[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lack of diet diversity causing micronutrient deficiency is common in developing countries and is gaining attention due to the hidden consequences of impaired physical and cognitive development. This paper describes the propagation of a sustainable perennial kitchen garden (KG) model to address household (HH) diet diversity in Melghat. Nutrient dense plants, comprising of minimum one tree (perennial) and one green leafy vegetable (GLV) were given to participating HHs along with qualitative interventions. Baseline survey was conducted in winter 2011 followed by seasonal surveys over 2 years to record changes in KG practices, dietary intake and childcare practices. Marked increase from 4% at baseline to 95% at endline was seen in the KG maintainance. Increased diversity was seen in all food categories other than cereals and pulses. Variety of GLVs consumed increased over the two winters as well as the 2 summers. However, no change in the quantity of GLV consumed was noted which was attributed to the duration of the study period being insufficient for the trees to grow and provide adequate leaves for consumption. Notably, livelihood component was not promoted and HHs were encouraged to harvest and distribute excess seeds to relatives and neighbours. The study generated huge demand from HHs within the intervention and neighbouring villages. It concludes that a well designed perennial KG along with imparting adequate knowledge can be a sustainable practice to increase diet diversity and GLV intake which would help address micronutrient deficiencies in the community.
Global journal of health science 07/2015; 8(4). DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v8n4p10
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrheal diseases are the second highest cause of mortality of children under 5 years worldwide. There is a continuous search for developing a cost-effective treatment for diarrhea as the present ones are facing challenges. Medicinal plants can be explored further as an alternative treatment for diarrhea. Psidium guajava leaves have been used as an antidiarrheal globally. Citrobacter rodentium, a common mouse pathogen, is known to mimic the pathogenecity of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. It can thus present an effective model to study infectious diarrhea. In the present study, the P. guajava leaf extract was tested for its efficacy in treating infectious diarrhea using a C. rodentium mouse model. The mice in the test group (treated with P. guajava leaf extract) showed quicker clearance of infection as compared with the control group. The bacterial load in the fecal sample of the mice in the test group was high on Day 4 as compared with that in the control group, suggesting a flush out of the bacteria. In the test group, 6/7 (85.71%) mice showed clearance of infection by Day 19. The control group continued to show infection till Day 29. P. guajava leaf extract thus has the potential for use in the treatment of infectious diarrhea.
Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine 04/2015; 6(1):50-2. DOI:10.4103/0975-9476.146557
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the extracts of Andrographis paniculata has been studied using intracellular and axenic hypoxic conditions. The inhibition (confirmed using the gold standard colony forming unit assay) was found to increase with "double stimuli" or higher concentration of the extract. Organic solvent extracts were found to inhibit bacterial growth more than the aqueous extracts under microaerophilic conditions mimicked through axenic and intracellular assays. This could be further explored to evaluate the potential of the plant to be used against nonreplicating/dormant bacilli.
Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2014; 20(1). DOI:10.1177/2156587214553303
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [ 3 H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2014; 76(3):229-235. · 0.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melghat, situated in Amravati District of Maharashtra, India is a tribal region with amongst the highest numbers of malnutrition cases. This paper focuses on possible causes of malnutrition in the Dharni block of Melghat. Quantitative survey recorded the existing burden of malnutrition, kitchen garden (KG) practices, Public Distribution System, food provisioning, Anganwadi services and hygiene/sanitation in the community. Additionally a qualitative study was undertaken to understand the community's perspective on nutrition, cultural beliefs, spending habits and other factors contributing to malnutrition. Malnutrition was found to be highly prevalent amongst all age groups with 54% children aged 1-5 years and 43% adults aged ≥ 20 years being severe to moderately underweight. A major cause for malnutrition in children was faulty child care practices. Data on food provisioning revealed that while the caloric needs of the community were substantially met by consumption of cereals and pulses, minimal consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) could lead to micronutrient deficiency in the community. KGs, which provide GLVs, were mainly cultivated in monsoon (98%) which declined to merely 4% in summer. The benefits of government schemes though targeted at malnourished children were often shared by the entire household and thus got diluted. Key finding was that nutrition interventions should be designed to address the entire household and emphasis should be given to appropriate nutrition education, without which distributing food or increasing income would have minimal effect.
Global journal of health science 04/2014; 6(5):35888. DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v6n5p164
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In tuberculosis (TB), the steadily increasing bacterial resistance to existing drugs and latent TB continue to be major concerns. A combination of conventional drugs and plant derived therapeutics can serve to expand the antimicrobial spectrum, prevent the emergence of drug resistant mutants and minimize toxicity. Alpinia galanga, used in various traditional medicines, possesses broad spectrum antibacterial properties. The study was undertaken to assess the antimycobacterial potential of A. galanga in axenic (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) and intracellular assays.
Phytochemical analysis was done using HPTLC. The acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mug/ml) of A. galanga were tested axenically using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) H37Rv and three drug sensitive and three multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The activity of the extracts was also evaluated intracellularly in A549 cell line against these strains. The extracts active under intracellular conditions were further tested in an axenic setup under reducing oxygen concentrations using only H37Rv.
1 acetoxychavicol acetate, the reference standard used, was present in all the three extracts. The acetone and ethanolic extracts were active in axenic (aerobic and anaerobic) and intracellular assays. The aqueous extract did not demonstrate activity under the defined assay parameters.
A. galanga exhibits anti M.tb activity with multiple modes of action. Since the activity of the extracts was observed under reducing oxygen concentrations, it may be effective in treating the dormant and non-replicating bacteria of latent TB. Though the hypothesis needs further testing, A. galanga being a regular dietary component may be utilized in combination with the conventional TB therapy for enhanced efficacy.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2014; 14(1):84. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-84 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: India is among the important megabiodiversity centers of the world with nearly 45,000 known plant species. This diversity coupled with a rich heritage of traditional knowledge has made India a home to several important time-honored systems of health care such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. Herbal medicines, however, are associated with a number of shortcomings including uniform efficacy and lack of appropriate quality control measures at various stages of product development. The review intends to outline the importance of fostering quality parameters towards standardization and manufacturing of botanicals for India to emerge as a leader in global market of herbal products. Literature survey was carried out on important parameters for processing and manufacturing of botanicals. The review highlights that there have been constant efforts for developing state of the art technologies in the field of herbal research. It also reflects that Government authorities have also taken a number of initiatives to formulate appropriate guidelines from standardization of raw materials to obtaining botanical products. However, in the Indian context, there exist certain lacunae in the current regulatory mechanisms which need to be strengthened and stringently implemented to ensure safety, purity and efficacy of herbal medicines. Towards this the approaches being developed globally can be adopted. Based on the literature reviewed, in our opinion, four areas viz., benefit sharing, investment by industry, standardization and national/international networking structure need immediate attention for strengthening Traditional Systems of Medicine in India.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology 03/2014; 46(4):363-371. DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.135946 · 0.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Identification of anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents of plant origin, against
sensitive and multidrug resistant (MDR) strains.
Study Design: Assessing anti-M. tuberculosis activity of five Indian medicinal plants,
which have been reported in traditional literature for various uses including respiratory
Place and Duration of Study: Mumbai, India; May 2009 – December 2011.
Methodology of Study: The reference strain (H37Rv), three susceptible and three MDR
clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were used. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts
(prepared sequentially) of Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Andrographis paniculata Nees.
(leaf), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed) and Pueraria tuberosa DC.
(tuber) were tested at 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The
active extracts were assessed for cytotoxicity on the human lung epithelial cell line (A549)
using the neutral red assay and a phytochemical analysis was made using High
Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC).
Results: Among the plants tested, the acetone extract of P. nigrum appears promising. It
was effective against H37Rv, all susceptible isolates and one MDR isolate at 100 μg/ml.
The ethanol extract caused some inhibition of growth, though less than the cut-off of 99%.
A combination of acetone and ethanol extracts at 50 μg/ml each was effective against all
isolates tested. The known active phytoconstituent of P. nigrum, piperine (also an efflux
pump inhibitor), was effective against H37Rv in the presence of suboptimal concentration
of Rifampicin, but not against the clinical isolates tested. Presence of piperine in the
acetone and ethanol extracts was confirmed by HPTLC. Extracts of P. nigrum and
piperine were not cytotoxic to the A549 cell line.
Conclusion: Amongst the five plants tested, P. nigrum was active. The acetone extract
may have active components in addition to piperine. It is possible that the class and
expression of efflux pumps in H37Rv is different from that in the clinical isolates, and
hence piperine did not inhibit these isolates. Thus, it is necessary to screen clinical
isolates in addition to reference strains. The observation of the increased efficacy of the
combination of acetone and ethanol extracts is interesting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology 05/2011; 43(3):340-4. DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81502 · 0.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrhea is a major health concern in developing countries with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) being a leading cause of infantile diarrhea. Much of the pathology of EPEC infection is due to the inflammatory responses of infected intestinal epithelium through secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-8. With medicinal plants gaining popularity as prospective antidiarrheal agents, we aimed to evaluate the effect of anti-diarrheal medicinal plants on secretion of IL-8 by epithelial cells in response to EPEC infection. The effect of the decoctions of four anti-diarrheal medicinal plants viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale was studied on secretion of IL-8 by a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, HT-29 infected with E. coli E2348/69. Two protocols were used viz. pre-incubation and post-incubation. The data obtained demonstrated that out of the four plants used, only P. guajava decreased secretion of IL-8 in the post-incubation protocol although in the pre-incubation protocol an increase was observed. A similar increase was seen with C. rotundus in the preincubation protocol. No effect on IL-8 secretion was observed with A. marmelos and Z. officinale in both protocols and with C. rotundus in the post-incubation protocol. The post-incubation protocol, in terms of clinical relevance, indicates the effect of the plant decoctions when used as treatment. Hence P. guajava may be effective in controlling the acute inflammatory response of the intestinal epithelial cells in response to EPEC infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. However, the effect of the leaf extract of P. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. The present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried leaves of P. guajava on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The aim was to understand its possible mechanism(s) of action in controlling infectious diarrhoea and compare it with quercetin, one of the most reported active constituents of P. guajava with antidiarrhoeal activity.
The crude decoction and quercetin were studied for their antibacterial activity and effect on virulence features of common diarrhoeal pathogens viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production and action of enterotoxins. Colonization as measured by adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri was assessed using HEp-2 cell line. The production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid (GM1) were studied by GM1-ELISA whereas the production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay.
The decoction of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It decreased production of both LT and CT and their binding to GM1. However, it had no effect on production and action of ST. The decoction also inhibited the adherence of EPEC and invasion by both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Quercetin, on the other hand, had no antibacterial activity at the concentrations used nor did it affect any of the enterotoxins. Although it did not affect adherence of EPEC, it inhibited the invasion of both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells.
Collectively, the results indicate that the decoction of P. guajava leaves is an effective antidiarrhoeal agent and that the entire spectrum of its antidiarrhoeal activity is not due to quercetin alone.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2010; 10(1):33. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-10-33 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zingiber officinale (ginger) was studied for its antimicrobial profile and effect on virulent features of diarrhoeal pathogens, viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production of enterotoxins. Z. officinale showed no antimicrobial activity. Although it inhibited the production of cholera toxin, it had no effect on the action of this toxin. It also had no effect on the production and action of E. coli heat labile and heat stable toxins. However the bacterial colonization of HEp-2 cells was reduced. The results indicate that in the absence of antimicrobial action, Z. officinale exhibits its antidiarrhoeal activity by affecting bacterial and host cell metabolism. The present study reports a novel mechanism of action by Z. officinale in infectious diarrhoea.
Current science 01/2010; 98(Suppl 2):222-229. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea.
The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1) were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay.
The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST.
The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2009; 9(Suppl 47):47. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-9-47 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maharashtra is the third largest state in India with a large tribal population. Documentation of traditional knowledge through ethnobotanical studies is important for conservation and utilization of indigenous knowledge. Diarrhoeal diseases are the second largest cause of morbidity in rural India. Medicinal plants given by the traditional healers of Parinche in Pune district, Maharashtra are known to be efficacious for many common ailments, including diarrhoeal diseases.
Ethnobotanical survey of antidiarrhoeal plants from Parinche valley towards the documentation and conservation of traditional knowledge.
Interviews and inquiries were conducted amongst traditional healers, indigenous communities and village elders.
One hundred and eighty two plants used by tribes and natives for different ailments were documented of which 28 flowering plants were for diarrhoea. Leaf was the most preferred plant part. Amongst the 28 plants, antidiarrhoeal activity of five plants viz., Caesalpinia sepiaria, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Launaea pinnatifida, Syzygium rubicundum and Ziziphus jujuba has not been reported previously. Two species viz., Ziziphus xylopyra and Syzygium rubicundum are endemic to India.
Parinche valley is an ethnobotanically rich area with abundant availability and knowledge of medicinal plants that can serve as a model for low cost health care.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2009; 123(2):229-36. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.013 · 3.00 Impact Factor