[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
The purpose of the current study was to examine objective and subjective differences between three severity groups of ankle fractures patients compared to healthy controls.
This was a case-controlled study. 92 patients with an ankle fracture injury of which 41 patients were eligible to participate in the study. 72 healthy people served as controls. All patients underwent a computerized gait test, completed self-assessment questionnaires (The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the SF-36), evaluated with the American Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) form and completed the 6-min walk test. The control group performed a computerized gait test and completed the SF-36 health survey.
All ankle fracture patients presented compromised gait patterns and limb symmetry compared to controls (p < 0.05). Ankle fracture patients also had lower SF-36 scores compared to controls (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found between the unimalleolar group compared to the bimalleolar and trimalleolar groups in most parameters, except for the FAOS scores. There were no significant differences between the bimalleolar fracture group and the trimalleolar fracture groups.
Although all fracture severity classification groups presented a compromised gait pattern and worse clinical symptoms compared to controls, it seems that patients with a unimalleolar fracture is a different group compared to bimalleolar and trimalleolar fracture. Furthermore, it seems that bimalleolar fracture and trimalleolar fracture affect the gait pattern and clinical symptoms to an equal extent, at least in the short-term.
J Foot Ankle Res. 11/2014; Nov 28;7(1):50. eCollection 2014..
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To investigate the effect of a biomechanical therapy on gait, function and clinical condition in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Seventeen TKA patients participated in the study. Patients received a biomechanical therapy AposTherapy). Patients underwent a gait test, clinical examination and an assessment of pain, function and quality of life (QOL). Patients were examined again at one, three and six month follow-ups.
A significant improvement over time was found in most gait measurements. Significant improvements were also found in pain, function and QOL.
The examined biomechanical therapy may help in the rehabilitation process following TKA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe a novel classification method for knee osteoarthritis (OA) based on spatiotemporal gait analysis METHODS: Gait analysis was initially performed on 2911 knee OA patients. Females and males were analyzed separately because of the influence of body height on spatiotemporal parameters. The analysis included the three stages of clustering, classification and clinical validation. Clustering of gait analysis to four groups was applied using the kmeans method. Two-thirds of the patients were used to create a simplified classification tree algorithm, and the model's accuracy was validated by the remaining one-third. Clinical validation of the classification method was done by the short form 36 Health Survey and WOMAC questionnaires.
The clustering algorithm divided the data into four groups according to severity of gait difficulties. The classification tree algorithm used stride length and cadence as predicting variables for classification. The correct classification accuracy was 89.5%, and 90.8% for females and males, respectively. Clinical data and number of total joint replacements correlated well with severity group assignment. For example, the percentages of total knee replacement within one year after gait analysis for females were 1.4%, 2.8%, 4.1% and 8.2% for knee OA gait grades 1-4, respectively. Radiographic grading by Kellgren and Lawrence was found to be associated with the gait analysis grading system.
Spatiotemporal gait analysis objectively classifies patients with knee OA according to disease severity. That method correlates with radiographic evaluation, the level of pain, function, number of total knee replacements.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2014; · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown the effect of a unique therapy with a non-invasive biomechanical foot-worn device (AposTherapy) on Caucasian western population suffering from knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of this therapy on the level of symptoms and gait patterns in a multi-ethnic Singaporean population suffering from knee osteoarthritis.
Fifty-eight patients with bilateral medial compartment knee osteoarthritis participated in the study. All patients underwent a computerized gait test and completed two self-assessment questionnaires (WOMAC and SF-36). The biomechanical device was calibrated to each patient, and therapy commenced. Changes in gait patterns and self-assessment questionnaires were reassessed after 3 and 6 months of therapy.
A significant improvement was seen in all of the gait parameters following 6 months of therapy. Specifically, gait velocity increased by 15.9%, step length increased by 10.3%, stance phase decreased by 5.9% and single limb support phase increased by 2.7%. In addition, pain, stiffness and functional limitation significantly decreased by 68.3%, 66.7% and 75.6%, respectively. SF-36 physical score and mental score also increased significantly following 6 months of therapy (46.1% and 22.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05 for all parameters).
Singaporean population with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis demonstrated improved gait patterns, reported alleviation in symptoms and improved function and quality of life following 6 months of therapy with a unique biomechanical device.Trial registration: Registration number NCT01562652.
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 01/2014; 9(1):1. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in gait profile between patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy control and to create motion characteristics that will differentiate between them. METHODS: Twenty three patients diagnosed with knee OA and 21 healthy matched controls underwent a gait test using a sensor system (gaitWALK). Gait parameters evaluated were: stride duration, knee flexion range of motion (ROM) in swing and stance. T-Test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Patients with knee OA had significant lower knee flexion ROM (10.3[degree sign] +/- 4.0[degree sign]) during stance than matched controls (18.0[degree sign] +/- 4.0[degree sign]) (p < 0.001). Patients with knee OA had significant lower knee flexion ROM (54.8[degree sign] +/- 5.5[degree sign]) during swing than matched controls (61.2[degree sign] +/- 6.1) (p = 0.003). Patients with knee OA also had longer stride duration (1.12 s +/- 0.09 s) than matched controls (1.06 s +/- 0.11 s), but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.073). Motion characteristics differentiate between a patient with knee OA and a healthy one with a sensitivity of 0.952 and a specificity of 0.783. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were found in the gait profile of patients with knee OA compared to matched control and motion characteristics were identified. This test might help clinicians identify and evaluate a knee problem in a simple gait test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of a foot-worn biomechanical device on the clinical measurements and gait patterns of patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Nineteen patients, up to 3 months post-THA, were enrolled to the study. Patients underwent a computerized gait analysis to calculate spatiotemporal parameters and completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index and the SF-36 health survey. Patients then began therapy with a non-invasive foot-worn biomechanical device coupled with a treatment methodology (AposTherapy). Patients received exercise guidelines and used the device daily during their regular activities at their own environment. Follow-up examinations were conducted after 4, 12, and 26 weeks of therapy. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate changes over time. The clinical significance of the treatment effect was evaluated by computing the Cohen's effect sizes (ES statistic). RESULTS: After 26 weeks of therapy, a significant improvement was seen in gait velocity (50.3%), involved step length (22.9%), and involved single limb support (16.5%). Additionally, a significant reduction in pain (85.4%) and improvement in function (81.1%) and quality of life (52.1%) were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Patients following THA demonstrated a significant improvement in gait parameters and in self-assessment evaluations of pain, function, and quality of life. We recommend further RCTs to examine the effect of this therapy compared to other rehabilitation modalities following THA and compared to healthy matched controls.Trial registration: Clinical trial registration number NCT01266382 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01266382).
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 05/2013; 8(1):13. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study was devised to examine the effect of a novel biomechanical therapy for patients suffering from anterior knee pain (AKP). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 48 patients suffering from AKP was performed. Patients underwent a gait evaluation, using an electronic walkway mat, and completed the SF-36 health survey and the WOMAC questionnaire at baseline and after 3 and 6months of therapy. A special biomechanical device was individually calibrated for each patient. AposTherapy is a functional, non-invasive rehabilitation therapy consisting of a biomechanical foot-worn device that is used during activities of daily living. Repeated measures analyses were performed to compare gait parameters and self-evaluation questionnaires between baseline, 3months and 6months. RESULTS: Walking velocity significantly increased by 5.7cm/s, cadence increased by 1.6 steps/minute, and stride length increased by 3.4cm in relation to pretreatment testing (p<0.001 for all). End-point evaluation revealed additional improvement of these parameters; however these did not significantly differ from that of mid-treatment. Pain decreased by 36.6% and 49.2% following 13 and 26 weeks of treatment, respectively (P<0.01) and function improved by 25.2% and 41.7% following 13 and 26 weeks of treatment, respectively (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The males show significantly greater coronal dimensions of the trochlea than women which are likely to contribute to the higher prevalence of prosthetic overhang in women with some standard implants. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Based on the current study's results it may be concluded that this therapy might have a positive effect for patients with AKP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of a new foot-worn device on the gait, physical function and pain in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis (OA) who had a low-impact injury to the medial meniscus causing a degenerative meniscal tear. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 34 patients with knee OA and a degenerative medial meniscal tear was performed. Patients underwent a gait evaluation, using an electronic walkway mat, and completed the SF-36 health survey and the WOMAC questionnaire at baseline and after 3 and 12 months of therapy. AposTherapy is a functional, biomechanical, non-invasive rehabilitation therapy consisting of a foot-worn device that is individually calibrated to each patient and is used during activities of daily living. Repeated-measures analyses were performed to compare gait parameters and self-evaluation questionnaires between baseline, and 3 and 12 months. RESULTS: Significant improvements were found in gait velocity, step length and single-limb support of the involved knee following 12 weeks of therapy (all p < 0.01), alongside an improvement in limb symmetry. These results were maintained at the 12-month follow-up examination. Significant improvements were also found in all three domains of the WOMAC index (pain, stiffness and physical function) and in the SF-36 Physical Health Scale and the SF-36 Mental Health Scale (all p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with knee OA and a degenerative medial meniscal tear using a biomechanical foot-worn device for a year showed improvement in gait, physical function and pain. Based on the findings of this study, it can be postulated that this biomechanical device might have a positive effect on this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, Level IV.
Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 05/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Gait metric alterations have been previously reported in patients suffering from anterior knee pain (AKP). Characterization of simple and measureable gait parameters in these patients may be valuable for assessing disease severity as well as for follow-up. Previous gait studies in this population have been comprised of relatively small cohorts and the findings of these studies are not uniform. The objective of the present study was to examine spatio-temporal gait parameters in patients with AKP in comparison to symptom-free controls. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported disease severity and the magnitude of gait abnormalities. METHODS: 157 patients with AKP were identified and compared to 31 healthy controls. Patients were evaluated with a spatiotemporal gait analysis via a computerized mat, the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire and the Short Form (SF)-36 health surveys. RESULTS: AKP patients walked with significantly lower velocity (15.9%) and cadence (5.9%), shorter step length (9.5%), stride length (9.6%), and showed significant differences in all gait cycle phases (P<0.05 for all). Study group reported higher levels of pain (96%), functional limitation (94%), and poorer perception of mental quality of life (30%) (P<0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: Significant differences were found between the spatiotemporal gait profile of AKP patients and symptom-free matched controls. In addition, an association was found between subjective disease severity and gait abnormalities. These findings suggest the usefulness of gait parameters, alongside with the use of self-evaluation questionnaires, in identifying deviations of these patients from healthy population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that a customized biomechanical therapy can improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. These studies were small and did not compare the improvements across gender, age, BMI or initial severity of knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of new biomechanical therapy on the pain, function and quality of life of patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.
Six hundred and fifty-four patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis were examined before and after 12 weeks of a personalized biomechanical therapy (AposTherapy). Patients were evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index and SF-36 Health Survey.
After 12 weeks of treatment, the WOMAC-pain and WOMAC-function subscales were significantly lower compared to baseline (both P≤0.001). All eight categories of the SF-36 health survey significantly improved after treatment (all P≤0.001). Females and younger patients showed greater improvements with therapy.
Twelve weeks of a customized biomechanical therapy (AposTherapy) improved symptoms of patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. We recommend that this therapy will be integrated in the management of knee osteoarthritis.
Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine 03/2012; 55(4):213-28.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with osteoarthritis of the knee have unique spatiotemporal gait alterations. These gait changes have not yet been differentiated according to the location of knee pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the gait patterns of patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis that exhibit either anterior or medial joint pain.
240 Patients with knee osteoarthritis were evaluated at one therapy center. Patients were divided into two groups according to the location of greatest pain in their worse knee. Patients underwent a computerized spatiotemporal gait analysis. Differences in gait patterns between the two knee pain locations were also examined within each gender.
Compared with patients with pain in the anterior knee compartment, those with pain in the medial knee compartment exhibited a significantly slower walking speed (P<0.01), shorter step length (P<0.01), lower single-limb-support phase (P<0.01). These differences are witnessed mainly between the females in each group, whereas males differed only in single-limb-support.
The results of this study suggested underlying gait differences in the nature of medial and anterior knee pain. Furthermore, gender differences in gait may exist between patients with medial knee pain compared to patients with anterior knee pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on reducing the levels of pain and disability. Recently, a novel biomechanical device and treatment methodology (AposTherapy) was shown to reduce the knee adduction moment while simultaneously challenging the neuromuscular control system through perturbation.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the changes in gait patterns and clinical measurements following treatment with a novel biomechanical device on patients with knee OA.
A total of 745 patients with bilateral knee OA were analyzed. Patients completed a gait test, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire and SF-36 Health Survey at baseline and after 12 weeks. The biomechanical device was individually calibrated to each patient. Shifting the center of pressure, through changes in the location of the biomechanical elements causes realignment and reduction in the knee adduction moment. Furthermore the configuration of the biomechanical element allows training under controlled perturbation.
A significant decrease was found in WOMAC pain (28.6%) and WOMAC function (25.2%) following three months of therapy (p<0.001). A significant increase was found in the patients' physical quality of life (17.8%) and mental quality of life (11.0%) (p<0.001). Gait velocity, cadence step length, stance phase and single limb support phase improved significantly following three months of therapy (7.6%, 4%, 3.7% and 1.6%, respectively).
Our results suggest an overall improvement in the gait patterns, level of pain, function and quality of life of patients with knee OA following three months of AposTherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the associations of sex, body mass index (BMI), and age with knee osteoarthritis (OA) symptomatic severity.
A cross-sectional retrospective analysis.
Patients completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Data were acquired from a stored database of a private therapy center.
Patients (N=1487) with symptomatic knee OA were evaluated.
WOMAC questionnaire and SF-36.
BMI correlated significantly with worse knee OA symptoms for all WOMAC and SF-36 subcategories (all P ≤.001). Age correlated significantly with worse symptoms only for WOMAC function and SF-36 physical functioning (P=.001 and P=.009, respectively). A significant difference across BMI quintiles was found for all WOMAC and SF-36 subcategories (all P ≤.01). Women showed worse knee OA symptoms in all WOMAC and SF-36 subcategories (all P ≤.001). There was a significant interaction of sex by BMI in WOMAC pain and WOMAC function (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively).
Based on the results of this analysis, it can be concluded that women and patients with a higher BMI with knee OA are at a greater risk for worse symptoms.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 08/2011; 92(10):1618-23. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between single limb support (SLS) phase (% of gait cycle) and the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 Health Survey) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).
A prospective observational study was employed with 125 adults with bilateral medial compartment symptomatic knee OA who underwent a physical and radiographic evaluation. Velocity, step length and SLS were assessed by a computerised mat (GAITRite). Patients completed the WOMAC and SF-36 Health Survey questionnaires.
Statistical analysis examined the correlations between SLS and both questionnaires, between Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) scores and both questionnaires and between SLS correlations and K&L correlations. We found significantly stronger correlations between SLS and WOMAC-pain, WOMAC-function, the SF-36 pain sub-category, velocity and step length than between K&L scores and these parameters (Pearson's r = 0.50 vs. 0.26, 0.53 vs. 0.34, 0.50 vs. 023, 0.81 vs. 0.33, 0.77 vs. 0.37, respectively; all p < 0.05). Significant differences in SLS were found over WOMAC-pain, WOMAC-function and SF-36 overall score quartiles (p < 0.05 for all).
We recommend integrating SLS as an objective parameter in the comprehensive evaluation of patients with knee OA.
Disability and Rehabilitation 01/2011; 33(13-14):1103-9. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a lack in objective measurements that can assess the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In a previous study it was shown that pain and function are in higher correlation with the single-limb support gait parameter than with radiographic KOA stage. Single limb support represents a phase in the gait cycle when the body weight is entirely supported by one limb, while the contra-lateral limb swings forward. The purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between single-limb support and the level of pain and function in patients with KOA. 125 adults with bilateral KOA underwent a physical and radiographic evaluation, and completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the SF-36 health survey. Patients walked barefoot at a self-selected speed on a computerized mat. Statistical analysis was used to divide the patients into quintiles based on single-limb support phase value and determine the differences in WOMAC and SF-36 scores between quintiles. Significant differences were found in WOMAC and SF-36 sub-category scores between the single-limb support quintiles. The means of the WOMAC-pain and WOMAC-function sub-categories decreased gradually over single-limb support quintiles (P<0.001), and the means of the SF-36 sub-categories increased gradually over the quintiles (P<0.001). Results show that single-limb support quintiles can help determine the level of pain, function and quality of life in patients with KOA. These results suggest that single-limb support quintiles may be added as an additional scale for generally assessing the symptomatic stage of KOA.
The Knee 01/2011; 19(1):32-5. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to investigate the changes in gait patterns and clinical measurements following treatment with a novel biomechanical device on patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Forty six patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis were analyzed. Patients completed a gait test, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire and SF-36 Health Survey at baseline and after 12 weeks. The biomechanical device was individually calibrated to each patient at baseline to allow training under reduced pain.
Gait velocity, step length and single limb support improved significantly and toe out angle decreased significantly (10%, 6%, 1% and 2%, respectively). WOMAC-Pain and WOMAC-Function significantly decreased (26% and 34%, respectively), and SF-36 score significantly increased following the 12 weeks of treatment.
Our results suggest an overall improvement in the gait patterns, level of pain and level of function of patients with knee osteoarthritis following 12 weeks of treatment with the novel biomechanical device.