ABSTRACT: This study was performed to delineate the kinin (receptor)-dependent pathways in the Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus; MBT) venom-induced pulmonary oedema as well as the augmentation of cardio-pulmonary reflexes evoked by phenyldiguanide (PDG).
In urethane-anaesthetized adult rats, the effect of venom on the PDG reflex responses (blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate) and the pulmonary water content was ascertained using various antagonists(des- Arg, B(1) receptor antagonist; Hoe 140, B(2) receptor antagonist; N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor; methylene blue, soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor; and glibenclamide, K(+)(ATP) channel blocker). The effect of phosphodiesterase V inhibitor (sildenafil citrate) on the reflex response and the pulmonary water content was also examined and compared with venom-induced responses.
Intravenous injection of PDG (10 microg kg(-1)) evoked apnoea, bradycardia and hypotension lasting >60 s. Exposure to MBT venom (100 microg kg(-1)) for 30 min augmented the PDG reflex responses by two times and increased the pulmonary water content, significantly. Hoe 140 blocked the venom-induced responses (augmentation of PDG reflex and increased pulmonary water content) whereas des-Arg did not. l-NAME, methylene blue or glibenclamide also blocked the venom-induced responses. Furthermore, sildenafil citrate (that increases cGMP levels) produced augmentation of PDG reflex response and increased the pulmonary water content as seen with venom.
The results indicate that venom-induced responses involve B(2) kinin receptors via the NO-dependent guanylate cyclase-cGMP pathway involving K(+)(ATP) channels.
Acta Physiologica 01/2009; 196(4):365-73. · 3.09 Impact Factor
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 07/2008; 22(3):442-5. · 1.06 Impact Factor
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 01/2008; 21(6):855-7. · 1.64 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of multivitamin and micronutrient supplementation in azoospermic patients with maturation arrest. A total of 35 azoospermic patients showing maturation arrest on testicular biopsy were recruited in this study. The patients were divided into two groups. Untreated group (n=11) without any treatment and treated group (n=24) who received multivitamins, micronutrients and co-enzyme Q10. The sperm concentration, motility and morphology were evaluated at monthly interval. The results showed reduction in liquefaction time and relative viscosity of the semen in the treated group. Further, in treated group there was appearance of spermatozoa (4.0 million/ml) exhibiting progressive motility (7%) and normal morphology (6%), even in the first follow up visit. The sperm count, motility and normal morphology increased significantly on subsequent visits. Within 3 months (3 visits) 2 pregnancies were reported. These observations indicate that multivitamin and micronutrient supplementation improve the qualitative and quantitative parameters of seminogram in patients with azoospermia of maturation arrest.
Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology 54(2):157-63.