[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Radial head fractures are commonly interpreted as isolated injuries, and it is assumed that the energy transferred during trauma has its influence on the risk on associated ipsilateral upper limb injuries. However, relationships between Mason classification, mechanism of injury, and associated injuries have been reported only once before in a relatively small population. The purpose of this study was to define whether trauma mechanism and patient related factors are of influence on the type of radial head fracture and associated injuries to the ipsilateral upper limb in 440 patients.
The radiographs and medical records of 440 patients that presented with a fracture of the radial head were retrospectively analyzed. The medical records of all patients were searched for (1) the trauma mechanism and (2) associated injuries of the ipsilateral upper limb. The mechanism of injury was classified as being low-energy trauma (LET) or high-energy trauma (HET).
Associated injuries to the ipsilateral upper limb were present in 46 patients (11 %). The mean age of patients with associated injuries (52 years) was significantly higher compared to patients without associated injuries (47 years) (P = 0.038), and female patients with a radial head fracture were older than males. Injury patterns were classified as LET in 266 patients (60 %) and as HET in 174 patients. HETs were significantly more common in young men. Associated injuries were not significantly different distributed between HET versus LET (P = 0.82).
Injuries concomitant to radial head fractures were present in 11 % of patients and the risk for these associated injuries increases with age. Trauma mechanism did not have a significant influence on the risk of associated injuries. Complex elbow trauma in patients with a radial head fracture seems therefore to be suspected based on patient characteristics, rather than mechanism of injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphedema of the upper extremity is a common side effect of lymph node dissection or irradiation of the axilla. Several techniques are being applied in order to examine the presence and severity of lymphedema. Measurement of circumference of the upper extremity is most frequently performed. An alternative is the water-displacement method. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and the reproducibility of the "Inverse Water Volumetry apparatus" (IWV-apparatus) for the measurement of arm volumes.
The IWV-apparatus is based on the water-displacement method. Measurements were performed by three breast cancer nurse practitioners on ten healthy volunteers in three weekly sessions.
The intra-class correlation coefficient, defined as the ratio of the subject component to the total variance, equaled 0.99. The reliability index is calculated as 0.14 kg. This indicates that only changes in a patient's arm volume measurement of more than 0.14 kg would represent a true change in arm volume, which is about 6% of the mean arm volume of 2.3 kg.
The IWV-apparatus proved to be a reliable and reproducible method to measure arm volume.
Lymphatic Research and Biology 06/2015; 13(2):126-130. DOI:10.1089/lrb.2015.0011 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Risk factors for rectal carriage of ESBL-E and transmission were investigated in an outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). DESIGN Rectal carriage of ESBL-E was determined in a cross-sectional survey by culture of perianal swabs or fecal samples. Both phenotypical and genotypical methods were used to detect the production of ESBL. Nosocomial transmission was defined as the presence of genotypically related strains in ≥2 residents within the NH. Patient characteristics and variables in infection control practices were registered to investigate risk factors for transmission. SETTING A nursing home (NH) in the southern Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS Of 189 residents, 160 residents (84.7%) were screened for ESBL-E carriage. Of these 160 residents, 33 (20.6%) were ESBL-E positive. ESBL carriage rates varied substantially between wards (range, 0-47%). Four different ESBL-E clusters were observed. A bla CTX-M1-15 positive E. coli ST131 constituted the largest cluster (n=21) and was found in multiple wards (n=7). RESULTS Our investigation revealed extensive clonal dissemination of bla CTX-M1-15-positive E. coli ST131 in a nursing home. Unexplained differences in ESBL prevalence were detected among the wards. CONCLUSIONS As NHs constitute potential sources of multidrug-resistant bacteria, it is important to gain a better understanding of the risks factors and routes of transmission of ESBL-E. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;00(0): 1-7.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 04/2015; 36(4):1-7. DOI:10.1017/ice.2014.76 · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are at risk for revision surgery in the groin and therefore at potential risk for surgical site infections (SSIs). In an observational study, a cohort of patients with peripheral arterial disease was followed to examine the effect of different incision intervals on SSI-free survival.
Patients, needing peripheral vascular surgery because of PAD, were retrieved from a prospectively collected database on SSIs after vascular surgery between March 2009 and January 2012, the group consisting of 720 patients. Of these, 255 patients were selected (age 71.9±10.4 y). Cox proportional hazards models were used for event-history analyses. The effect of incision interval was estimated with adjustment for a number of potential confounders. Effects were quantified by means of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
No significant effect on the incision interval on SSI-free survival was observed. After separating incisional SSIs into superficial- and deep-seated, a significant linear trend effect of the groin incision interval on deep-incisional SSI development was observed: the shorter the interval, the higher the event rate (HR 1.5 per category, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p=0.22). Besides the incision interval, the Rutherford classification was a significant risk factor for SSI development (HR 3.0; 95% CI 2.1-4.2; p<0.0005).
Revision surgery in the groin puts patients at risk for deep-incisional SSI. No effect on superficial incisional SSI development was observed. Besides the incision interval, the Rutherford classification was a significant risk factor for both superficial- and deep-incisional SSI. Quality improvement and better risk stratification schemes are suggested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD), such as erythema, oedema/papulations and excoriations, respond quickly to topical corticosteroid treatment. Conversely, lichenification is regarded as a troublesome non-acute symptom of chronic AD which can take months of treatment before any improvement is seen. However, very little data actually support this opinion. Here, we analyse lichenification scores in 3 multicentre, short-term studies of nearly similar design. Two of these studies were active comparator dosage trials administered with either fluticasone propionate cream or ointment once or twice daily, the third study was a placebo control. In each of these 4-weeks studies lichenification was measured weekly. For the evaluation of the lichenification score over time a random-coefficients regression model was used. In all active treatments lichenification significantly improved (p < 0.005) within one week. Improvement continued afterwards, with > 80% of patients scoring no, very mild or mild lichenification after 4 weeks. We developed a model in which the lichenification score drops off linearly with the square root of time. The resulting convexly shaped downward time trend of lichenification was significant during all treatments and was significantly stronger during active treatment than with placebo. Fluticasone propionate can improve moderate to severe lichenification in a relative short period of time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrolide resistance is an increasing problem; there is therefore debate about when to implement maintenance treatment with macrolides in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to investigate whether patients with COPD who had received treatment for three or more exacerbations in the previous year would have a decrease in exacerbation rate when maintenance treatment with azithromycin was added to standard care.
We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre trial in the Netherlands between May 19, 2010, and June 18, 2013. Patients (≥18 years) with a diagnosis of COPD who had received treatment for three or more exacerbations in the previous year were randomly assigned, via a computer-generated randomisation sequence with permuted block sizes of ten, to receive 500 mg azithromycin or placebo three times a week for 12 months. Randomisation was stratified by use of long-term, low-dose prednisolone (≤10 mg daily). Patients and investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was rate of exacerbations of COPD in the year of treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00985244.
We randomly assigned 92 patients to the azithromycin group (n=47) or the placebo group (n=45), of whom 41 (87%) versus 36 (80%) completed the study. We recorded 84 exacerbations in patients in the azithromycin group compared with 129 in those in the placebo group. The unadjusted exacerbation rate per patient per year was 1·94 (95% CI 1·50-2·52) for the azithromycin group and 3·22 (2·62-3·97) for the placebo group. After adjustment, azithromycin resulted in a significant reduction in the exacerbation rate versus placebo (0·58, 95% CI 0·42-0·79; p=0·001). Three (6%) patients in the azithromycin group reported serious adverse events compared with five (11%) in the placebo group. During follow-up, the most common adverse event was diarrhoea in the azithromycin group (nine [19%] patients vs one [2%] in the placebo group; p=0·015).
Maintenance treatment with azithromycin significantly decreased the exacerbation rate compared with placebo and should therefore be considered for use in patients with COPD who have the frequent exacerbator phenotype and are refractory to standard care.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 04/2014; 2(5). DOI:10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70019-0 · 9.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current diagnostics for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) include testing for a wide range of pathogens, which is costly and not always informative. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with CAP caused by different groups of pathogens to evaluate the potential for targeted diagnostics and directed treatment. In a prospective study, between April 2008 and April 2009, adult patients with CAP were tested for the presence of a broad range of possible respiratory pathogens using bacterial cultures, PCR, urinary antigen testing and serology. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 263 (64.5%) patients. S. pneumoniae and influenza A virus were the most frequently identified bacterial and viral pathogens, respectively. Age had a significant effect on the prediction of aetiology (p = 0.054), with an increase in the relative contribution of viruses with advancing age. Multivariate analyses showed further that presence of cough increased the likelihood of detecting a viral pathogen (OR 5.536 95%CI: 2.130-14.390), the presence of immunodeficiency decreased the likelihood of detecting a bacterial pathogen (OR 0.595 95%CI: 0.246-1.437), and an increase in pneumonia severity index score increased the likelihood of detecting a pathogen in general. Although several variables were independently associated with the detection of a pathogen group, there were no reliable clinical predictors to distinguish between aetiologies due to substantial overlap. Therefore, testing for common respiratory pathogens is still necessary to optimize treatment.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 12/2013; 63(Pt_3). DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.067108-0 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing number of vascular surgery units expand their team with nurse practitioners (NPs) to optimize patient care. There are no previously performed studies which assessed the influence of NPs on patients' quality of life (QoL), anxiety, and depressive symptom levels. The transition in care from surgeon to NP in the vascular surgery unit of our hospital facilitated the comparison of both groups.
A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the effect of NPs on QoL, anxiety, and depressive symptom scores. Two groups were analyzed: a group of patients treated by a vascular surgeon alone (surgeon group) and a group of patients treated by a NP supervised by a vascular surgeon (NP group). Patients completed the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaires both before and after intervention.
Two hundred fourteen patients were included in our study. Within groups, there was a significant increase in physical QoL, with 5.2 points in the surgeon group and 4.4 points in the NP group. There was a significant decrease in anxiety scores (-3.8 points in the surgeon group and -5.4 points in the NP group). No differences were found for depressive symptoms. Between groups, no differences were found.
The same improvements were found for QoL and anxiety scores in both groups. Vascular NPs are therefore competent to explain procedures and guide patients through vascular interventions.
Annals of Vascular Surgery 12/2013; 28(3). DOI:10.1016/j.avsg.2013.05.012 · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a relatively new, promising indirect parameter for infection. In the intensive care unit (ICU) it can be used as a marker for sepsis. However, in the ICU there is a need for reliable markers for clinical deterioration in the critically ill patients. This study determines the clinical value of PCT concentrations in recognizing surgical complications in a heterogeneous group of general surgical patients in the ICU.
We prospectively collected PCT concentration data from April 2010 to June 2012 for all general surgical patients admitted to the ICU. Both the relationships between PCT levels and events (diagnostic and therapeutic interventions) as well as between PCT levels and surgical complications (abscesses, bleeding, perforation, ischemia, and ileus) were studied.
PCT concentrations were lower in patients who developed complications than those who did not develop complications on the same day, although not significant (P = 0.27). A 10% increase in PCT levels resulted in a 2% higher complication odds, but again this was not significant (odds ratio [OR], 1.020; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961-1.083; P = 0.51). Even a 20% or 30% increase in PCT concentrations did not result in higher complication probability (OR, 1.039; 95% CI, 0.927-1.165 and OR, 1.057; 95% CI, 0.897-1.246). Furthermore, an increase in PCT levels did not show an increase or a reduction in the number of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
An increase in PCT levels does not help to predict surgical complications in critically ill surgical patients.
Journal of Surgical Research 10/2013; 187(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.10.051 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies investigating the travelers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those traveling to risk destinations. Initiatives to improve such education should target all groups of travelers, including business travelers, those visiting friends and relatives (VFR), and older adult travelers.
In the years 2002 to 2009, a longitudinal questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study trends in KAP of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis A. The risk groups last-minute travelers, solo travelers, business travelers, travelers VFR, and older adult travelers were specifically studied.
A total of 3,045 respondents were included in the survey. Travelers to destinations with a high risk for hepatitis A had significantly less accurate risk perceptions (knowledge) than travelers to low-to-intermediate-risk destinations. The relative risk for hepatitis A in travelers to high-risk destinations was probably mitigated by less intended risk-seeking behavior and by higher protection rates against hepatitis A as compared with travelers to low-to-intermediate-risk destinations. Logistic regression analyses showed that an age >60 years was the only significant determinant for improvement of their knowledge. Trend analyses showed a significant change over time in attitude toward more risk-avoiding behavior and toward higher protection rates against hepatitis A in travelers to high-risk destinations. The KAP profile of the risk groups travelers VFR (irrespective of hepatitis A risk of their destination) and solo as well as last-minute travelers to high-risk destinations substantially increased their relative risk for hepatitis A.
The results of this longitudinal survey in Dutch travelers suggest an annual 5% increase in protection rates against hepatitis A coinciding with an annual 1% decrease in intended risk-seeking behavior. This improvement may reflect the continuous efforts of travel health advice providers to create awareness and to propagate safe and healthy travel. The KAP profile of travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and solo as well as last-minute travelers to high-risk destinations substantially increased their relative risk for hepatitis A. These risk groups should be candidates for targeted interventions.
Journal of Travel Medicine 09/2013; 19(1):35-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1708-8305.2011.00578.x · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral bypass surgery is an important treatment option for patients with peripheral arterial disease. Short-term results of quality of life (QoL) after peripheral bypass surgery showed an increase in QoL at 3 months. Little is known about QoL at more than 2 years of follow-up. This study was performed to analyze QoL at midterm follow-up, and overall survival after peripheral bypass surgery.
This study was part of a randomized control trial in which intermittent pneumatic compression was compared with compression stockings in the treatment of edema after bypass surgery. Patients completed a QoL questionnaire before surgery, 14 days and 3 months postoperatively, and at least 2 years after the original operation. A survival analysis was performed to calculate survival for patients who received both autologous and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bypass grafts.
The original study consisted of 93 patients, and QoL midterm follow-up was achieved for 42. QoL scores at midterm follow-up were comparable to the preoperative baseline scores for both the autologous and the PTFE groups. Three-year survival rates were 75% and 54%, respectively.
Although peripheral bypass surgery significantly increased QoL 3 months after surgery, midterm follow-up showed a return to baseline scores. No significant difference was found in survival between patients in the autologous and PTFE groups.
Annals of Vascular Surgery 06/2013; 27(8). DOI:10.1016/j.avsg.2012.10.022 · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy of plasma level-targeted dose imipramine and high-dose venlafaxine in depressed inpatients in a randomized double-blind study.
The study included 85 patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode according to the DSM IV criteria and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥ 17. Patients were randomized to imipramine or venlafaxine. The dose of imipramine was adjusted for each patient to a predefined blood level of 200-300 ng/ml. The dose of venlafaxine was increased gradually to 300-375 mg/day. Efficacy was evaluated after 7 weeks of treatment.
The mean age of the study group was 54.5 (range 29-82) years. There was no significant difference according to the primary outcome criterion of a ≥50% reduction on the HAM-D score: 17 of 43 (39.5%) patients on imipramine were responders compared to 21 of 42 (50%) patients on venlafaxine. When considering remission as outcome criterion (HAM-D score ≤ 7), 10 of 43 (23.3%) patients on imipramine were remitters compared to 15 of 42 (35.7%) patients on venlafaxine; again, no significant difference. When analysing a subpopulation of patients without psychotic features, with remission as outcome criterion, a significant difference was found: 5 of 34 (14.7%) patients on imipramine were remitters compared to 12 of 31 (38.7%) patients on venlafaxine.
The present study used optimal doses in depressed inpatients and showed that venlafaxine is at least equal in efficacy to imipramine. The results in the subgroup without psychotic features indicate a possible superiority of venlafaxine.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 06/2013; 47(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.05.029 · 3.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES
Prediction of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may lead to preventive or early treatment and improved outcome. We investigated the association of serial perioperative cardiac troponin T (cTNT) measurements with postoperative AF in patients undergoing CABG.METHODS
In a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, 3148 patients undergoing elective CABG were evaluated. cTNT values were routinely determined before the start of surgery (cTNT0), at arrival on the intensive care unit (cTNT1) and 8-12 h later (cTNT2). Measurement of cTNT was continued until the peak value was reached. The development of AF during hospital stay was scored. The association between cTNT (cTNT0, cTNT1, cTNT2 and cTNTmax in first 48 h) and AF was calculated in univariable and multivariable analysis.RESULTSAF occurred in 1080 (34%) patients. cTNT0, cTNT2 and cTNTmax were significantly and positively associated with postoperative AF (P < 0.001) in a univariable analysis, whereas a trend was seen for cTNT1 (P = 0.051). Advanced age, inotropic support and postoperative infection were independently associated with postoperative AF after logistic regression analysis, but cTNT was not. Categorizing patients by inotropic support into categories of inotropic support duration (none, <48 h, >48 h), the mean cTNT values were significantly higher among patients with AF in each category (all P < 0.001). Perioperative cTNT was significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications, longer hospital stay and reduced in-hospital survival.CONCLUSIONS
Perioperative cTNT is univariably associated with postoperative AF after CABG, but not independently. Further, no clinically useful cut-off point for preventive or early treatment could be identified. Both perioperative cTNT and postoperative AF are associated with negative outcome and prolonged hospital stay.
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 06/2013; 17(4). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivt259 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The purpose of this study is first to assess the clinical value of lactate concentrations by comparison with clinical scoring systems, and second to determine the value of lactate levels in clinical decisions as ordering diagnostic and therapeutic (re)interventions in the population of critically ill surgical patients on the intensive care unit (ICU).
Materials and methods:
From April 2010 to June 2011, the L-lactate concentrations, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score were prospectively collected in surgical patients (n = 174) admitted into the ICU. The L-Lactate and scoring systems were related to events defined as performing computed tomography-scans, laparotomy, ultrasonography, and flexible endoscopy. Furthermore, all surgical complications were also registered.
For SOFA scores above four points, mean lactate concentrations increased 4.5% for each point increase in SOFA score (P < 0.0005). In APACHE II scores above 16 points, mean lactate concentrations increased 2.9% for each point increase in APACHE II score (P < 0.0005). Each 10% increase in lactate concentration showed a 3.3% higher odds for a first event (OR 1.033; P = 0.26). Lactate levels did not correspond with more complications (OR 0.968; P = 0.52).
There is a significant positive relationship between lactate concentrations, high SOFA scores, and APACHE II scores. However, the important outcome is that lactate seems to be a poor predictor for surgical complications in the critically ill surgical patient in the ICU.
Journal of Surgical Research 03/2013; 183(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.02.048 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-reactive Protein (CRP) is used next to clinical scoring systems to recognize critically ill patients prone to develop complications on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The purpose of this study is to assess the predictive value of CRP as parameter for clinical deterioration and/or clinical decision making as ordering diagnostic procedures or performing (re)interventions. Also, we wanted to determine the value of CRP in early detection of surgical complications in the critically ill general surgical patient in the ICU and its interpretation in adjunct to a clinical scoring system, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score.
In our prospective observational study, 174 general surgical patients admitted into the Intensive Care Unit were included. We evaluated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA) and daily measured the C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. All events (diagnostic or therapeutic interventions) and surgical complications were registered. Then the relationship between SOFA score, CRP concentrations, events and complications were studied.
Each 10% increase in CRP resulted in a 3.5% increase in the odds of an event (odds ratio 1.035, 95% CI: 1.004-1.068; p = 0.028). However, an increase in CRP levels did not lead to a higher odds of complication (OR 0.983, 95% CI: 0.932-1.036; p = 0.52). When adjusting for the SOFA score the effect of CRP on the probability of a first event remained significant (OR 1.033, 95% CI: 1.001-1.065; p = 0.046), and again did not significantly affect the complication probability (OR 0.980, 95% CI: 0.929-1.035; p = 0.46).
An increase in C-reactive protein is a poor parameter for early detection of complications in the critically ill surgical patient in the ICU by means of diagnostic procedures or therapeutic (re)-interventions.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e55964. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055964 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of prior seasonal influenza vaccination on the antibody response produced by natural infection or vaccination is not well understood.
We compared the profiles of antibody responses of 32 naturally infected subjects and 98 subjects vaccinated with a 2009 influenza A(H1N1) monovalent MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria®, Novartis), with and without a history of seasonal influenza vaccination. Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and by protein microarray (PA) using the HA1 subunit for seven recent and historic H1, H2 and H3 influenza viruses, and three avian influenza viruses. Serum samples for the infection group were taken at the moment of collection of the diagnostic sample, 10 days and 30 days after onset of influenza symptoms. For the vaccination group, samples were drawn at baseline, 3 weeks after the first vaccination and 5 weeks after the second vaccination.
We showed that subjects with a history of seasonal vaccination generally exhibited higher baseline titers for the various HA1 antigens than subjects without a seasonal vaccination history. Infection and pandemic influenza vaccination responses in persons with a history of seasonal vaccination were skewed towards historic antigens.
Seasonal vaccination is of significant influence on the antibody response to subsequent infection and vaccination, and further research is needed to understand the effect of annual vaccination on protective immunity.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54890. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054890 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations.
In the years 2002–2009 an annually repeated cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study trends in KAP of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B. The frequently encountered risk groups last-minute travellers, solo-travellers, business travellers, travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and elderly travellers were specifically studied.
A total of 3045 respondents were included in the survey. Travellers to destinations with a high risk for hepatitis B had significantly less accurate risk perceptions (knowledge) than travellers to low-risk destinations but no differences were observed in past risk-taking attitude. Protection rates against hepatitis B were significantly higher in travellers to high-risk destinations. There was a positive trend over the years in the proportion of travellers to high-risk destinations seeking travel health advice. In accordance with this, trend analyses also indicated rising protection rates against hepatitis B. No significant trends in protection over time were observed for the travel risk groups.
The results of this repeated cross-sectional survey suggest an annual 10% increase in protection rates against hepatitis B in Dutch travellers, both to destinations with a high risk and to destinations with a lower risk of hepatitis B, but these trends in protection rates were not observed for the travel risk groups to high-risk destinations. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers and (to a lesser extent) VFRs showed an increased relative risk in hepatitis B, irrespective of the travel destination, underlining the need for specific targeting of these travel risk groups.
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 01/2013; 12(2). DOI:10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.09.002 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive development of airflow limitation that is poorly reversible. Because of a poor understanding of COPD pathogenesis, treatment is mostly symptomatic and new therapeutic strategies are limited. There is a direct relationship between the severity of the disease and the intensity of the inflammatory response. Besides smoking, one of the hypotheses for the persistent airway inflammation is the presence of recurrent infections. Macrolide antibiotics have bacteriostatic as well as anti-inflammatory properties in patients with cystic fibrosis and other inflammatory pulmonary diseases. There is consistent evidence that macrolide therapy reduces infectious exacerbations, decreases the requirement for additional antibiotics and improves nutritional measures. Because of these positive effects we hypothesised that maintenance macrolide therapy may also have beneficial effects in patients with COPD who have recurrent exacerbations. The effects on development of bacterial resistance to macrolides due to this long-term treatment are unknown. Until now, studies investigating macrolide therapy in COPD are limited. The objective of this study is to assess whether maintenance treatment with macrolide antibiotics in COPD patients with three or more exacerbations in the previous year decreases the exacerbation rate in the year of treatment and to establish microbial resistance due to the long-term treatment.
The study is set up as a prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled single-centre trial. A total of 92 patients with COPD who have had at least three exacerbations of COPD in the previous year will be included. Subjects will be randomised to receive either azithromycin 500 mg three times a week or placebo. Our primary endpoint is the reduction in the number of exacerbations of COPD in the year of treatment.
We investigate whether long-term therapy with macrolide antibiotics can prevent exacerbations in patients with COPD. Additionally, our study aims to assess the effect of long-term use of macrolide on the development of antimicrobial resistance and on inflammatory parameters related to COPD. We believe this study will provide more data on the effects of macrolide treatment in patients in COPD and will add more knowledge on its working mechanisms.