[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During 2005, the filter samples of ambient PM10 from five sites and the source samples of particulate matter were collected in Kaifeng, Henan Province of China. Nineteen elements, water-soluble ions, total carbon (TC) and organic carbon (OC) contained in samples were analyzed. Seven contributive source types were identified and their contributions to ambient PM10 were estimated by chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Weak associations between the concentrations of organic carbon and element carbon (EC) were observed during the sampling periods, indicating that there was secondary organic aerosol pollution in the urban atmosphere. An indirect method of "OC/EC minimum ratio" was applied to estimate the concentration of secondary organic carbon (SOC). The results showed that SOC contributed 26.2%, 32.4% and 18.0% of TC in spring, summer-fall and winter, respectively, and the annual average SOC concentration was 7.07 microg/m3, accounting for 5.73% of the total mass in ambient PM10. The carbon species concentrations in ambient PM10 were recalculated by subtracting SOC concentrations from measured concentrations of TC and OC to increase the compatibility of source and receptor measurements for CMB model.