Ki Young Kim

Yonsei University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (155)133.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which stereospecifically catalyzes the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide, is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Tissue fibrosis is a maladaptive repair process following injury, associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the role of MsrA in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced kidney fibrosis and its underlying mechanisms by using MsrA gene-deleted mice (MsrA(-/-)). MsrA deletion increased collagen deposition in the interstitium and the expression of collagen III and α-smooth muscle actin in the UUO kidneys, indicating that MsrA deficiency exacerbated the progression of UUO-induced kidney fibrosis. UUO reduced the kidney expression of MsrA, MsrB1, and MsrB2, thereby decreasing MsrA and MsrB activity. UUO increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels and the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to total glutathione (GSH) in the kidneys. The UUO-induced elevations in the levels of these oxidative stress markers and leukocyte markers were much higher in the MsrA(-/-) than in the MsrA(+/+) kidneys, the latter suggesting that the exacerbated kidney fibrosis in MsrA(-/-) mice was associated with enhanced inflammatory responses. Collectively, our data suggest that MsrA plays a protective role in the progression of UUO-induced kidney fibrosis via suppression of fibrotic responses caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.07.018 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ethanol extracts of Fructus Schisandrae (FS), the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Baillon, mitigates the development of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Adult SPF/VAT outbred CrljOri:CD1 (ICR) mice were either treated with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Some mice were treated with various concentrations of FS or oxymetholone, a 17α-alkylated anabolic-androgenic steroid. Muscle thickness and weight, calf muscle strength, and serum creatine and creatine kinase (CK) levels were then measured. The administration of FS attenuated the decrease in calf thickness, gastrocnemius muscle thickness, muscle strength and weight, fiber diameter and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles which was induced by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FS also prevented the dexamethasone-induced increase in serum creatine and creatine kinase levels, histopathological muscle fiber microvacuolation and fibrosis, and the immunoreactivity of muscle fibers for nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myostatin. In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner. FS downregulated the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and muscle ring-finger protein-1 (involved in muscle protein degradation), myostatin (a potent negative regulator of muscle growth) and sirtuin 1 (a representative inhibitor of muscle regeneration), but upregulated the mRNA expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4, involved in muscle growth and the activation of protein synthesis. The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone. The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2015; DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2015.2200 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the beneficial and synergistic effects of Polycalcium, a mixture of Polycan and calcium (Ca) lactate-gluconate in a 1:9 weight ratio, on a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA) were explored. Polycalcium (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally once per day for 28 days from 1 week after the OA-modeling surgery. Diclofenac sodium (2 mg/kg) was administered as a reference drug. Following the OA surgery, increases in the maximum extension angles, edematous changes in knee and capsule thickness, reductions in chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, as well as changes in cartilage degeneration were observed. However, these OA-related symptoms were inhibited after 28 days of continuous oral treatment with Polycalcium. Anti-OA effects, including the induction of chondrocyte proliferation, were detected in the Polycalcium-treated rats and were more favorable compared with those in rats treated with Polycan or Ca lactate-gluconate alone (100 mg). Therefore, a mixture of Polycan and Ca lactate-gluconate was demonstrated to have beneficial synergistic effects on OA.
    Experimental and therapeutic medicine 05/2015; 9(5):1780-1790. DOI:10.3892/etm.2015.2332 · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Iseul Park, Ki Young Kim
    02/2015; 18(1):1-8. DOI:10.7582/GGE.2015.18.1.001
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    ABSTRACT: Background The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells from the tunica media to the subendothelial region may be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis after arterial injury. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms underlying the anti-atherosclerotic effects of Schisandrae Semen essential oil (SSeo) in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs).Methods Metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) activity was evaluated by gelatin zymography and gelatinase activity assay kit. The possible mechanisms underlying SSeo-mediated reduction of by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-¿-induced cell invasion and inhibition of secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 production in HASMCs were investigated.ResultsOur results indicate that SSeo treatment has an inhibitory effect on activation as well as expression of MMP-9 induced by TNF-¿ in HASMCs in a dose-dependent manner without significant cytotoxicity. SSeo attenuated nuclear translocation of TNF-¿-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-¿B) and blocked degradation of the NF-¿B inhibitor proteins as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. SSeo also reduced TNF-¿-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 and inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HASMCs. Furthermore, the Matrigel migration assay showed that SSeo effectively reduced TNF-¿-induced HASMC migration compared with that in the control group.Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that SSeo treatment suppresses TNF-¿-induced HASMC migration by selectively inhibiting MMP-9 expression, which was associated with suppression of the NF-¿B signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that SSeo has putative potential anti-atherosclerotic activity.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2015; 15(1):7. DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0523-9 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 01/2015; 2015:1-17. DOI:10.1155/2015/872428 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the cutoff value of the pharyngeal residue for predicting reduction of aspiration, by measuring the residue of valleculae and pyriformis sinuses through videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) after treatment with neuromuscular electrical stimulator (VitalStim) in stroke patients with dysphagia. Methods VFSS was conducted on first-time stroke patients before and after the VitalStim therapy. The results were analyzed for comparison of the pharyngeal residue in the improved group and the non-improved group. Results A total of 59 patients concluded the test, in which 42 patients improved well enough to change the dietary methods while 17 did not improve sufficiently. Remnant area to total area (R/T) ratios of the valleculae before treatment in the improved group were 0.120, 0.177, and 0.101 for solid, soft, and liquid foods, respectively, whereas the ratios for the non-improved group were 0.365, 0.396, and 0.281, respectively. The ratios of the pyriformis sinuses were 0.126, 0.159, and 0.121 for the improved group and 0.315, 0.338, and 0.244 for the non-improved group. The R/T ratios of valleculae and pyriformis sinus were significantly lower in the improved group than the non-improved group in all food types before treatment. The R/T ratio cutoff values were 0.267, 0.250, and 0.185 at valleculae and 0.228, 0.218, and 0.185 at pyriformis sinuses. Conclusion In dysphagia after stroke, less pharyngeal residue before treatment serves as a factor for predicting greater improvement after VitalStim treatment.
    10/2014; 38(5):612-9. DOI:10.5535/arm.2014.38.5.612
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimum composition of Polycan (β-glucan complex) and calcium lactate-gluconate (CaLG) that exhibited the most beneficial effects in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic rats. Polycan and CaLG single formulas (100 mg/kg each), and three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of three mixed formulas [polycan:CaLG (PCLG)=1:99, 5:95 and 10:90] were orally administered once a day for 84 days. The effects of the test materials were compared with those of a risedronate sodium-treated group. OVX resulted in an increase in body weight, decreased bone formation, elevated serum osteocalcin levels and urine deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio, as well as decreased serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels, femur indices, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and failure load. However, these OVX-induced osteoporotic changes markedly decreased following the administration of the test materials. Continuous oral treatment of Polycan or CaLG single formulas and the PCLG mixed formulas preserved bone mass and strength. The PCLG 10:90 mixed formula exhibited the most favorable synergistic antiosteoporotic effects in the OVX-induced osteoporotic rats as compared with equal doses of the Polycan or CaLG single formulas.
    Experimental and therapeutic medicine 09/2014; 8(3):957-967. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.1793 · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Iseul Park, Ki Young Kim
    05/2014; 17(2):66-73. DOI:10.7582/GGE.2014.17.2.066
  • Arim Han, Keehoon Kim, Ki Young Kim
    05/2014; 17(2):58-65. DOI:10.7582/GGE.2014.17.2.058
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    ABSTRACT: A novel high-Q resonant structure comprising the bulk acoustic resonator (BAR) and inductive loop is proposed to be used for wireless power transmission system. The proposed resonant structure operating at MHz frequency range has significantly miniature size in relation to the electrical wavelength (
    Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 03/2014; 56(3). DOI:10.1002/mop.28153 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    JinHoon Jung, Ki Young Kim
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    ABSTRACT: To reveal and classify site characteristics in densely populated areas in Chuncheon, Korea, Rayleigh-waves were recorded at 50 sites including four sites in the forest area using four 1-Hz velocity sensors and 24 4.5-Hz vertical geophones during the period of January 2011 to May 2013. Dispersion curves of the Rayleigh waves obtained by the extended spatial autocorrelation method were inverted to derive shear-wave velocity () models comprising 40 horizontal layers of 1-m thickness. Depths to weathered rocks (), shear wave velocities of these basement rocks (), average velocities of the overburden layer (), and the average velocity to a depth of 30 m (), were then derived from those models. The estimated values of , , , and for 46 sites at lower altitudes were in the ranges of 5 to 29 m, 404 to 561 m/s, 208 to 375 ms/s, and 226 to 583 m/s, respectively. According to the Korean building code for seismic design, the estimated indicates that the lower altitude areas in Chuncheon are classified as (very dense soil and soft rock) or (stiff soil). To determine adequate proxies for , we compared the computed values with land cover, lithology, topographic slope, and surface elevation at each of the measurement sites. Due to a weak correlation (r = 0.41) between and elevation, the best proxy of them, applications of this proxy to Chuncheon of a relatively small area seem to be limited.
    02/2014; 17(1). DOI:10.7582/GGE.2014.17.1.001
  • Chungho Kim, Abid Ali, Ki Young Kim
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    ABSTRACT: To reveal shear-wave velocities () and site characterization of Wonju, Korea, Rayleigh waves were recorded at 78 sites of lower altitude using 12 to 24 4.5-Hz vertical geophones for 20 days during the period of February to September 2013. Dispersion curves of the Rayleigh waves obtained by the extended spatial autocorrelation method were inverted using the damped least-squares method to derive models. From these 1-D models, the average to a depth of 30 m (), of weathered rocks, depths to these basement rocks, and average of the overburden layer were derived to be , , , and , respectively, in the 95% confidence range. To determine adequate proxies for , we computed correlation coefficients of with topographic slope (r = 0.46) and elevation (r = 0.43). An empirical linear relationship is presented as a combination of individually estimated with weighting factors of 0.45, 0.45, and 0.1 for topographic slope, elevation, and mapped lithology, respectively. Due to a weak correlation between obtained from inversion of dispersion curves and the proxy-based estimation (r = 0.50), however, the relatively large error range should be considered for applications of this relationship.
    02/2014; 17(1). DOI:10.7582/GGE.2014.17.1.011
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    ABSTRACT: Essential oils extracted or purified from various plants have shown various beneficial effects. Seed parts of Schizandra chinensis Baillon (Schisandrae Semen) have been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years in parts of Asia, including Korea, China, and Japan. However, the pharmacological mechanisms of essential oils purified from S. fructus (S. chinensis Baillon) remain largely unresolved. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of Schisandrae Semen essential oil (SSeo) by a single- dose toxicity study in mice. SSeo was orally administered at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg in ICR mice. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days of treatment. After a single administration, mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, and gross pathological findings were observed for 14 days. We also measured parameters of organ weight, clinical chemistry, and hematology. No toxicological change related to the test substance or mortality was observed after administration of a single oral dose of SSeo. There were no adverse effects on clinical signs, body weight, or organ weight and no gross pathological findings in any treatment group. The clinical chemistry and hematological parameters were within the normal ranges except total bilirubin. Therefore, the approximate lethal dose for oral administration of SSeo in mice was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg. The results on the single-dose toxicity of SSeo indicate that it is not possible to reach oral dose levels related to death or dose levels with any harmful side effects.
    02/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.5352/JLS.2014.24.2.191
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the antioxidant activities of 11n selected miscellaneous cereal grains (proso millet, yellow glutinous proso millet, hwanggeumchal sorghum, glutinous sorghum, white glutinous sorghum, yellow glutinous foxtail millet, nonglutinous foxtail millet, green glutinous foxtail millet, golden foxtail millet, barnyard millet, and adlay), the free radical-scavenging activities of 80% ethanol extracts of the individual grains were investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) methods. The ethanol extracts of hwanggeumchal sorghum, glutinous sorghum, and barnyard millet grains exhibited more potent free radical-scavenging activities as compared to the other grains. When these three ethanol extracts were sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, the majority of the antioxidant activities were detected in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions in which phenolic ingredients were abundant. The ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of hwanggeumchal sorghum and the ethyl acetate fraction of glutinous sorghum showed higher antioxidant activity than that of -tocopherol. Both ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods demonstrated that these organic solvent fractions could inhibit lipid peroxidation. The ethyl acetate fractions from hwanggeumchal sorghum, glutinous sorghum, and barnyard millet grains could suppress tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced apoptotic events, including sub-G1 peaks, loss, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP and lamin B, in human HL-60 cells. These results show that the grains of hwanggeumchal sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cv. Hwanggeumchalsusu), glutinous sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cv. Chalsusu), and barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta) possess efficient antioxidant activity, which could protect cells from oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity.
    01/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.5352/JLS.2014.24.1.26
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to develop a lightweight and environmentally friendly nonwoven fabric to substitute polyurethane (PU) foams in automotive interiors. Two types of hollow fibers-polyethylene terephthalate (PET) hollow fiber and polylactic acid (PLA) hollow fiber-and bicomponent binder fibers were used to manufacture the nonwoven fabrics for seat cushions by carding, needle punching, thermal bonding, and air through bonding processes. The ideal characteristics required for automotive seat cushions were evaluated, and the significant changes with the structural components were analyzed. The nonwoven fabrics showed better air permeability, compressional resilience, ball rebound resilience, and non-flammability in comparison with PU foams. The characteristics were affected by the manufacturing processes.
    12/2013; 50(6). DOI:10.12772/TSE.2013.50.366
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristic of the cooked rice added with glutinous and non-glutinous sorghum. The sorghum cultivars were Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cv. Hwanggeumchal, Nampungchal (glutinous), and Donganme (nonglutinous), and rice cultivar was Ilpum rice. The cooking properties and pasting characteristics of cooking rice adding with sorghum according to varieties and different addition rates evaluated. The cooking properties and pasting characteristics had significant changes with the varieties and different addition rates of sorghum. With increased addition rates of sorghum, the pasting temperature, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity, and final viscosity were decreased. With increased addition rates of sorghum, the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents before and after cooked rice were increased. Total polyphenol contents of 30% addition rates before cooking rice with Hwanggeumchal, Nampungchal, and Donganme sorghum were 1,693.30, 1,890.98 and sample, whereas those after cooking rice with sorghum were 1,189.28, 1,190.42 and sample, respectively. The high level of DPPH radical scavenging activity before and after cooking rice with sorghum were 126.29 and 70.58 mg TE/100g sample in the Donganme in 30% addition rates. Also, ABTS radical scavenging activity was 135.56 and 83.12 mg TE/100g sample, respectively. The results of this study show that the addition of sorghum can make cooked rice improved antioxidant activity.
    12/2013; 58(4). DOI:10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.4.399
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous efforts to prepare useful graphene-based nanocomposites have been made and important improvements achieved. In our studies, novel structured polyolefin-based thermoplastic elastomer, poly(ethylene-ter-1-hexene-ter-divinylbenzene) (PEHV) was designed and synthesized. And high quality graphene was manufactured via the exfoliation of graphite. PEHV/graphene nanocomposites were fabricated using solution casting method as the amount of graphene added. The morphologies of nanocomposites were observed using scanning electron microscopy. And density, mechanical properties and electrical properties were also measured. Electrical properties and mechanical properties were improved with the increase of graphene added in nanocomposites. It is expected that PEHV/graphene nanocomposites could be applied to lightweight EMI shielding materials.
    Fibers and Polymers 12/2013; 14(12). DOI:10.1007/s12221-013-2117-9 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effects of short carbon fiber (SCF) on the properties of the polyolefin elastomers (POEs), we prepared the poly(ethylene-co-1-hexene) (PEH)/SCF composites at different percentages of SCF. We also prepared polyethylene (PE)/SCF composites to compare with PEH/SCF composites. PEH was synthesized by the copolymerization of ethylene and 1-hexene using metallocene catalyst/cocatalyst system. Optimum stirring speed, Al/Zr feeding molar ratio, polymerization time, and polymerization temperature were 700 rpm, 600, 30 min, and 60 °C, respectively. We investigated the morphology of the composites using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found that the wettability of SCF in PEH/SCF composites was fairly better than that of SCF in PE/SCF composites. It was observed from mechanical tests that the ultimate tensile strength and tensile modulus of PEH/SCF composites were remarkably enhanced as the SCF content increased, whereas those of PE/SCF composites were a little increased. PEH/SCF composites exhibited lower crystallinity than PE/SCF ones. Thermal stability of the composites was enhanced by the addition of SCF.
    Fibers and Polymers 12/2013; 14(12). DOI:10.1007/s12221-013-2128-6 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    Arim Han, Iseul Park, Ki Young Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Continuous seismic observation of volcanic earthquakes related to migration of magma or gas, is one of the most important methods used to monitor active volcanoes. In this review paper, we introduce the characteristics of volcanic earthquakes and their classification based on locations of foci, waveforms, frequencies, lithology, and source mechanisms. We also present some examples of successful warnings of volcanic eruptions and the present status of some observations of volcanic earthquakes in Japan, the United States, Italy, and New Zealand.
    11/2013; 16(4). DOI:10.7582/GGE.2013.16.4.268

Publication Stats

859 Citations
133.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2013
    • Korea Institute of Industrial Technology
      Anzan, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2000–2012
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • School of Computer Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Microbiology
      • • Department of Electronic Engineering
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Sejong University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994–2010
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      • • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Hyundai Motor Company
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Institute of Crop Science
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Energy Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Department of Physics
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Hanyang University
      • Department of Industrial Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2009
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2001–2009
    • Chung-Ang University
      • School of Mechanical Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Union Corporation, South Korea
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2007
    • Dongseo University
      • Department of International Logistics
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2007
    • Konyang University Hospital
      Gaigeturi, Jeju-do, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2006
    • Information and Communications University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 1997–2005
    • Pusan National University
      • • Department of Atmospheric Sciences
      • • Department of Industrial Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 1999
    • Yeungnam University
      • College of Medicine
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea