T J Birdi

Maharashtra Medical Foundation, Poona, Mahārāshtra, India

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Publications (54)58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [ 3 H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect.
    Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2014; 76(3):229-235. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In tuberculosis (TB), the steadily increasing bacterial resistance to existing drugs and latent TB continue to be major concerns. A combination of conventional drugs and plant derived therapeutics can serve to expand the antimicrobial spectrum, prevent the emergence of drug resistant mutants and minimize toxicity. Alpinia galanga, used in various traditional medicines, possesses broad spectrum antibacterial properties. The study was undertaken to assess the antimycobacterial potential of A. galanga in axenic (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) and intracellular assays. Phytochemical analysis was done using HPTLC. The acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mug/ml) of A. galanga were tested axenically using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) H37Rv and three drug sensitive and three multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The activity of the extracts was also evaluated intracellularly in A549 cell line against these strains. The extracts active under intracellular conditions were further tested in an axenic setup under reducing oxygen concentrations using only H37Rv. 1 acetoxychavicol acetate, the reference standard used, was present in all the three extracts. The acetone and ethanolic extracts were active in axenic (aerobic and anaerobic) and intracellular assays. The aqueous extract did not demonstrate activity under the defined assay parameters. A. galanga exhibits anti M.tb activity with multiple modes of action. Since the activity of the extracts was observed under reducing oxygen concentrations, it may be effective in treating the dormant and non-replicating bacteria of latent TB. Though the hypothesis needs further testing, A. galanga being a regular dietary component may be utilized in combination with the conventional TB therapy for enhanced efficacy.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2014; 14(1):84. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Identification of anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents of plant origin, against sensitive and multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Study Design: Assessing anti-M. tuberculosis activity of five Indian medicinal plants, which have been reported in traditional literature for various uses including respiratory ailments. Place and Duration of Study: Mumbai, India; May 2009 – December 2011. Methodology of Study: The reference strain (H37Rv), three susceptible and three MDR clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were used. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts (prepared sequentially) of Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Andrographis paniculata Nees. (leaf), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed) and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested at 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The active extracts were assessed for cytotoxicity on the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) using the neutral red assay and a phytochemical analysis was made using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). Results: Among the plants tested, the acetone extract of P. nigrum appears promising. It was effective against H37Rv, all susceptible isolates and one MDR isolate at 100 μg/ml. The ethanol extract caused some inhibition of growth, though less than the cut-off of 99%. A combination of acetone and ethanol extracts at 50 μg/ml each was effective against all isolates tested. The known active phytoconstituent of P. nigrum, piperine (also an efflux pump inhibitor), was effective against H37Rv in the presence of suboptimal concentration of Rifampicin, but not against the clinical isolates tested. Presence of piperine in the acetone and ethanol extracts was confirmed by HPTLC. Extracts of P. nigrum and piperine were not cytotoxic to the A549 cell line. Conclusion: Amongst the five plants tested, P. nigrum was active. The acetone extract may have active components in addition to piperine. It is possible that the class and expression of efflux pumps in H37Rv is different from that in the clinical isolates, and hence piperine did not inhibit these isolates. Thus, it is necessary to screen clinical isolates in addition to reference strains. The observation of the increased efficacy of the combination of acetone and ethanol extracts is interesting.
    European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 10/2012; 2(4):308-323.
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    Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 11/2011; 17(12):1099-100. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    Indian Journal of Pharmacology 09/2011; 43(5):616-7. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.
    Indian Journal of Pharmacology 05/2011; 43(3):340-4. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    Brijesh S, Tetali P, Birdi TJ
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    ABSTRACT: Diarrhea is a major health concern in developing countries with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) being a leading cause of infantile diarrhea. Much of the pathology of EPEC infection is due to the inflammatory responses of infected intestinal epithelium through secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-8. With medicinal plants gaining popularity as prospective antidiarrheal agents, we aimed to evaluate the effect of anti-diarrheal medicinal plants on secretion of IL-8 by epithelial cells in response to EPEC infection. The effect of the decoctions of four anti-diarrheal medicinal plants viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale was studied on secretion of IL-8 by a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, HT-29 infected with E. coli E2348/69. Two protocols were used viz. pre-incubation and post-incubation. The data obtained demonstrated that out of the four plants used, only P. guajava decreased secretion of IL-8 in the post-incubation protocol although in the pre-incubation protocol an increase was observed. A similar increase was seen with C. rotundus in the preincubation protocol. No effect on IL-8 secretion was observed with A. marmelos and Z. officinale in both protocols and with C. rotundus in the post-incubation protocol. The post-incubation protocol, in terms of clinical relevance, indicates the effect of the plant decoctions when used as treatment. Hence P. guajava may be effective in controlling the acute inflammatory response of the intestinal epithelial cells in response to EPEC infection.
    Alternative Medicine Studies. 01/2011; 1:64-69.
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    ABSTRACT: Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. However, the effect of the leaf extract of P. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. The present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried leaves of P. guajava on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The aim was to understand its possible mechanism(s) of action in controlling infectious diarrhoea and compare it with quercetin, one of the most reported active constituents of P. guajava with antidiarrhoeal activity. The crude decoction and quercetin were studied for their antibacterial activity and effect on virulence features of common diarrhoeal pathogens viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production and action of enterotoxins. Colonization as measured by adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri was assessed using HEp-2 cell line. The production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid (GM1) were studied by GM1-ELISA whereas the production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. The decoction of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It decreased production of both LT and CT and their binding to GM1. However, it had no effect on production and action of ST. The decoction also inhibited the adherence of EPEC and invasion by both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Quercetin, on the other hand, had no antibacterial activity at the concentrations used nor did it affect any of the enterotoxins. Although it did not affect adherence of EPEC, it inhibited the invasion of both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Collectively, the results indicate that the decoction of P. guajava leaves is an effective antidiarrhoeal agent and that the entire spectrum of its antidiarrhoeal activity is not due to quercetin alone.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2010; 10:33. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zingiber officinale (ginger) was studied for its antimicrobial profile and effect on virulent features of diarrhoeal pathogens, viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production of enterotoxins. Z. officinale showed no antimicrobial activity. Although it inhibited the production of cholera toxin, it had no effect on the action of this toxin. It also had no effect on the production and action of E. coli heat labile and heat stable toxins. However the bacterial colonization of HEp-2 cells was reduced. The results indicate that in the absence of antimicrobial action, Z. officinale exhibits its antidiarrhoeal activity by affecting bacterial and host cell metabolism. The present study reports a novel mechanism of action by Z. officinale in infectious diarrhoea.
    Current science 01/2010; 98:222-229. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1) were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2009; 9:47. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maharashtra is the third largest state in India with a large tribal population. Documentation of traditional knowledge through ethnobotanical studies is important for conservation and utilization of indigenous knowledge. Diarrhoeal diseases are the second largest cause of morbidity in rural India. Medicinal plants given by the traditional healers of Parinche in Pune district, Maharashtra are known to be efficacious for many common ailments, including diarrhoeal diseases. Ethnobotanical survey of antidiarrhoeal plants from Parinche valley towards the documentation and conservation of traditional knowledge. Interviews and inquiries were conducted amongst traditional healers, indigenous communities and village elders. One hundred and eighty two plants used by tribes and natives for different ailments were documented of which 28 flowering plants were for diarrhoea. Leaf was the most preferred plant part. Amongst the 28 plants, antidiarrhoeal activity of five plants viz., Caesalpinia sepiaria, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Launaea pinnatifida, Syzygium rubicundum and Ziziphus jujuba has not been reported previously. Two species viz., Ziziphus xylopyra and Syzygium rubicundum are endemic to India. Parinche valley is an ethnobotanically rich area with abundant availability and knowledge of medicinal plants that can serve as a model for low cost health care.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2009; 123(2):229-36. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    Leprosy review 07/2008; 79(2):199-203. · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    BMC Proceedings - BMC Proc. 01/2008; 2.
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    Birdi TJ, Brijesh S, Daswani PG
    South Asian Regional Conference on “Traditional Medicine and Right to Health for All”; 12/2006
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    ABSTRACT: While data are available on the effect of medicinal plants on intestinal motility and their antibacterial action, there is a paucity of information on their mode of action on various aspects of diarrheal pathogenicity, namely colonization to intestinal epithelial cells and production/action of enterotoxins. Crude decoction of dried leaves of Pongamia pinnata was evaluated for its antimicrobial (antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral) effect; and its effect on production and action of enterotoxins (cholera toxin, CT; Escherichia coli labile toxin, LT; and E. coli stable toxin, ST); and adherence of enteropathogenic E. coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to epithelial cells. The decoction had no antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activity, but reduced production of CT and bacterial invasion to epithelial cells. The observed results indicated that the crude decoction of P. pinnata has selective antidiarrheal action with efficacy against cholera and enteroinvasive bacterial strains causing bloody diarrheal episodes.
    Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 09/2006; 7(8):665-74. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhodocci have a morphology similar to that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), and are indistinguishable from normal diphtheroid flora. Symptoms include fever, productive/non-productive cough and pleuritic chest pain. Rhodococcal infections, being resistant to routine anti-tuberculosis medications, may be misdiagnosed as drug-resistant TB, thus prompting treatment for TB with rifampicin-containing regimens that promote the emergence of resistance. We present here a sputum smear AFB-positive case who, although clinically cured, remains unresolved despite a series of technological investigations as to the cause of infection being purely rhodococci or mixed infection with M. tuberculosis.
    The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 04/2006; 10(3):351-3. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhodocci have a morphology similar to that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), and are indistinguishable from normal diphtheroid flora. Symptoms include fever, productive/non-productive cough and pleuritic chest pain. Rhodococcal infections, being resistant to routine anti-tuberculosis medications, may be misdiagnosed as drug-resistant TB, thus prompting treatment for TB with rifampicin-containing regimens that promote the emergence of resistance. We present here a sputum smear AFB-positive case who, although clinically cured, remains unresolved despite a series of technological investigations as to the cause of infection being purely rhodococci or mixed infection with M. tuberculosis.
    The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 02/2006; 10(3):351-353. · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Anthropology & Medicine: UK, vol. 13 (1), pp. 55-76. 01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Several medicinal plants have been evaluated for their antidiarrhoeal activity. Most studies evaluated their effect on intestinal motility and antimicrobial activity and, therefore, did not take into account the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea. Features of b Naoroji Godrej Centre for infectious diarrhoea like abdominal pain, cramps, inflammation, and passage of blood/mucus in the stools are the combined effect of one or more virulence factors of the infecting organism. The effect of medicinal plants on the microbial virulent features can serve as marker(s) for testing their efficacy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a decoction of dried leaves of Dalbergia sissoo on aspects of pathogenicity, that is, colonisation to intestinal epithelial cells and production/action of enterotoxins. This was done to define its possible mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhoea. Material and Methods: Antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities of the plant decoction were checked by agar dilution method, tube dilution method, and neutral red uptake assay, respectively. Cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli labile toxin (LT) were assayed by ganglioside monosialic acid receptor ELISA. Suckling mouse assay was used to assess E. coli stable toxin (ST). As a measure of colonisation, the effect against adherence of E. coli and invasion of E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were studied. Result: The decoction had no antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activity. It reduced the production and the binding of CT and bacterial adherence and invasion. Conclusion: This study showed that D. sissoo is antidiarrhoeal as it affects bacterial virulence. However, it has no antimicrobial activity.
    Indian Journal of Pharmacology 01/2006; 38:120-124. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sacred groves are protected areas of forests because of religious beliefs and constitute an important aspect of the cultural life of various communities throughout the world. The source of this culture can be traced back to prehistoric times. The sacred groves of Parinche valley, Pune district of Maharashtra, India were studied to understand their status and importance in relation to common natural resource bases and cultural aspects. Through formal interviews and non-participatory observation undertaken in all seasons between October 2002 and February 2004, 14 sacred groves were documented. Both EMIC and ETIC dimensions were incorporated in the choice of subjects. The results show that they are important for various communities as a common natural resource base. They promote cultural bonding among various communities and maintain harmony in social life. This can be evidenced during annual village festivals and family celebrations, which invariably take place within the premises of sacred groves. They are also important for biodiversity as many groves function like mini sanctuaries and harbour endemic and threatened plant species. The natural vegetation of the groves comprises many medicinal plants that are regularly harvested by local medicine men (Vaidus). Water is a precious resource, especially during summer months, and the perennial water sources that are present in the sacred groves are the only remaining water sources for seven villages. There is a compunction, on the other hand, of the sacred groves being influenced by urbanization, resulting in the building of concrete temples by clearing natural vegetation and planting ornamental and other economically useful trees in the cleared areas of the groves. Such actions alter these fragile ecosystems and deplete or destroy the natural resource base for which this ancient culture is believed to have been originally evolved. We conclude here that sacred groves were originally a common natural resource which were assimilated into the social and cultural life of villages in the Parinche valley. Hence their protection and enhancement should become part of village and forest planning.
    Anthropology and Medicine 01/2006; 13(1):55-76.