[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the transition between sessility and motility. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the expression of CsgD, the regulator of multicellular rdar morphotype behavior, is a major target of c-di-GMP signaling. CsgD expression is positively regulated by at least two diguanylate cyclases, GGDEF domain proteins, and negatively regulated by at least four phosphodiesterases, EAL domain proteins. Here, we show that in contrast to EAL domain proteins acting as phosphodiesterases, the EAL-like protein STM1344 regulated CsgD expression positively and motility negatively. STM1344, however, did not have a role in c-di-GMP turnover and also did not bind the nucleotide. STM1344 acted upstream of the phosphodiesterases STM1703 and STM3611, previously identified to participate in CsgD downregulation, where it repressed their expression. Consequently, although STM1344 has not retained a direct role in c-di-GMP metabolism, it still participates in the regulation of c-di-GMP turnover and has a role in the transition between sessility and motility.
Journal of bacteriology 05/2009; 191(12):3928-37. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The physiological response to small molecules (secondary messengers) is the outcome of a delicate equilibrium between biosynthesis and degradation of the signal. Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a novel secondary messenger present in many bacteria. It has a complex cellular metabolism whereby usually more than one enzyme synthesizing and degrading c-di-GMP is encoded by a bacterial genome. To assess the in vivo conditions of c-di-GMP signaling, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry-based method to detect c-di-GMP with high sensitivity and to quantify the c-di-GMP concentration in the bacterial cell as described here in detail. We successfully used the methodology to determine and compare the c-di-GMP concentrations in bacterial species such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae. We describe the use of the methodology to assess the change in c-di-GMP concentration during the growth phase and the contribution of a point mutation in S. typhimurium to the overall cellular c-di-GMP concentration.