[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on retina and optic nerve.
Methods: Thirty-eight patients with COPD and 29 healthy controls, totally 67 subjects, were included in the study. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and visual field assessment (both standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP)) were performed on each subject after ophthalmological, neurological and pulmonary examinations.
Results: Mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD) and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) were significantly different between patient and control groups as for both SAP and SWAP measurements (p = 0.001, 0.019, 0.009 and p = 0.004,0.019, 0.031, respectively). Short-term fluctuation (SF) was not statistically different between the study and the control groups (p = 0.874 and 0.694, respectively). VEP P100 latencies were significantly different between patients with COPD and the controls (p = 0.019).
Conclusion: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a systemic disease, and hypoxia in COPD seems to affect the retina and the optic nerve.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders are common in patients with end-stage renal disease. Daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, insomnia, sleep apnea syndrome are the most disturbances. Usually, sleep-related complaints are attributed to uremia because of similar symptoms, and this may cause to delayed diagnosis. Sleep disorders are negative effect on quality of life and compliance to treatment of patients as well as cause increased mortality and morbidity. Therefore, sleep disorders should be evaluated as a different clinical entity in patients with chronic kidney failure or receiving renal replacement therapy. In this article, we aimed to review of etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of common sleep disorders in end-stage renal failure in sight of related literature information.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the knowledge and manner of cafe, pub and restaurant (with/without alcohol) workers in our city center about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking. To determine the preparation about the ban, smoking characteristics of workers, the knowledge on passive smoking. A questionnaire was performed to workers. The type of workplace, the number of workers, existence of a restriction of indoor smoking, any preparation about the ban were asked. The job of worker, whether the worker has a knowledge on the ban or not, the idea of the workers on the necessity and practicability of the ban were asked. Smoking history and the knowledge about passive smoking of workers were recorded. Fagerstrom nicotine dependent test (FNDT) was performed to smokers. Eighty four work places with 568 workers included in the study. The questionnaire was performed to 337 workers whose mean age was 29.1/years. 292 of workers were male. 190 of cases were current smokers. 166 of cases (49.3%) know the meaning of passive smoking. Alcohol offering was made at 8 of workplaces. Smoking was forbidden in 20 of workplaces. A preparation was performed about the ban in 30 of (46.9%) other workplaces. 88.4% of workers have knowledge on the ban, 64.7% of them know the punishment of the noncompliance of the ban. 81.3% of the workers believe the necessity and 45.7% of them believe the practicability of the ban. Smokers and especially who's FNBT > 5 have a stronger belief on the necessity and practicability of the ban. We determined that the preparation about the ban was inadequate although there was an little time for the put into practice the law. So we think that the controls of workplaces should be happened frequent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of asthma treatment is to achieve clinical control. The aim of this study was to compare the role of measurement of nitric oxide and its products in exhaled breath condensate and asthma control questionnaire (ACQ), level of asthma control (LAC) according to GINA guidelines and bronchial provocation test (BPT) in assessing asthma control in cases with stable asthma. Thus, 47 patients with the diagnosis of stable asthma and 42 individuals in the control group were enrolled in the study. The mean ages of the patient and the control groups were 44 +/- 11 and 47 +/- 11 years, respectively. While there was no significant relation between LAC and levels of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate, there was a significant relation between ACQ and mini quality of life questionnaire (p< 0.001). In the group with positive BPT, ACQ scores and absolute serum eosinophil values were significantly higher (p< 0.05), and FEV(1)/FVC and PEF percentages were significantly lower than those of the group with negative BPT (p< 0.05). Reversibility was significantly higher in participants with positive BPT than in those with negative BPT (11.2 +/- 7.4 and 6.9 +/- 6.6, respectively; p< 0.05). There was no significant relationship between nitric oxide, nitrite, nitrate in the exhaled breath condensate and ACQ, LAC, BPT and pulmonary function tests (p> 0.05). In conclusion, it was found that the levels of exhaled breath condensate nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate were not sufficient for determining the level of asthma control in patients with stable asthma. It was concluded that the currently available asthma control questionnaires may be adequate for assessing asthma control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wegener's granulomatosis is a type of vasculitis characterized by necrotizing granulomatosis respiratory tract lesions and necrotising glomerulonephritis. Nasal, lung and renal biopsies and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) analysis is helpful in diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical in prognosis. A 42 years-old male had dyspnea, coughing, hemoptysis, fatigue, loss of appetite, night sweating and arthralgia. Violaceous palpable, purpuric lesions were detected on the sublingual region of the mouth. On chest X-ray, there was nonhomogeneous infiltration in the parenchyma of both lungs. There was alveolar density involving upper lobes of both lungs detected in thoracal computerized tomography as well as patchy densities on the right lung upper-middle lobes. A nasal mucosa biopsy showed strongly destructive vasculitis. c-ANCA test was positive. We report an unusual case with Wegener's granulomatosis, characterized by a rare presentation of tongue involvement and atypical lung radiology with alveolar opacity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our country quartz is widely used for denim sandblasting and new cases with silicosis are defined. Silicosis is a preventable occupational lung disease caused by inhaled dust containing crystalline silica and no effective treatment for silicosis is available (1). CASE 1: A 23-years old man was admitted to the hospital with dyspnea on effort and cough. He had worked in a denim manufacturing factory for three years at sandblasting and dyeing. Physical examination revealed decreased breath sounds. Chest X-ray showed bilateral reticulonodular densities predominantly at middle and lower zones and minimal pneumothorax. Hypoxemia was determined in arterial blood gas analysis (BGA). Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) showed restrictive disorder. Lymphocytic alveolitis was demonstrated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Open lung biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis and foreign particles which were seen more clearly under polarized light in interstitial areas. The patient was diagnosed as accelerated silicosis. CASE 2: A 25-years old man was admitted to the hospital with shortness of breath and haemopthysis. Two years ago, he had worked at the same place for 1.5 years. Bilateral reticulonodular densities at middle and lower zones and minimal unilateral pneumothorax were seen in chest X-ray. Restrictive disorder at PFT and hypoxemia in BGA were observed. Because of the similarity of complaints, radiological findings and occupational history with the former patient, no other further and invasive procedure was planned and the patient was diagnosed as accelerated silicosis. CONCLUSION: The usage of sandblasted denims increase recently and denim sandblasting is being frequently made especially in small work places. Since there is no definite treatment for silicosis, it is important to take necessary precautions to improve the conditions of the factories.