[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assess the impact of a dengue management algorithm on the hospitalization rate of patients with suspected disease in a primary care health facility in an endemic area of Colombia.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the local hospital in Piedecuesta, Santander, Colombia, based on comparison of two periods (18 weeks each), before and after use of the algorithm. This included recommendations for clinical diagnosis of dengue and the planning of follow-up visits and hemograms, as well as criteria for hospitalization and the discontinuation of follow-up. Hospitalization rates in the two periods were compared using the Poisson analysis. The population analyzed consisted of patients seen in the facility for acute febrile syndrome. For adjustment purposes, the number of dengue cases (IgM positive) identified in the municipality was included.
Information was obtained on 964 patients in the first period and 1350 patients in the second. There were 44 and 13 hospitalizations during the respective periods. Use of the algorithm was associated with a significant reduction in the hospitalization rate (ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval; 0.11-0.39). This association did not change when adjusted for the number of dengue cases identified in the city. There were no significant differences in the rate of follow-up visits (P = 0.85) and hemograms (P = 0.24) in the two periods. There were no case fatalities.
The results suggest that health care resources for dengue management can be optimized with the use of the algorithm.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 09/2011; 30(3):248-54. · 0.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia is a frequent phenomenon in viral infections. Peripheral platelet destruction mediated by anti-platelet antibodies has been one of the proposed causal mechanisms.
Results were collected and analyzed from published studies on associations of human viral infections on anti-platelet antibodies and total platelet counts.
A PubMed search was conducted using the following terms: Viral infection (OR Virus diseases) AND antiplatelet antibody (OR thrombocytopenia) AND HIV (OR measles OR dengue OR chickenpox OR varicella OR Epistein Barr OR mumps OR rubella). Two hundred eighteen reference hits were obtained, 65 of which were relevant to this review.
Antiplatelet antibody-mediated thrombocytopenia has been documented in cases of HIV, measles, dengue, chickenpox, Epstein-Barr, mumps and rubella. Moreover, the presence of these antibodies has been associated with severity the disease and thrombocytopenia in viral infections.
Although the presence of antiplatelet antibodies was not the only mechanism for explaining the thrombocytopenia developed in these viral infections, their presence was associated with severity of thrombocytopenia and with the clinical presentation of these patients.
Biomédica: revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud 03/2011; 31(1):35-43. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determining the validity and reliability of a user satisfaction instrument applied to patients attending the emergency department and clinic who were suffering from acute febrile syndrome in Bucaramanga's Public Health Network.
A diagnostic technology assessment study was conducted between 2008 and 2009 on patients suffering from acute febrile syndrome. A telephone questionnaire was designed using 3 instruments. Content validity was assessed by experts and health professionals and face validity was assessed in a pilot study involving 30 users. Reproducibility was tested in questionnaires independently applied by two nurses to 19 patients.
Data from 146 surveys was collected; 75.3 % were answered by women, 33.6 % were patients and 52.7 % were their mothers when patients were under 15. Three factors were identified from factor analysis: satisfaction with medical care, nursing and medical centre organisation. The final model included 16 of the 26 items. Cronbach's Alpha for each factor was 0.89 (0.86-0.93 95 %CI), 0.78 (0.67- 0.84 95 %CI) and 0.88 (0.85-0.91 95 %CI), respectively. The Kappa coefficient was 0.90 (0.77-0.97 95 %CI) and intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.96 (0.86-0.99 95 %CI). The average difference of the sum of all items was -1.3 (SD: 8.5) and Bland and Altman limits of agreement were -18.9 and 15.3, respectively.
This study established the validity and reliability of a new instrument concerning user satisfaction used with patients suffering from acute febrile syndrome attending emergency health care which that could be applied in the Colombian Public Health System.
Revista de salud publica (Bogota, Colombia) 10/2010; 12(5):820-32.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous bleeding is a common complication of dengue and is associated with an increased mortality.
To evaluate early clinical manifestations and simple laboratory tests as predictors of spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with forms of acute febrile syndrome (AFS) such as dengue from an endemic area.
A prospective cohort study was performed including 729 non-bleeding AFS patients who were enrolled during the first 4 days of disease. Basal evaluation included anamnesis, physical examination and complete blood cell count. Follow-up was extended at least until the sixth day of disease. Dengue infection was studied with paired serologic tests and viral isolation. Potential predictors of spontaneous bleeding were evaluated with bivariate and multivariate analysis.
Incidence of outcome was not significantly different between the dengue group and those with non-dengue AFS. The tourniquet test was not associated with outcome (p=0.38). In a binomial regression model, the following variables were associated with outcome: age between 12 and 45 years (RR=2.22; 95% CI: 1.25-3.94), rash (RR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.25-2.2), vomiting (RR=1.46; 95% CI: 1.16-1.83), temperature >38 degrees C (RR=2.63; 95% CI: 1.6-4.33), leukocyte count <4500/microL (RR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.19-2.96), and platelet count <90.000/microL (RR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.94). With these variables a risk score was formulated that showed an area under ROC curve of 70.5% (95% CI: 64.9-76.2) to predict spontaneous bleeding. The score was useful for predicting bleeding in both dengue and non-dengue AFS groups.
Some variables evaluated in the first days of disease helped to predict the risk of spontaneous bleeding in patients with dengue and non-dengue AFS.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 09/2010; 49(1):11-5. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional tests for dengue diagnosis are not useful during the first days of disease onset, because they require time and complex techniques or because they have low sensitivity. Objective. The reliability and precision was determined for the rapid test in cassette (PANBIO) for dengue diagnosis in acute and convalescent serum samples.
The immunochromatographic test was evaluated in samples from patients older than 5 years with acute febrile syndrome. The patients came from the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga during April and August of 2003. Acute and convalescent serum came from 67 dengue cases, diagnosed by viral isolation or IgM paired tests (modified MAC-ELISA), and from 33 patients with acute febrile syndrome (not dengue) that served as controls.
Reliability was good (kappa=0.84). In the convalescent serum, the test showed sensitivity of 76.1%, specificity of 75.8%, positive predictive value of 86.4% and negative predictive value of 61.0%, positive likelihood ratio 3.14 and negative likelihood ratio 0.32. In the acute phase, the values were 52.2%, 84.8%, 87.5%, 46.7%, 3.45 and 0.56, respectively.
Rapid immunochromatographic test for dengue diagnosis shows good reproducibility and specificity, with an acceptable sensitivity. Therefore, this rapid test is recommended as diagnostic tool in endemic areas.
Biomédica: revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud 12/2009; 29(4):616-24. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objetivos: Establecer la asociación entre la magnitud del viraje del hematocrito y otros hallazgos de severidad en dengue.Diseño: Estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal.Población y métodos: Pacientes con diagnóstico clínico y serológico (IgM positiva) de dengue, hospitalizados en instituciones de Santander (Colombia), durante 1993-1998. Se evaluó la asociación entre la intensidad de la hemoconcentración y complicaciones como hemorragias espontáneas, efusiones pleurales y trombocitopenia (<50,000 plt/µl).Resultados: Se incluyeron 780 pacientes. En un análisis multivariado, las variables asociadas con una mayor hemoconcentración fueron: edad <15 años, hematemesis y trombocitopenia. Hubo 363 pacientes con hemoconcentración <10%; 226 entre 10% y 20%; y 191 con un viraje del hematocrito >20%. La frecuencia de efusiones pleurales no fue diferente entre estos grupos. La hematemesis y la trombocitopenia fueron menos frecuentes en el grupo con hemoconcentración <10%. Además, estas complicaciones fueron más frecuentes con hemoconcentración >20% vs. 10%-20% (p<0.05). Comparado con un viraje >20%, un criterio más flexible de hemoconcentración (>10%) se asoció con un aumento de la sensibilidad de 31% a 63% y una disminución de la especificidad de 88.5% a 66.3%, para detectar alguna complicación (hematemesis, trombocitopenia o efusión pleural).Conclusión: Este estudio sugiere una fuerte correlación entre la intensidad de la hemoconcentración y la severidad del dengue. Además, sugiere que al emplearse un criterio más flexible para definir la extravasación plasmática, se obtiene un importante incremento en la sensibilidad con una aceptable disminución en la especificidad. Estos resultados deben evaluarse prospectivamente, en un estudio de cohortes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous haemorrhage is an important cause of hospitalisation in dengue patients. Early predictors of these complications could help to make opportune decisions.
We prospectively evaluated 51 febrile patients (without previous spontaneous haemorrhage), including 32 cases of dengue fever. Initial evaluation was performed during the first 96 hours after the onset of fever and included complete blood cell count and coagulation tests. Participants were followed-up daily until the seventh day of the disease.
Overall, 15 patients developed spontaneous haemorrhage during the follow-up. Tourniquet test and dengue infection were not associated with haemorrhage (p-value is greater than 0.2). In a logistic regression analysis, platelet count (odds-ratio [OR] 0.78; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.94) and partial thromboplastin time (OR 1.78; 95 percent CI 1.06-2.99) were independently associated with spontaneous haemorrhage.
Early alterations in platelet count and coagulation test could predict spontaneous bleeding in the acute febrile syndrome.
Singapore medical journal 07/2008; 49(6):480-2. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated biochemical alterations as predictors of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Patients with confirmed infection with dengue virus were prospectively evaluated for the first seven days of disease to determine their final clinical outcome. Serum samples taken 48-96 hours after onset of fever were used for biochemical tests. Of 199 patients, 30 developed DHF. Cases of DHF had higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and aspartate aminotransferase, and lower levels of albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Multivariate analysis showed that early alterations of CK (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.34-20.85, P = 0.001), LDH (HR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.01-10.12, P < 0.05), and albumin (HR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.09-5.92, P = 0.03) were associated with DHF. Triglyceride levels > 160 mg/dL were negatively associated with developing DHF (HR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.01-0.59, P = 0.01). Early alterations of biochemical markers can predict DHF in patients with acute fever caused by dengue.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2008; 78(3):370-4. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Describing patterns of acute febrile syndrome (AFS) consultation related to dengue and evaluating association with rainfall.
318 undifferentiated AFS patients were detected in two clinics during a 7-month period (March to September) and then included in systematic clinical follow-up. 31 % of them (81/281) were IgM positive for dengue. Rainfall (litres/square meter-day) during the previous weeks was evaluated as a variable for predicting consultation patterns.
June, July and September were the months in which the greatest number of AFS cases occurred. Cases of dengue were only significantly more frequent during July. When evaluating the previous weeks' rainfall patterns, consultation for AFS was seen to be associated with the average rainfall registered 5 weeks beforehand and such association was independent of the institution and/or month (incidence rate ratio IRR=1,04; 1-1.08 95 %CI, p=0.045). On the other hand, 5 consecutive weeks' average rainfall was an independent predictor of consultation for dengue 4 weeks later on (RTI=1 ,6 ; 1,15-2,22 95 %CI, p=0.006). A linear relationship was thus proposed (regarding these sentinel clinics) between consultation for dengue and rainfall: lt/mt-day (5 weeks' average rainfall) X 0 ,72 (0,60-0,84 95 %CI, p<0.001) = cases for each 100 000 habitants per week (4 weeks later).
Studying rainfall could predict the pattern of consultation for dengue in endemic regions.
Revista de salud publica (Bogota, Colombia) 01/2008; 10(2):250-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione peroxidase (GP) can be used as a marker of oxidative stress in infectious diseases.
To evaluate the association between the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GP) and the manifestations and complications of dengue.
Between April 2003 and December 2004, 161 patients with dengue were prospectively evaluated. In the first evaluation, within 48 and 96 hours of disease onset, a plasma sample was obtained to measure the GP levels. The association between GP levels, clinical manifestations and complications was evaluated during the follow up.
Mean GP values were 1198 U/L (95% confidence interval 1089-1306). Values greater than 1200 U/L were associated with headache, arthralgias and increased heart rate. There was a negative association between GP levels and serum triglycerides. During follow up, patients with GP >1200 U/L had a higher frequency of spontaneous hemorrhages. In a logistic regression analysis arthralgias, fever and increased heart rate, were independently associated with levels >1200 U/L.
GP levels was associated to some of the manifestations of dengue. This finding suggests that the intensity of oxidative stress can influence the clinical presentation of dengue.
Revista medica de Chile 06/2007; 135(6):743-50. · 0.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early detection of dengue could help to prevent its complications. The usefulness of clinical criteria for diagnosis of the disease must be ascertained.
To assess the correlation between laboratory and clinical diagnosis of dengue, done during the first consultation in the emergency room. To estimate the impact of clinical diagnosis on the initial medical treatment.
Patients older than 5 years with an acute febrile syndrome that consulted during the first 72 hours of disease, during 2004, at an emergency room in Bucaramanga, Colombia, were studied. Symptoms and the clinical diagnosis of the initial evaluation were registered. Paired serum samples for dengue specific ELISA-IgM test and viral isolation were obtained. The association of the initial clinical diagnosis with early symptoms, initial medical treatment and laboratory diagnosis was evaluated.
One hundred sixty eight patients were enrolled (54 with confirmed dengue infection). Clinical diagnosis of dengue was associated to a higher request of complete blood counts (p = 0.01) and greater use of intravenous fluids (p = 0.02). However, clinical diagnosis was not correlated with the laboratory diagnosis (p = 0.15). The percentage of agreement was less than would be expected by chance (Kappa = -0.1). Headache was associated to the initial clinical diagnosis of dengue (p = 0.03), and only metrorrhagia was associated with confirmed dengue infection (p = 0.04).
The early clinical suspicion of dengue has a low concordance with the laboratory confirmation of the disease.
Revista medica de Chile 10/2006; 134(9):1153-60. · 0.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify clinical manifestations and laboratory findings useful for the early diagnosis of dengue in children.
We prospectively evaluated 125 children (aged 5 to 12 years old) with acute febrile syndrome with no apparent etiology. Paired serologic tests and/or viral culture were performed and dengue infection was confirmed in 40 patients and ruled out in 68 (17 indefinite cases). Early clinical manifestations (within the first 4 days of the disease) in the groups with dengue and other causes of febrile syndrome were compared. Independent indicators of dengue were determined in a multivariate logistic regression analysis.
When clinical manifestations and complete blood count were considered, the independent indicators of dengue were: absence of nasal discharge, facial flushing, and leukocyte count < or = 4,500/.l. With at least two of these findings, a sensitivity of 67 % and a specificity of 72 % for the diagnosis of dengue were obtained. When coagulation tests were considered, a model for diagnosis was composed of: absence of nasal discharge, leukocyte count < or = 4500/.l, prothrombin time > 14 seconds, and partial thromboplastin time > 29 seconds. Two of these findings suggested a diagnosis of dengue with a sensitivity of 90 % and a specificity of 52.9 %. With at least 3 findings, specificity increased to 89.7 % and sensitivity decreased to 50 %. The presence of the four components of this latter model shows a specificity of 100 %.
Some clinical manifestations and simple laboratory tests could aid the early detection of dengue infection in children.
Anales de Pediatría 07/2006; 64(6):523-9. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of IgM determination in acute serum for the diagnosis of dengue in an endemic area We evaluated the clinical usefulness of dengue IgM detection in acute serum using an ELISA test in 167 patients with dengue and 225 patients with acute febrile syndrome of another etiology. The sensitivity of the test was 29.9%, specificity was 99.1%, positive predictive value was 96.2%, and negative predictive value was 65.6%. Because of the test's high specificity and positive predictive value, a positive result could support a diagnosis of dengue in endemic areas with a high degree of certainty; a negative result would require complementary studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia is a distinctive characteristic of dengue; however, few studies have related thrombocytopenia with its clinical severity.
To identify the complications of dengue, associated to severe thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelets count below 50,000/mm3).
Patients with clinical and serologic (positive IgM) diagnosis of dengue, consulting at hospitals located in Santander, Colombia, during the period 1993-1998, were studied. Clinical findings and laboratory tests (including hematocrit and platelets counts) were registered. The association between severe thrombocytopenia and the presence of complications, such as hemorrhagic manifestations (positive tourniquet test, petechiae, ecchymoses, bleeding from gums, epistaxis, hematemesis, hematuria and metrorrhagia) and signs of plasma leakage (pleural effusions and haemoconcentration), were evaluated using a univariate and multivariate analysis.
Of the 790 patients enrolled, 502 had a platelet count below 50,000/mm3. Severe thrombocytopenia was associated with hemorrhagic manifestations (OR= 3.16; 95% CI: 2.09-4.76; p <0.0001) and signs of plasma leakage (OR= 2.67; 95% CI: 1.86-3.84; p <0.0001). The associations between severe thrombocytopenia and the complications of dengue (with exception of bleeding from gums, hematuria and metrorrhagia), were confirmed with the multivariated analysis (p <0.05).
There was a strong association between deep thrombocytopenia and the severity of dengue.
Revista medica de Chile 02/2006; 134(2):167-73. · 0.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the clinical usefulness of dengue IgM detection in acute serum using an ELISA test in 167 patients with dengue and 225 patients with acute febrile syndrome of another etiology. The sensitivity of the test was 29.9%, specificity was 99.1%, positive predictive value was 96.2%, and negative predictive value was 65.6%. Because of the test's high specificity and positive predictive value, a positive result could support a diagnosis of dengue in endemic areas with a high degree of certainty; a negative result would require complementary studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of dipyrone administration in the first days of the disease on the severity of dengue infection.
Prospective cohort study in adults (> 12 years) with dengue virus infection, confirmed by specific IgM titers in paired samples or isolation of the virus. The patients were enrolled in the first 96 hours of the disease. Basic demographic details, symptoms, drugs received and examination findings were recorded at admittance. A detailed clinical examination and hematocrit determination were done every day by a member of the study team until day 7 of disease. Platelet count was performed at baseline and with the development of spontaneous bleeding or evidence of plasma leakage. The association between dipyrone use in the first 96 hours of disease and the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) was evaluated.
Seven of the 110 patients enrolled developed DHF. At admission, 17 patients had received dipyrone and administration of this drug was not related to the clinical manifestations of dengue, or the use of other medication. Dipyrone was associated with an increased risk of presenting DHF (RR = 7.29; 95% CI: 1.79-29.34; P = 0.0016). Minimum platelet count in the dipyrone group (median: 105,588.2 plat/microl), was significantly smaller than that of the control group (median: 145,698.9 plat/microl): difference = 40,110.69 plat/microl; 95% CI: 1597.36-78,624.02; P = 0.0414.
Our data suggest that early administration of dipyrone in patients with disease caused by dengue virus is associated with lower platelet counts and an increased risk of developing DHF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify clinical markers of severity in dengue, different from those of major hemorrhage.
Patients with a diagnosis of dengue infection admitted to hospitals in Santander (Colombia) during the years 1993 to 1998 were studied. On admittance or during hospitalization, patients were classified as cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue fever (DF). Clinical findings differing from those of major hemorrhage were recorded in the emergency room and during the first assessment at hospitalization. The association between these findings and the outcome of DHF were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses.
891 patients (DF: 420; DHF: 471) were included in the study. Associations were found between DHF and the following signs and symptoms: vomiting (OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.37-2.6; p = 0.0001); gingival hemorrhage (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.11-2.18; p = 0.01); epistaxis (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.28-2.48; p = 0.001); hepatomegaly (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.61-4.07; p < 0.0001); microscopic hematuria (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.36-4; p = 0.002); and rash (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.04-1.77; p = 0.02). The hematocrit in the emergency room and on the first day of hospitalization was significantly higher in the group with DHF (p < 0.001, in both observations). On multivariate analysis, the hematocrit from DHF patients obtained in the emergency room was higher than that from DF, independently of the other relevant variables (difference: 3.65; 95% CI: 2.81-4.49).
Under the study conditions, there was an association between early clinical findings and DHF. These results must be evaluated in a cohort study.