[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Wobbler mouse, a mutation of the Vps54 protein increases oxidative stress in spinal motoneurons, associated to toxic levels of nitric oxide and hyperactivity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Progesterone neuroprotection has been reported for several CNS diseases, including the Wobbler mouse neurodegeneration. In the present study, we analyzed progesterone effects on mitochondrial-associated parameters of symptomatic Wobbler mice. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II-III and IV and protein levels of mitochondrial and cytosolic NOS were determined in cervical and lumbar cords from control, Wobbler and Wobbler mice receiving a progesterone implant for 18 days. We found a significant reduction of complex I and II-III activities in mitochondria and increased protein levels of mitochondrial, but not cytosolic nNOS, in the cervical cord of Wobbler mice. Progesterone treatment prevented the reduction of complex I in the cervical region and the increased level of mitochondrial nNOS. Wobbler motoneurons also showed accumulation of amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity and decreased activity and immunostaining of MnSOD. Progesterone treatment avoided these abnormalities. Therefore, administration of progesterone to clinically afflicted Wobblers (i) prevented the abnormal increase of mitochondrial nNOS and normalized respiratory complex I; (ii) decreased amyloid precursor protein accumulation, a sign of axonal degeneration, and (iii) increased superoxide dismutation. Thus, progesterone neuroprotection decreases mitochondriopathy of Wobbler mouse cervical spinal cord.
Journal of Neurochemistry 04/2012; 122(1):185-95. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic mitochondria resulted from symbiotic incorporation of α-proteobacteria into ancient archaea species. During evolution, mitochondria lost most of the prokaryotic bacterial genes and only conserved a small fraction including those encoding 13 proteins of the respiratory chain. In this process, many functions were transferred to the host cells, but mitochondria gained a central role in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and in the modulation of metabolism; accordingly, defective organelles contribute to cell transformation and cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Most cell and transcriptional effects of mitochondria depend on the modulation of respiratory rate and on the production of hydrogen peroxide released into the cytosol. The mitochondrial oxidative rate has to remain depressed for cell proliferation; even in the presence of O₂, energy is preferentially obtained from increased glycolysis (Warburg effect). In response to stress signals, traffic of pro- and antiapoptotic mitochondrial proteins in the intermembrane space (B-cell lymphoma-extra large, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2 associated X-protein and cytochrome c) is modulated by the redox condition determined by mitochondrial O₂ utilization and mitochondrial nitric oxide metabolism. In this article, we highlight the traffic of the different canonical signaling pathways to mitochondria and the contributions of organelles to redox regulation of kinases. Finally, we analyze the dynamics of the mitochondrial population in cell cycle and apoptosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage (H) is associated with a left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. However, the diastolic function has not been studied in detail. The main goal was to assess the diastolic function both during and 120 min after bleeding, in the absence and in the presence of L-NAME. Also, the changes in mRNA and protein expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms were determined. New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: Sham group, H group (hemorrhage 20% blood volume), and H L-NAME group (hemorrhage treated with L-NAME). We evaluated systolic and diastolic ventricular functions in vivo and in vitro (Langendorff technique). Hemodynamic parameters and LV function were measured before, during, and at 120 min after bleeding. We analyzed the isovolumic relaxation using t ½ in vivo (closed chest). After that, hearts were excised and perfused in vitro to measure myocardial stiffness. Samples were frozen to measure NOS mRNA and protein expression. The t½ increased during bleeding and returned to basal values 120 min after bleeding. L-NAME blunted this effect. Data from the H group revealed a shift to the left in the LV end diastolic pressure-volume curve at 120 min after bleeding, which was blocked by L-NAME. iNOS and nNOS protein expression and mRNA levels increased at 120 min after the hemorrhage. Acute hemorrhage induces early and transient isovolumic relaxation impairment and an increase in myocardial stiffness 120 min after bleeding. L-NAME blunted the LV dysfunction, suggesting that NO modulates ventricular function through iNOS and nNOS isoforms.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 08/2011; 359(1-2):169-76. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The subcellular localization and physiological functions of biomolecules are closely related and thus it is crucial to precisely determine the distribution of different molecules inside the intracellular structures. This is frequently accomplished by fluorescence microscopy with well-characterized markers and posterior evaluation of the signal colocalization. Rigorous study of colocalization requires statistical analysis of the data, albeit yet no single technique has been established as a standard method. Indeed, the few methods currently available are only accurate in images with particular characteristics. Here, we introduce a new algorithm to automatically obtain the true colocalization between images that is suitable for a wide variety of biological situations. To proceed, the algorithm contemplates the individual contribution of each pixel's fluorescence intensity in a pair of images to the overall Pearsońs correlation and Manders' overlap coefficients. The accuracy and reliability of the algorithm was validated on both simulated and real images that reflected the characteristics of a range of biological samples. We used this algorithm in combination with image restoration by deconvolution and time-lapse confocal microscopy to address the localization of MEK1 in the mitochondria of different cell lines. Appraising the previously described behavior of Akt1 corroborated the reliability of the combined use of these techniques. Together, the present work provides a novel statistical approach to accurately and reliably determine the colocalization in a variety of biological images.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e19031. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the relationship between systemic inflammatory response and mortality in the older hospitalized patient, we developed a prospective cohort study in which we evaluated a nutritional score (SGA), years of instruction, functional status, organic failure (Marshall), presence of sepsis, comorbidities (Charlson), cognitive state (MMSE), albumin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and mortality. Fifty two patients were included, 19 men (36.5%) and 33 women (63.5%), mean age was 80 (Interquartile Range 12.5) years. 29 (55.8%) patients were well-nourished and 23 (44.2%) malnourished, 53.8% of patients developed sepsis at admission or during hospitalization. Total nosocomial mortality was 7.7 % (n = 4) and one-year mortality was 31.8% (n = 14). Comparative analyses showed older age (80 vs. 78; p = 0.012), less years of instruction (7 vs. 8; p = 0.027), lower MMST (14 vs. 27; p = 0.017), lower previous functional status (21 vs. 32; p < 0.0001), lower albumin (3 vs. 3.35; p = 0.014) and higher organic failure score at admission (3 vs. 1; p = 0.01) with more number of affected organs (2 vs. 1; p = 0.003) in malnourished patients compared to well nourished ones. Higher incidence of sepsis -at admission or during hospitalization- (73.9% vs. 37.9%; p = 0.01) and more severe stages of sepsis were also observed in malnourished patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher in malnourished (52.2% vs. 9.5%, log rank test = 0.002). In conclusion, malnourished patients presented greater systemic inflammatory response.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic studies had shown that evolution of mitochondria occurred in parallel with the maturation of kinases implicated in growth and final size of modern organisms. In the last years, different reports confirmed that MAPKs, Akt, PKA and PKC are present in mitochondria, particularly in the intermembrane space and inner membrane where they meet mitochondrial constitutive upstream activators. Although a priori phosphorylation is the apparent aim of translocation, new perspectives indicate that kinase activation depends on redox status as determined by the mitochondrial production of oxygen species. We observed that the degree of mitochondrial oxidation of ERK Cys38 and Cys214 discriminates the kinase to be phosphorylated and determines translocation to the nuclear compartment and proliferation, or accumulation in mitochondria and arrest. Otherwise, transcriptional gene regulation by Akt depends on Cys60 and Cys310 oxidation to sulfenic and sulfonic acids. It is concluded that the interactions between kinases and mitochondria control cell signaling pathways and participate in the modulation of cell proliferation and arrest, tissue protection, tumorigenesis and cancer progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are specialized organelles that control energy metabolism and also activate a multiplicity of pathways that modulate cell proliferation and mitochondrial biogenesis or, conversely, promote cell arrest and programmed cell death by a limited number of oxidative or nitrative reactions. Nitric oxide (NO) regulates oxygen uptake by reversible inhibition of cytochrome oxidase and the production of superoxide anion from the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. In this sense, NO produced by mtNOS will set the oxygen uptake level and contribute to oxidation-reduction reaction (redox)-dependent cell signaling. Modulation of translocation and activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS activity) under different physiologic or pathologic conditions represents an adaptive response properly modulated to adjust mitochondria to different cell challenges.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 07/2009; 234(9):1020-8. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to achieve the goal of this article, as an example we will describe the strategies followed to analyze the presence of the multi-kinase complex at the mitochondria and the posttranslational modification of two key mitochondrial proteins, which participate in the regulation of cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membranes and in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis. Hormones, ions or growth factors modulate steroid biosynthesis by the posttranslational phosphorylation of proteins. The question still remains on how phosphorylation events transmit a specific signal to its mitochondrial site of action. Cholesterol transport requires specific interactions in mitochondria between several proteins including a multi-kinase complex. The presence of this multi-kinase complex at the mitochondria reveals the importance of the posttranslational modification of mitochondrial proteins for its activity and functions. The activation of PKA triggers the posttranslational modification of the mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot2), which releases arachidonic acid (AA) in the mitochondria, and the activation of a kinase cascade that leads to the phoshorylation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. The function of StAR is to facilitate the access of cholesterol to the first enzyme of the biosynthesis process and its induction is dependent on Acot2 and intramitochondrial AA release. Truncation of the StAR protein is associated with the steroid deficiency disease, congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.
Methods in enzymology 02/2009; 457:169-92. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Akt is a serine/threonine kinase involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism. Akt is differentially activated by growth factors and oxidative stress by sequential phosphorylation of Ser(473) by mTORC2 and Thr(308) by PDK1. On these bases, we investigated the mechanistic connection of H(2)O(2) yield, mitochondrial activation of Akt1 and cell cycle progression in NIH/3T3 cell line with confocal microscopy, in vivo imaging, and directed mutagenesis. We demonstrate that modulation by H(2)O(2) entails the entrance of cytosolic P-Akt1 Ser(473) to mitochondria, where it is further phosphorylated at Thr(308) by constitutive PDK1. Phosphorylation of Thr(308) in mitochondria determines Akt1 passage to nuclei and triggers genomic post-translational mechanisms for cell proliferation. At high H(2)O(2), Akt1-PDK1 association is disrupted and P-Akt1 Ser(473) accumulates in mitochondria in detriment to nuclear translocation; accordingly, Akt1 T308A is retained in mitochondria. Low Akt1 activity increases cytochrome c release to cytosol leading to apoptosis. As assessed by mass spectra, differential H(2)O(2) effects on Akt1-PDK interaction depend on the selective oxidation of Cys(310) to sulfenic or cysteic acids. These results indicate that Akt1 intramitochondrial-cycling is central for redox modulation of cell fate.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(10):e7523. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria require nitric oxide (NO) to exert a delicate control of metabolic rate as well as to regulate life functions, cell cycle activation and arrest, and apoptosis. All activities depend on the matrical NO steady state concentration as provided by mitochondrial (mtNOS) and cytosolic sources (eNOS) and reduced by forming superoxide anion and H2O2 and a low peroxynirite (ONOO−) yield. We review herein the biochemical pathways involved in the control of NO mitochondrial level and its biological and physiological significance in hormone effects and aging. At high NO, the cost of this physiological regulation is that ONOO− excess will lead to nitrosation/nitration and oxidization of mitochondrial and cell proteins and lipids. The disruption of NO modulation of mitochondrial respiration supports then, a platform for prevalent neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main function of the immune system is to protect the individual against potentially dangerous pathogens. It comprises innate and adaptive cellular and soluble components, both with the capacity to discriminate between harmful and harmless. These processes are regulated by homeostatic mechanisms that constitute the so-called immunological tolerance, which aims to limit the prolonged action of immune mediators and to silence the generation of potentially autoaggressive components. Failure to silence self-reactive T and B cells results in the generation of autoimmune disease. Recent advances in our knowledge of these pathological entities have opened a new chapter in the pharmacology of the immune system. Its promising potential currently offers new therapeutic agents to control and attenuate pathological tissue damage. Nevertheless, further research regarding these biologic agents is required, since they are not free from inconveniences. It is without question that upcoming findings in this field will instill hope into the quest for the "magic bullet".
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are members of the MAPK family and participate in the transduction of stimuli in cellular responses. Their long-term actions are accomplished by promoting the expression of specific genes whereas faster responses are achieved by direct phosphorylation of downstream effectors located throughout the cell. In this study we determined that hERK1 translocates to the mitochondria of HeLa cells upon a proliferative stimulus. In the mitochondrial environment, hERK1 physically associates with (i) at least 5 mitochondrial proteins with functions related to transport (i.e. VDAC1), signalling, and metabolism; (ii) histones H2A and H4; and (iii) other cytosolic proteins. This work indicates for the first time the presence of diverse ERK-complexes in mitochondria and thus provides a new perspective for assessing the functions of ERK1 in the regulation of cellular signalling and trafficking in HeLa cells.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(10):e7541. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ERK1/2 is known to be involved in hormone-stimulated steroid synthesis, but its exact roles and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Both ERK1/2 phosphorylation and steroidogenesis may be triggered by cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-dependent and-independent mechanisms; however, ERK1/2 activation by cAMP results in a maximal steroidogenic rate, whereas canonical activation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) does not. We demonstrate herein by Western blot analysis and confocal studies that temporal mitochondrial ERK1/2 activation is obligatory for PKA-mediated steroidogenesis in the Leydig-transformed MA-10 cell line. PKA activity leads to the phosphorylation of a constitutive mitochondrial MEK1/2 pool with a lower effect in cytosolic MEKs, while EGF allows predominant cytosolic MEK activation and nuclear pERK1/2 localization. These results would explain why PKA favors a more durable ERK1/2 activation in mitochondria than does EGF. By means of ex vivo experiments, we showed that mitochondrial maximal steroidogenesis occurred as a result of the mutual action of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein -a key regulatory component in steroid biosynthesis-, active ERK1/2 and PKA. Our results indicate that there is an interaction between mitochondrial StAR and ERK1/2, involving a D domain with sequential basic-hydrophobic motifs similar to ERK substrates. As a result of this binding and only in the presence of cholesterol, ERK1/2 phosphorylates StAR at Ser(232). Directed mutagenesis of Ser(232) to a non-phosphorylable amino acid such as Ala (StAR S232A) inhibited in vitro StAR phosphorylation by active ERK1/2. Transient transfection of MA-10 cells with StAR S232A markedly reduced the yield of progesterone production. In summary, here we show that StAR is a novel substrate of ERK1/2, and that mitochondrial ERK1/2 is part of a multimeric protein kinase complex that regulates cholesterol transport. The role of MAPKs in mitochondrial function is underlined.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(1):e1443. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are major cellular sources of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the production of which is modulated by oxygen availability and the mitochondrial energy state. An increase of steady-state cell H(2)O(2) concentration is able to control the transition from proliferating to quiescent phenotypes and to signal the end of proliferation; in tumor cells thereby, low H(2)O(2) due to defective mitochondrial metabolism can contribute to sustain proliferation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) orchestrate signal transduction and recent data indicate that are present in mitochondria and regulated by the redox state. On these bases, we investigated the mechanistic connection of tumor mitochondrial dysfunction, H(2)O(2) yield, and activation of MAPKs in LP07 murine tumor cells with confocal microscopy, in vivo imaging and directed mutagenesis. Two redox conditions were examined: low 1 microM H(2)O(2) increased cell proliferation in ERK1/2-dependent manner whereas high 50 microM H(2)O(2) arrested cell cycle by p38 and JNK1/2 activation. Regarding the experimental conditions as a three-compartment model (mitochondria, cytosol, and nuclei), the different responses depended on MAPKs preferential traffic to mitochondria, where a selective activation of either ERK1/2 or p38-JNK1/2 by co-localized upstream kinases (MAPKKs) facilitated their further passage to nuclei. As assessed by mass spectra, MAPKs activation and efficient binding to cognate MAPKKs resulted from oxidation of conserved ERK1/2 or p38-JNK1/2 cysteine domains to sulfinic and sulfonic acids at a definite H(2)O(2) level. Like this, high H(2)O(2) or directed mutation of redox-sensitive ERK2 Cys(214) impeded binding to MEK1/2, caused ERK2 retention in mitochondria and restricted shuttle to nuclei. It is surmised that selective cysteine oxidations adjust the electrostatic forces that participate in a particular MAPK-MAPKK interaction. Considering that tumor mitochondria are dysfunctional, their inability to increase H(2)O(2) yield should disrupt synchronized MAPK oxidations and the regulation of cell cycle leading cells to remain in a proliferating phenotype.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(6):e2379. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to describe the relationship between sepsis syndrome mortality and cognitive and physical disability in elderly persons.
A 1-year consecutive cohort study in clinical beds of a university hospital was performed. Variables were severity of sepsis syndrome, organ failure, functional status, age, sex, and positive cultures. Outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortalities.
The study included 137 patients (>70 years), both sexes. Data from 116 (84.5%) patients were obtainable at 1-year follow-up. Forty-eight (35%) patients presented with sepsis (11/137, 8%) or severe sepsis (37/137, 27%). In-hospital mortality was 15.3% (0% for sepsis and 21.8% if severe) and increased with organ failure (p <.0001). One-year mortality was 54.78% (63/116), mostly related to severe sepsis; predictors were severe organ failure (p <.0001), prior functional status (p =.0005), and Mini-Mental State Examination (p =.03). Prior functional status and organ failure were independent predictors.
In-hospital and 1-year mortality increased with septic syndrome severity, prior functional status, and organ failure.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 02/2008; 63(2):210-2. · 4.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NO-mediated toxicity contributes to neuronal damage after hypoxia; however, the molecular mechanisms involved are still a matter of controversy. Since mitochondria play a key role in signalling neuronal death, we aimed to determine the role of nitrative stress in hypoxia-induced mitochondrial damage. Therefore, we analysed the biochemical and ultrastructural impairment of these organelles in the optic lobe of chick embryos after in vivo hypoxia-reoxygenation. Also, we studied the NO-dependence of damage and examined modulation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) after the hypoxic event. A transient but substantial increase in mtNOS content and activity was observed at 0-2 h posthypoxia, resulting in accumulation of nitrated mitochondrial proteins measured by immunoblotting. However, no variations in nNOS content were observed in the homogenates, suggesting an increased translocation to mitochondria and not a general de novo synthesis. In parallel with mtNOS kinetics, mitochondria exhibited prolonged inhibition of maximal complex I activity and ultrastructural phenotypes associated with swelling, namely, fading of cristae, intracristal dilations and membrane disruption. Administration of the selective nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole 20 min before hypoxia prevented complex I inhibition and most ultrastructural damage. In conclusion, we show here for the first time that hypoxia induces NO-dependent complex I inhibition and ultrastructural damage by increasing mitochondrial NO in the developing brain.
European Journal of Neuroscience 02/2008; 27(1):123-31. · 3.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the metabolic syndrome with hyperinsulinemia, mitochondrial inhibition facilitates muscle fat and glycogen accumulation and accelerates its progression. In the last decade, nitric oxide (NO) emerged as a typical mitochondrial modulator by reversibly inhibiting citochrome oxidase and oxygen utilization. We wondered whether insulin-operated signaling pathways modulate mitochondrial respiration via NO, to alternatively release complete glucose oxidation to CO(2) and H(2)O or to drive glucose storage to glycogen.
We illustrate here that NO produced by translocated nNOS (mtNOS) is the insulin-signaling molecule that controls mitochondrial oxygen utilization. We evoke a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic non-invasive clamp by subcutaneously injecting adult male rats with long-lasting human insulin glargine that remains stable in plasma by several hours. At a precise concentration, insulin increased phospho-Akt2 that translocates to mitochondria and determines in situ phosphorylation and substantial cooperative mtNOS activation (+4-8 fold, P<.05), high NO, and a lowering of mitochondrial oxygen uptake and resting metabolic rate (-25 to -60%, P<.05). Comparing in vivo insulin metabolic effects on gastrocnemius muscles by direct electroporation of siRNA nNOS or empty vector in the two legs of the same animal, confirmed that in the silenced muscles disrupted mtNOS allows higher oxygen uptake and complete (U-(14)C)-glucose utilization respect to normal mtNOS in the vector-treated ones (respectively 37+/-3 vs 10+/-1 micromolO(2)/h.g tissue and 13+/-1 vs 7.2+/-1 micromol (3)H(2)O/h.g tissue, P<.05), which reciprocally restricted glycogen-synthesis by a half.
These evidences show that after energy replenishment, insulin depresses mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle via NO which permits substrates to be deposited as macromolecules; at discrete hyperinsulinemia, persistent mtNOS activation could contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction with insulin resistance and obesity and therefore, to the progression of the metabolic syndrome.
PLoS ONE 01/2008; 3(3):e1749. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are the specialized organelles for energy metabolism, but, as a typical example of system biology, they also activate a multiplicity of pathways that modulate cell proliferation and mitochondrial biogenesis or oppositely promote cell arrest and programmed cell death by a limited number of oxidative or nitrosative reactions. These reactions are influenced by matrix nitric oxide (NO) steady-state concentration, either from local production or by gas diffusion to mitochondria from the canonical sources. Likewise, in a range of approximately 30-200 nM, NO turns mitochondrial O(2) utilization down by binding to cytochrome oxidase and elicits a burst of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide that diffuses outside mitochondria. Depending on NO levels and antioxidant defenses, more or less H(2)O(2) accumulates in cytosol and nucleus, and the resulting redox grading contributes to dual activation of proliferating and proapoptotic cascades, like ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK. Moreover, these sequential activating pathways participate in rat liver and brain development and in thyroid modulation of mitochondrial metabolism and contribute to hypothyroid phenotype through complex I nitration. On the contrary, lack of NO disrupts pathways like S-nitrosylation or H(2)O(2) production and likewise is a gateway to disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with superoxide dismutase 1 mutations or to cancer proliferation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last years, nitric oxide synthases (NOS) have been localized in mitochondria. At this site, NO yield directly regulates the activity of cytochrome oxidase, O(2) uptake and the production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies showed that translocated neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is posttranslationally modified including phosphorylation at Ser 1412 (in mice) and myristoylation in an internal residue. Different studies confirm that modified nNOS alpha is the main modulable isoform in mitochondria. Modulation of mtNOS was observed in different situations, like adaptation to reduced O(2) availability and hypoxia, adaptation to low environmental temperature, and processes linked to life and death by effects on kinases and transcription factors. We present here evidence about the role of mtNOS in the analyzed conditions.
Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2007; 12:1041-8. · 3.29 Impact Factor