[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neutral type 2 sphingomyelinase (nSMase2) hydrolyzes sphingomyelin and generates ceramide, a major bioactive sphingolipid mediator, involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. The role of nSMase2 in apoptosis is debated, and apparently contradictory results have been observed on fibroblasts isolated from nSMase2-deficient fragilitas ossium (homozygous fro/fro) mice. These mice exhibit a severe neonatal dysplasia, a lack of long bone mineralization and delayed apoptosis patterns of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate. We hypothesized that apoptosis induced by nutrient deprivation, which mimics the environmental modifications of the growth plate, requires nSMase2 activation. In this study, we have compared the resistance of fro/fro fibroblasts to different death inducers (oxidized LDL, hydrogen peroxide and nutrient starvation). The data show that nSMase2-deficient fro/fro cells resist to apoptosis evoked by nutrient starvation (fetal calf serum/glucose/pyruvate-free DMEM), whereas wt fibroblasts die after 48 h incubation in this medium. In contrast, oxidized LDL and hydrogen peroxide are similarly toxic to fro/fro and wt fibroblasts, indicating that nSMase2 is not involved in the mechanism of toxicity evoked by these agents. Interestingly, wt fibroblasts treated with the SMase inhibitor GW4869 were more resistant to starvation-induced apoptosis. The resistance of fro/fro cells to starvation-induced apoptosis is associated with an increased expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNAs and protein, which is inhibited by ceramide. In wt fibroblasts, this HAS2 rise and its protective effect did not occur, but exogenously added HA exhibited a protective effect against starvation-induced apoptosis. The protective mechanism of HAS2 involves an increased expression of the heat-shock protein Hsp72, a chaperone with antiapoptotic activity. Taken together, these results highlight the role of nSMase2 in apoptosis evoked by nutrient starvation that could contribute to the delayed apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate, and emphasize the antiapoptotic properties of HAS2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purposeNeovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial because both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects were reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in this proces is not known. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether S1P is implicated in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody could prevent this effect.Experimental approachAngiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice.Key resultsHuman oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1, low concentration being angiogenic, higher concentration being cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signaling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentration of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by intraperitoneal injection of the anti-S1P antibody.Conclusion and ImplicationsThese data emphasize the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and the efficacy of the anti-S1P antibody in blocking the angiogenic effect of oxLDL.
British Journal of Pharmacology 09/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elastin is a long-life protein and a key-component of connective tissues. The tissular elastin content decreases during chronological aging, and the mechanisms underlying its slow repair are not known. Lipid oxidation products that accumulate in aged tissues may generate protein dysfunction. We hypothesized that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a highly reactive α,β-aldehydic product generated from polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation, could contribute to inhibit elastin repair by antagonizing the elastogenic signalling of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in skin fibroblasts. We report that low 4-HNE concentration (2µmol/L), inhibits the upregulation of tropoelastin expression stimulated by TGF-β1, in human and murine fibroblasts. The study of signaling pathways potentially involved in the regulation of elastin expression, showed that 4-HNE did not block the phosphorylation of Smad3, an early step of TGF-β1 signaling, but inhibited the nuclear translocation of Smad2. Concomitantly, 4-HNE modified and stimulated the phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFR) and subsequently ERK1/2 activation, leading to the phosphorylation/stabilization of the Smad transcriptional corepressor TGIF, which antagonizes TGF-β1 signaling. Inhibitors of EGFR (AG1478), Mek/ERK (PD98059), EGFR-specific siRNAs, reversed the inhibitory effect of 4-HNE on TGF-β1-induced nuclear translocation of Smad2 and tropoelastin synthesis. In vivo studies on aortas from aged C57BL/6 mice, showed that EGFR is modified by 4-HNE, in correlation with an increased 4-HNE-adduct accumulation and decreased elastin content. Altogether, these data suggest that 4-HNE inhibits the elastogenic activity of TGF-β1, by modifying and activating the EGFR/ERK/TGIF pathway, which may contribute to alter elastin repair in chronological aging and oxidative stress-associated aging processes.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 02/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an abundant endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone and oxidoreductase that catalyzes formation and rearrangement (isomerization) of disulfide bonds, thereby participating in protein folding. PDI modification by nitrosative stress is known to increase protein misfolding, ER stress and neuronal apoptosis. As LDL oxidation and ER stress may play a role in atherogenesis, this work was designed to investigate whether PDI was inactivated by oxLDLs, thereby participating in oxLDL-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Results: Preincubation of human endothelial HMEC-1 and of macrophagic U937 cells with toxic concentration of oxLDLs induced PDI inhibition and modification, as assessed by 4-HNE-PDI adducts formation. PDI inhibition by bacitracin potentiated ER stress (increased mRNA expression of CHOP and sXBP1) and apoptosis induced by oxLDLs. In contrast, increased PDI activity by overexpression of an active wild-type PDI was associated with reduced oxLDL-induced ER stress and toxicity, whereas the overexpression of a mutant inactive form was not protective. These effects on PDI were mimicked by exogenous 4-HNE and prevented by the carbonyl-scavengers N-acetylcysteine and pyridoxamine, which reduced CHOP expression and toxicity by oxLDLs. Interestingly, 4-HNE-modified PDI was detected in the lipid-rich areas of human advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Innovation and conclusions: PDI modification by oxLDLs or by reactive carbonyls inhibits its enzymatic activity and potentiates both ER stress and apoptosis by oxLDLs. PDI modification by lipid peroxidation products in atherosclerotic lesions suggests that a loss of function of PDI may occur in vivo, and may contribute to local ER stress, apoptosis and plaque progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) is frequently observed in race horses like trotters. Some predisposing genetic factors have been described in epidemiological studies. However, the exact aetiology is still unknown. A calcium homeostasis disruption was suspected in previous experimental studies, and we suggested that a transcriptome analysis of RER muscles would be a possible way to investigate the pathway disorder. The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of RER vs. control muscles in the French Trotter to determine any metabolic or structural disruption. Total RNA was extracted from the gluteal medius and longissimus lumborum muscles after biopsies in 15 French Trotter horses, including 10 controls and 5 RER horses affected by 'tying-up' with high plasmatic muscular enzyme activities. Gene expression analysis was performed on the muscle biopsies using a 25K oligonucleotide microarray, which consisted of 24,009 mouse and 384 horse probes. Transcriptome analysis revealed 191 genes significantly modulated in RER vs. control muscles (P < 0.05). Many genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (CD36/FAT, SLC25A17), the Krebs cycle (SLC25A11, SLC25A12, MDH2) and the mitochondrial respiratory chain were severely down-regulated (tRNA, MT-ND5, MT-ND6, MT-COX1). According to the down-regulation of RYR1, SLC8A1 and UCP2 and up-regulation of APP and HSPA5, the muscle fibre calcium homeostasis seemed to be greatly affected by an increased cytosolic calcium and a depletion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium. Gene expression analysis suggested an alteration of ATP synthesis, with severe mitochondrial dysfunction that could explain the disruption of cytosolic calcium homeostasis and inhibition of muscular relaxation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-HT) participates in the development of cardiac hypertrophy through 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors. The hypertrophic growth of cardiomyoblasts induced by 5-HT(2A) receptors involves the activation of the Ca(2+) responsive calcineurin/NFAT pathway. However, the mechanism whereby NFAT is activated by 5-HT(2A) receptors remains indeterminate. In this study, we examined whether transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels participate in NFAT activation and hypertrophic response triggered by 5-HT. We demonstrate that TRPC1 expression is upregulated in 5-HT-treated rat cardiomyoblasts whereas TRPC6 is induced in a mouse model of heart hypertrophy. Moreover, TRPC1 knockdown by small interfering RNA inhibits NFAT activation and hypertrophic response mediated by 5-HT(2A) receptors. These findings provide new insights about a mechanistic basis for the activation of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway by 5-HT(2A) receptors and highlight the critical role of TRPC1 in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2009; 391(1):979-83. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activators are implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as inflammatory diseases and cancer. Beside their serine-protease activity, these agents trigger signaling pathways involved in cell migration, adhesion and proliferation. We previously reported a role for the sphingolipid pathway in the mitogenic effect of plasminogen activators, but the signaling mechanisms involved in neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (NSMase-2) activation (the first step of the sphingolipid pathway) are poorly known. This study was carried out to investigate how urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) activates NSMase-2. We report that uPA, as well as its catalytically inactive N-amino fragment ATF, triggers the sequential activation of MMP-2, NSMase-2 and ERK1/2 in ECV304 cells that are required for uPA-induced ECV304 proliferation, as assessed by the inhibitory effect of Marimastat (a MMP inhibitor), MMP-2-specific siRNA, MMP-2 defect, and NSMase-specific siRNA. Moreover, upon uPA stimulation, uPAR, MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and NSMase-2 interacted with integrin alpha(v)beta(3), evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry experiments. Moreover, the alpha(v)beta(3) blocking antibody inhibited the uPA-triggered MMPs/uPAR/integrin alpha(v)beta(3) interaction, NSMase-2 activation, Ki67 expression and DNA synthesis in ECV304. In conclusion, uPA triggers interaction between integrin alpha(v)beta(3), uPAR and MMPs that leads to NSMase-2 and ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation. These findings highlight a new signaling mechanism for uPA, and suggest that, upon uPA stimulation, uPAR, MMPs, integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and NSMase-2 form a signaling complex that take part in mitogenic signaling in ECV304 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype.
Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA) and 5 heterozygous (GA) PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses.Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p < 0.05). The following genes were up-regulated over 2 fold: IL18, CTSS, LUM, CD44, FN1, GST01. The most down-regulated genes were the following: mitochondrial tRNA, SLC2A2, PRKCalpha, VEGFalpha. Data mining analysis showed that protein synthesis, apoptosis, cellular movement, growth and proliferation were the main cellular functions significantly associated with the modulated genes (p < 0.05). Several up-regulated genes, especially IL18, revealed a severe muscular inflammation in PSSM muscles. The up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3beta) under its active form could be responsible for glycogen synthase (GYS1) inhibition and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1alpha) destabilization.
The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles.
BMC Veterinary Research 08/2009; 5:29. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progress could be achieved by using microarrays to understand metabolic adaptations and disorders in equine muscle in response to exercise.
To test the feasibility of using mouse cDNA microarrays to analyse gene expression profile in normal equine muscles.
Muscular biopsies of dorsal gluteus medius and longissimus lumborum were done in 4 healthy Standardbreds. Total RNA was extracted from the muscle samples. The concentration and quality of RNA were measured before and after amplification. Gene expression profiles were measured using mouse cDNA microarrays including 15,264 unique genes representing about 11,000 documented genes. Three hybridisation tests were performed to check interspecificity, reproducibility and to compare gene expression in these muscles. For each test, a dye-swap hybridisation with Cy3 and Cy5 fluoromarkers were done and the gene list filtered according the signal level.
According to the specificity test, the mouse cDNA microarrays were correctly hybridised by equine muscle cDNA. All positive control genes (GAPDH, HPRT and beta-Actin) and no negative control gene (yeast, plant) hybridised. The reproducibility test demonstrated a good linearity between the duplicate hybridisations: 99.99% of the significant expressed genes have an expression ratio between 1.4 and 1/1.4 = 0.71. These limits can be considered as the thresholds to qualify as up-regulated (ratio >1.4) or downregulated (ratio <0.71). In the muscle comparison test between gluteus medius vs. longissimus lumborum, 63 genes were found up-regulated and 8 genes down-regulated. The range of gene expression ratios in the gluteus medius was 0.61-8.31 x the longissimus lumborum. This list of modulated genes was classified by functions using a gene ontology data basis.
Mouse microarrays could be used to hybridise equine RNA extracted from muscle tissues. For many genes there are large sequence identities that allowed interspecific cDNA hybridisation. The sensitivity of the method allowed quantification of up- and down-regulated genes after applying appropriate filters.
Expression profiling could be used to explore the muscle metabolism changes related to exercise, training, pathology and illegal medication in horses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomics using cDNA microarrays could provide useful information about physiological adaptations and metabolic disorders in endurance horses.
In order to show that genes are modulated in leucocytes in relationship with performance and clinical status of the horses, gene expression in leucocytes, haematological and biochemical parameters were compared between successful and disqualified endurance horses.
Blood samples were collected at rest (TO) and just after a 140-160 km endurance race (T1) in 2 groups of horses: 10 continuing successful (S) and 10 disqualified horses stopped at a vet-gate for metabolic disorders (D). Total RNA was extracted from the blood cells (leucocytes), checked for purity, amplified and hybridised using mouse cDNA microarrays including 15,264 unique genes. Differential gene expressions were studied by hybridisation of each sample T1 vs. a control sample collected at TO (pool of 20 sound horses).
Some significant differences were observed in the haematology and biochemistry of the 2 groups (S vs. D). In Group D, rhadomyolysis was confirmed with CK 13,124 u/l and AST 1242 u/l. The list of 726 (including 603 annotated genes) significant genes was filtered according to a high P-value cut-off (P<0.00001). Among them, 130 were upregulated (expression ratio>1.5) and 288 were down-regulated (<1/1.5). Analysis of variance revealed 62 genes differentially expressed (P<0.05) in Groups D and S. The expression levels of 28 and 50 genes were significantly correlated (r>0.75) with CK and AST level in Group D, respectively. The gene ontology classification showed that more genes were up-regulated in S than in the D. More genes were down-regulated in the disqualified horses.
Long exercise induced many significant gene modulations in leucocytes. Some genes were expressed in relationship with the clinical phenotype observed in Group D: rhabdomyolysis and haemolysis.
Some of these genes could be candidates to explain poor performance or pathologies. Further association studies with a greater number of genes should be conducted.