[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olfactory perception of myristic, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids and their corresponding methyl esters by Asian corn borer moths, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was investigated. It was found that mated females with both antennae amputated, in contrast to intact females and females with one antenna removed, could not discriminate between simultaneously provided control filter papers and filters treated with a blend of oviposition-deterring fatty acids. Oviposition by mated females exhibited a very marked periodicity, with all egg masses deposited during the scotophase and most egg masses laid before midnight. According to the peak and trough period of oviposition, electroantennogram (EAG) responses from both mated females and males to the four fatty acids and four methyl esters were tested within two two-hour periods from 3 to 5 hours after the start of darkness and from 1 to 3 hours after light onset, respectively. Significant EAG responses above solvent and background were elicited by all test chemicals from females, and by most of the test compounds from males. EAG values of all test chemicals from mated females were not statistically different between the two test periods except for methyl myristate. Conversely, EAG responses from mated males to myristic acid, stearic acid and their methyl esters significantly differed between the two test periods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plants produce and release large quantities of methanol, especially when attacked by herbivores. It seems that the herbivores may suffer from methanol intoxication. Here we reported the tolerance to and the metabolism of methanol by Ostrinia furnacalis third-instar larvae. When larvae were exposed to dietary methanol, formaldehyde and formic acid for 72h, the estimated LC(50) value was 28, 40 and 29 mg/g diet, respectively. Toxicity of methanol was enhanced by 4-methylpyrazole, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and piperonyl butoxide, and toxicity of formaldehyde was increased by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and piperonyl butoxide. However, triphenyl phosphate had little synergistic effects on both methanol and formaldehyde. These data indicate that alcohol dehydrogenase, and probably catalase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase oxidize methanol to formaldehyde, catalase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyze formaldehyde to formic acid, water and carbon dioxide, and carboxylesterase may have a minor effect. Several fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified from extracts of the frass of larvae which had been exposed to a methanol-contained diet, in contrast to those on a methanol-free artificial diet. In vitro tests revealed that a crude enzyme solution from the larvae could synthesize FAMEs from corresponding fatty acids and methanol. In addition, dietary methanol induced higher esterase activities in the first-, second- and third-instar larvae. These findings demonstrate that both oxidative metabolism and non-oxidative metabolism are partially responsible for methanol elimination in O. furnacalis larvae.