[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The COP9/signalosome (CSN) is a highly conserved eight subunit complex that, by deneddylating cullins in cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligases, regulates protein degradation. Although studied in model human cell lines such as HeLa, very little is known about the role of the CSN in haemopoietic cells.
Greater than 95% knockdown of the non-catalytic subunit CSN2 and the deneddylating subunit CSN5 of the CSN was achieved in the human myeloid progenitor cell line K562. CSN2 knockdown led to a reduction of both CSN5 protein and mRNA whilst CSN5 knockdown had little effect on CSN2. Both knockdowns inhibited CSN deneddylase function as demonstrated by accumulation of neddylated Cul1. Furthermore, both knockdowns resulted in the sequential loss of Skp2, Cdc4 and beta-TrCP F-box proteins. These proteins were rescued by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, indicating the autocatalytic degradation of F-box proteins upon loss of CSN2 or CSN5. Interestingly, altered F-box protein gene expression was also observed in CSN2 and CSN5 knockdowns, suggesting a potential role of the CSN in regulating F-box protein transcription.Loss of either CSN subunit dramatically reduced cell growth but resulted in distinct patterns of cell death. CSN5 knockdown caused mitotic defects, G2/M arrest and apoptotic cell death. CSN2 knockdown resulted in non-apoptotic cell death associated with accumulation of both the autophagy marker LC3-II and autophagic vacuoles. Treatment of vector control K562 cells with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1 recapitulated the growth kinetics, vacuolar morphology and LC3-II accumulation of CSN2 knockdown cells indicating that the cellular phenotype of CSN2 cells arises from autophagy inhibition. Finally, loss of CSN2 was associated with the formation of a CSN5 containing subcomplex.
We conclude that CSN2 is required for CSN integrity and the stability of individual CSN subunits, and postulate that CSN2 loss results in a phenotype distinct from that of cells lacking CSN5 possibly as a consequence of altered CSN5 activity within a resultant CSN subcomplex. Our data present the first evidence for the sequential loss of F-box proteins upon CSN manipulation and are the first to identify a potential link between CSN function and autophagy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3, has been shown to regulate myelopoiesis via its ability to metabolise prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Other studies have demonstrated the oxidative activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) procarcinogens by AKR1C3 in cell-free systems. This is the first study that addresses whether AKR1C3 mediates carcinogen activation within intact living cells following manipulation of AKR1C3 by molecular intervention. Quantitative RT-PCR identified AKR1C3 as the predominant AKR1C isoform expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Exposure of K562 and KG1a myeloid cell lines to the known AKR1C3 substrate 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-3,4-dihydrodiol (7,12-DMBA-3,4-diol) resulted in both single strand DNA breaks and oxidative DNA damage as measured using conventional and FPG-modified comet assays respectively. PGD2-keto reductase activity was shown to be correlated with relative AKR1C3 expression and together with quantitative real time PCR was used to validate the RNAi-knockdown of AKR1C3 in K562 cells. Knockdown of AKR1C3 did not alter single strand DNA breaks following 7,12-DMBA-3,4-diol exposure but significantly decreased oxidative DNA damage. A similar interrelationship between AKR1C3 activity and 7,12-DMBA-3,4-diol mediated oxidative DNA damage but not single strand breaks was observed in KG1a cells. Finally, AKR1C3 knockdown also resulted in spontaneous erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. Since K562 cells are a model of AML blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) the data presented here identify AKR1C3 as a novel mediator of carcinogen-induced initiation of leukemia, as a novel regulator of erythroid differentiation and paradoxically as a potential new target in the treatment of CML.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, v.662, 67-74 (2009). 01/2009;