[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroidectomy as a first line treatment for Graves' disease is rarely utilized in the US. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety and efficacy of thyroid surgery among patients with Graves' disease.
Fifty-six patients with Graves' disease underwent thyroid surgery between May 1994 and May 2008 at a single academic institution. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were analyzed.
A total of 58 surgeries were performed: 55.1% (n = 32) total thyroidectomy, 41.3% (n = 24) subtotal/lobectomy, 3.4% (n = 2) completion thyroidectomy. The average gland weight was 47.3 ± 10.8 gm, with 70% weighing > 30 gm. Reasons for having thyroid surgery were persistent disease despite medical therapy (46.6%), patient preference (24.1%), multinodular goiter/cold nodules (20.3%), failed RAI (radioactive iodine) treatment (16%), and opthalmopathy (12.1%). Of those patients that failed prior RAI therapy, the only factor that was predictive of failure was disease severity, as demonstrated by a markedly elevated initial free-T4 value (11.8 ± 4.5 ng/dL, P = 0.04). Transient symptomatic hypocalcemia occurred in 10.7% (n = 6) of patients, and one patient (1.8%) had symptomatic hypocalcemia lasting > 6 mo. There were no permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries. There was no difference in overall complication rates between patients based on surgical procedure (subtotal versus total thyroidectomy), preoperative RAI treatment, or gland size. Recurrences occurred in 6% of the subtotal thyroidectomy group and 0% of the total thyroidectomy group (P = 0.008).
Thyroidectomy for patients with Graves' disease can be performed with very low complication rates and when a total thyroidectomy is performed, there is almost no risk of recurrence.
Journal of Surgical Research 06/2011; 168(1):1-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2010.12.038 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of and identify risk factors for postoperative hypothyroidism in patients undergoing thyroid lobectomy.
We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent a thyroid lobectomy for benign disease from May 2004 to December 2007. Patients with known hypothyroidism or on preoperative thyroid hormone replacement were excluded.
In this study, 14.3% of patients developed hypothyroidism and required thyroid hormone supplementation. These hypothyroid patients had a higher mean pre-operative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and lower mean free thyroxine (T4) serum levels compared with euthyroid patients (TSH, 2.12 vs 1.35 microIU/mL [P = .006]; free T4, 1.03 vs 1.34 ng/dL [P = .01]). When stratified into 3 groups based on their preoperative TSH measurement (< or =1.5, 1.51-2.5, and > or =2.51 microIU/mL), the rate of hypothyroidism increased significantly at each level (13.5%, 20.5%, and 41.3%, respectively [P < .001]). In addition, patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were significantly more likely to become hypothyroid (odds ratio, 3.78; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-6.60).
After thyroid lobectomy, approximately 1 in 7 patients experience hypothyroidism requiring thyroid hormone treatment. Patients with preoperative TSH levels >1.5 microIU/mL, lower free T4 levels, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are at increased risk and should be counseled and followed appropriately.
Surgery 10/2009; 146(4):554-8; discussion 558-60. DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2009.06.026 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has previously been shown that higher serum TSH is associated with increased thyroid cancer incidence and advanced-stage disease. In the healthy adult population, mean TSH increases with age. As age over 45 years is a known prognostic indicator for thyroid cancer, it is important to know whether higher TSH in patients with thyroid cancer occurs independent of age.
To determine the relationship between higher TSH, cancer and age.
A retrospective cohort study.
A total of 1361 patients underwent thyroid surgery between May 1994 and December 2007 at a single institution. Of these patients, 954 had pathological data, preoperative TSH and complete surgical history available. Data were analysed in relation to age and TSH.
Mean TSH was significantly higher in cancer patients regardless of age < 45 years or >or= 45 years (P = 0.046 and P = 0.027, respectively). When examining age groups < 20, 20-44, 45-59 and >or= 60 years, there was a trend of rising mean TSH with age. Despite the rise in the benign subgroups, mean TSH was consistently higher in those with cancer vs. those without. On multivariate analysis, higher TSH was independently associated with cancer (P = 0.039) and pathological features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (P = 0.001) but not with age (P = 0.557). On multivariate analysis of high-risk features associated with poor prognosis, there was a significant association between higher TSH and extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.002), whereas there was no clear relationship with age, tumour size > 4 cm, and distant metastases.
Independent of age, thyroid cancer incidence correlates with higher TSH. Higher TSH is associated with extrathyroidal extension of disease.