRX species were further characterized by size exclusion chromatography and found to form large complexes. Taken together, our data suggest that APE1 is a unique redox factor with properties distinct from those of other redox factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a central participant in the base excision repair pathway, exhibiting AP endonuclease activity that incises the DNA backbone 5' to an abasic site. Besides its prominent role as a DNA repair enzyme, APE1 was separately identified as a protein called redox effector factor 1, which is able to enhance the DNA binding activity of several transcription factors through a thiol-exchange-based reduction-oxidation mechanism. In the present study, we found that human APE1 is S-glutathionylated under conditions of oxidative stress both in the presence of glutathione in vitro and in cells. S-glutathionylated APE1 displayed significantly reduced AP endonuclease activity on abasic-site-containing oligonucleotide substrates, a result stemming from impaired DNA binding capacity. The combination of site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical assays, and mass spectrometric analysis identified Cys99 in human APE1 as the critical residue for the S-glutathionylation that leads to reduced AP endonuclease activity. This modification is reversible by reducing agents, which restore APE1 incision function. Our studies describe a novel posttranslational modification of APE1 that regulates the DNA repair function of the protein.
Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2011; 414(3):313-26. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: APE1 is a multifunctional protein possessing DNA repair and redox activation of transcription factors. Blocking these functions leads to apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, cell-growth inhibition, and other effects, depending on which function is blocked. Because a selective inhibitor of the APE redox function has potential as a novel anticancer therapeutic, new analogues of E3330 were synthesized. Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the interactions of the analogues (RN8-51, 10-52, and 7-60) with APE1. RN10-52 and RN7-60 were found to react rapidly with APE1, forming covalent adducts, whereas RN8-51 reacted reversibly. Median inhibitory concentration (IC(50) values of all three compounds were significantly lower than that of E3330. EMSA, transactivation assays, and endothelial tube growth-inhibition analysis demonstrated the specificity of E3330 and its analogues in blocking the APE1 redox function and demonstrated that the analogues had up to a sixfold greater effect than did E3330. Studies using cancer cell lines demonstrated that E3330 and one analogue, RN8-51, decreased the cell line growth with little apoptosis, whereas the third, RN7-60, caused a dramatic effect. RN8-51 shows particular promise for further anticancer therapeutic development. This progress in synthesizing and isolating biologically active novel E3330 analogues that effectively inhibit the APE1 redox function validates the utility of further translational anticancer therapeutic development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) is an essential base excision repair protein that also functions as a reduction and oxidation (redox) factor in mammals. Through a thiol-based mechanism, APE1 reduces a number of important transcription factors, including AP-1, p53, NF-κB, and HIF-1α. What is known about the mechanism to date is that the buried residues Cys 65 and Cys 93 are critical for APE1's redox activity. To further detail the redox mechanism, we developed a chemical footprinting-mass spectrometric assay using N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), an irreversible Cys modifier, to characterize the interaction of the redox inhibitor, E3330, with APE1. When APE1 was incubated with E3330, two NEM-modified products were observed, one with two and a second with seven added NEMs; this latter product corresponds to a fully modified APE1. In a similar control reaction without E3330, only the +2NEM product was observed in which the two solvent-accessible Cys residues, C99 and C138, were modified by NEM. Through hydrogen-deuterium amide exchange with analysis by mass spectrometry, we found that the +7NEM-modified species incorporates approximately 40 more deuterium atoms than the native protein, which exchanges nearly identically as the +2NEM product, suggesting that APE1 can be trapped in a partially unfolded state. E3330 was also found to increase the extent of disulfide bond formation involving redox critical Cys residues in APE1 as assessed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, suggesting a basis for its inhibitory effects on APE1's redox activity. Collectively, our results suggest that APE1 adopts a partially unfolded state, which we propose is the redox active form of the enzyme.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hexamethoxy-calixarene has been fully functionalized with p-phosphonic acid groups on the upper rim in 57% yield over three steps, and has been authenticated in the solid state by X-ray diffraction as either a nitrate salt or one of two calcium complexes. The latter differ by the ratio of calcium ions per calixarene, either 3:1 or 4:1. In both structures the coordination sphere of the calcium ions is made up of oxygen atoms from the phosphonic acid groups and from water of crystallization, as part of extended polymeric layers in the extended 3D packing. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows extensive O...H and O...Ca interactions for the phosphonic acid moieties in both calcium structures. MALDI-TOF MS of the hexaphosphonic acid shows nano-arrays consisting of up to a maximum of 28 calixarene units.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The UV portion of sunlight is mutagenic and can modify DNA by producing various photoproducts. UV photodamage often occurs at dipyrimidine sites, to give cyclobutane, pyrimidine-(6-4)-pyrimidone (6-4), and pyrimidine-(6-4)-Dewar pyrimidone (Dewar) photoproducts, and at TA and AA sites. There is no reported evidence, however, of UV photoproduct formation between C or 5-methylC ((m)C) and A. Irradiation of d(GTAT(m)CATGAGGTGC) with UVB light at physiological pH gives an unexpected photoproduct that undergoes fast thermal deamination but does not revert to its original structure under UVC irradiation. Evidence from nuclease P1 digestion coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS is in accord with product formation between (m)C and A. HPLC analysis indicates that deamination gives a T<>A photoproduct that coelutes on reverse-phase chromatography with the well-known TA* photoproduct, formed from an initial [2 + 2] reaction between C5-C6 and C6-C5 of the adjacent thymine and adenine [as shown by Zhao , X. , et al. ( 1996 ) Nucleic Acids Res. 24 , 1554 - 1560 and Davies , R. J. , et al. ( 2007 ) Nucleic Acids Res. 35 , 1048 - 1053 ]. Furthermore, the deamination product of the unknown (m)C<>A photoproduct and the TA* photoproduct undergo nearly identical fragmentation in tandem MS. The evidence, taken together, indicates that the deamination product of the unknown (m)CA photoproduct has the same chemical structure as the TA* photoproduct. Therefore, the unknown photoproduct is referred to as the (m)CA* photoproduct, which, upon deamination, gives the TA* photoproduct.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 02/2010; 23(3):474-9. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The unusual structural forms of telomere DNA, which protect the ends of chromosomes during replication, may render it vulnerable to unprecedented photodamage, possibly involving nonadjacent bases that are made proximate by folding. The G-quadruplex for the human telomere sequence consisting of a repeating d(TTAGGG) is one unusual form. Tel22, d[AGGG(TTAGGG)(3)], forms a basket structure in the presence of Na(+) and may form multiple equilibrating structures in the presence of K(+) with hybrid-type structures predominating. UVB irradiation of d[AGGG(TTAGGG)(3)] in the presence of Na(+) results in a cis,syn thymine dimer between two adjacent Ts in a TTA loop and a mixture of nonadjacent anti thymine dimers between various loops. Irradiation in the presence of K(+), however, produces, in addition to these same products, a large amount of specific anti thymine dimers formed between either T in loop 1 and the central T in loop 3. These latter species were not observed in the presence of Na(+). Interloop-specific anti thymine dimers are incompatible with hybrid-type structures, but could arise from a chair or basket-type structure or from triplex intermediates involved in interconverting these structures. If these unique nonadjacent anti thymine dimer photoproducts also form in vivo, they would constitute a previously unrecognized type of DNA photodamage that may interfere with telomere replication and present a unique challenge to DNA repair. Furthermore, these unusual anti photoproducts may be used to establish the presence of G-quadruplex or quadruplex-like structures in vivo.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2009; 106(31):12861-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lower rim O-methyl, -n-butyl, and n-octadecyl calixarenes bearing p-phosphonic acid groups on the upper rim have been prepared in high yield, compounds 12-14. Where possible the compounds have been characterized in the solid state using X-ray diffraction, or as the precursor phosphate esters or a cesium salt. The cone conformation ethyl phosphate ester for the octadecyl compound crystallizes in a bi-layer 39.1 A thick which approaches the 40 A of biological membranes. The 1,3-alternate cone conformation of the cesium salt of the O-methyl phosphonic acid has a metal ion coordinated to two methoxy groups, four O-P (two from neighboring calixarenes), and two eta(3)-C(3) moieties from two 1,3-disposed aromatic rings. MALDI-TOF spectra of compounds 12-14 show successive peaks corresponding to 15, 33 and 16 calixarene units, which is consistent with the intra-molecular H-bonding capabilities of the di-protic phosphonic acid groups where the calixarenes are arranged into layers, including bilayers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UVB irradiation of DNA produces photodimers in adjacent DNA bases and on rare occasions in nonadjacent bases. UVB irradiation (312 nm) of d(GTATCATGAGGTGC) gave rise to an unknown DNA photoproduct in approximately 40% yield at acidic pH of about 5. This product has a much shorter retention time in reverse phase HPLC compared to known dipyrimidine photoproducts of this sequence. A large upfield shift of two thymine H6 NMR signals and photoreversion to the parent ODN upon irradiation with 254 nm light indicates that the photoproduct is a cyclobutane thymine dimer. Exonuclease-coupled MS assay establishes that the photodimer forms between T2 and T7, which was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometric MS/MS identification of the endonuclease P1 digestion product pd(T2[A3])=pd(T7[G8]). Acidic hydrolysis of the photoproduct gave a product with the same retention time on reverse phase HPLC and the same MS/MS fragmentation pattern as authentic Thy[ c,a]Thy. 2D NOE NMR data are consistent with a cis-anti cyclobutane dimer between the 3'-sides of T2 and T7 in anti glycosyl conformations that had to have arisen from an interstand type reaction. In addition to pH dependency, the photoproduct yield is highly sequence specific and concentration dependent, indicating that it results from a higher order folded structure. The efficient formation of this interstrand-type photoproduct suggests the existence of a new type of folding motif and the possibility that this type of photoproduct might also form in other folded structures, such as G-quadruplexes and i-motif structures which can be now studied by the methods described.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2008; 130(34):11328-37. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water-soluble p-phosphonic acid calix[n]arenes (n = 5, 6 or 8) have been synthesized in five steps in overall 68, 66, 67% yield, respectively, by the recently developed procedure for p-phosphonic acid calixarene. The hydrogen bonding prowess of the phosphonic acids dominates their self assembly into nano-arrays in both solution and the gas phase. In DMSO, nano-arrays of p-phosphonic acid calixarene are stable for over 24 h, with the solvent molecules slowly disrupting the hydrogen bonded network affording solvated monomeric units. In the gas phase, nano-arrays of around 20 calixarene units were observed for the p-phosphonic acid calix[n]arenes using MALDI-TOF-MS, and ESI-MS revealed the presence of heteroleptic nano-arrays for a 1 : 1 mixture of p-phosphonic acid calix[4,5]arenes.
New Journal of Chemistry 01/2008; 32(9). · 2.97 Impact Factor