Ruth Gil-Prieto

King Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (35)50.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective Estimate the mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Patients and method Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey, while data on associated mortality were extracted from the National Statistic Institute. Population attributable fractions were applied and mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index was calculated for people between 35 and 79 years. Results In 2006, among the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 25,671 lives (16,405 males and 9,266 women) were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index. Mortality attributable was 15.8% of total deaths in males and 14.8% in women, but if we refer to those causes where excess body weight is a risk factor, it is about a 30% of mortality (31.6% in men and 28% in women). The most important individual cause was cardiovascular disease (58%), followed by cancer. The individual cause with a major contribution to deaths was type 2 diabetes; nearly 70% in males and 80% in women. Overweight accounted for 54.9% deaths in men and 48.6% in women. Conclusions Excess body weight is a major public health problem, with an important associated mortality. Attributable deaths are a useful tool to know the real situation and to monitor for disease control interventions.
    Medicina Clínica 06/2014; 142(12):526–530. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the reduction in the incidence of measles in recent years, outbreaks have appeared in various countries in Central and Western Europe. Estimating the percentage of immune individuals is fundamental for establishing control strategies in these situations. A total of 1,147 serum samples from healthy volunteers were tested by two commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests that detect antibodies for the measles virus: Enzygnost Anti-Measles Virus/IgG (Siemens, Marburg, Germany) and VIDAS Measles IgG (bioMerieux, Inc.). The following values were calculated for each test: sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Compared to the Enzygnost test, the sensitivity of the VIDAS test was 98.0% and the specificity was 78.1%. The likelihood ratio (LR) values were + 4.48, - 0.025 and +/- 0.17. The VIDAS Measles IgG test is a quick method with good sensitivity for detecting IgG antibodies for the measles virus compared to the Enzygnost EIA test.
    Clinical laboratory 01/2014; 60(1):69-71. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Varicella vaccines available in Spain were marketed in 1998 and 2003 for non-routine use. Since 2006 some regions decided to include varicella vaccination in their regional routine vaccination programmes at 15-18 months of age. Other regions chose the strategy of vaccinating susceptible adolescents. This study shows the trends in severe varicella zoster virus infections through the analysis of the hospital discharges related to varicella and herpes zoster in the general population from 2005 to 2010 in Spain. A total of 11,125 hospital discharges related to varicella and 27,736 related to herpes zoster were reported during the study period. The overall annual rate of hospitalization was 4.14 cases per 100,000 for varicella and 10.33 cases per 100,000 for herpes zoster. In children younger than 5 years old varicella hospitalization rate significantly decreased from 46.77 in 2005 to 26.55 per 100,000 in 2010. The hospitalization rate related to herpes zoster slightly increased from 9.71 in 2005 to 10.90 per 100,000 in 2010. This increase was mainly due to the significant increase occurring in the >84 age group, from 69.55 to 97.68 per 100,000. When gathering for regions taking into account varicella vaccine strategy, varicella related hospitalizations decreased significantly more in those regions which included the vaccine at 15-18 months of age as a routine vaccine comparing with those vaccinating at 10-14 years old. No significant differences were found in herpes zoster hospitalization rates regarding the varicella vaccination strategy among regions. Severe varicella infections decreased after implementation of varicella vaccination in Spain. This decrease was significantly higher in regions including the vaccine at 15-18 months of age compared with those vaccinating susceptible adolescents.
    Vaccine 11/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to estimate total and age-specific incidence rates of HZ with data from electronic clinical records in primary care (ECRPC) and to analyze trends by sex and age. Descriptive cross-sectional study covering the incident HZ episodes registered in the ECRPC of the Madrid Regional Public Health System in 2005-2012. Annual crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Differences by sex and age were assessed by poisson regression. The annual percentage of change (APC) of incidence rates and 'breakthrough points' of the time trends were determined with the Joinpoint Regression Program. 211,650 episodes of HZ were identified (60.6% women, 52.2% > 55 years). The incidence rate increased from 363.21 to 481.92 per 100,000 person-year in 2005-2012. Rates were higher among women and increased with age. The APC for the period was 3.59% in men and 3.67% in women (p<0.05). Age-specific rates increased in patients over 14 years. The APC in the 25-44 age group was 7.4% since 2007. The incidence rate ratio (women/men) was highest in this group. The incidence of HZ presents an upward trend in 2005-2012 in adults and the elderly. Monitoring the incidence and age-specific rates, will help to detect changes in trends.
    The Journal of infection 11/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the disability attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey (NHS), while the prevalence of associated morbidities was extracted from the 2006 NHS and from a national hospital data base. Population attributable fractions were applied and disability attributable was expressed as years life with disability (YLD). In 2006, in the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 791.650 YLD were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index (46.7% in males and 53.3% in females). Overweight (body mass index 25-29.9) accounted for 45.7% of total YLD. Males YLD were higher than females under 60. The 35-39 quinquennial group showed a difference for males of 16.6% while in the 74-79 group the difference was 23.8% for women. Osteoarthritis and chronic back pain accounted for 60% of YLD while hypertensive disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus were responsible of 37%. Excess body weight is a health risk related to the development of various diseases with an important associated disability burden and social and economical cost. YLD analysis is a useful monitor tool for disease control interventions.
    Medicina Clínica 08/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study shows hospital discharges related to all-cause diarrhoea and rotavirus infection in children up to five years of age from 2005 to 2009 in Spain. Rotavirus vaccines have been available in Spain since late 2006 and early 2007. They are neither funded nor reimbursed by the National Health Care System. However, they are recommended by the Spanish Association of Pediatricians and prescribed by paediatricians. The vaccination coverage was 17% in 2007, 35% in 2008 and 38% in 2009. Among a total of 111,738 hospitalizations recorded, 24% (N=26,500) were coded as rotavirus and 14% (N=16,217) as diarrhoea of undetermined aetiology. The overall annual incidence of hospitalization was 991,235 and 144 per 100,000 children up to five years of age for all-causes diarrhoea, rotavirus infection and diarrhoea of undetermined aetiology respectively. The annual rate significantly decreased during the study period. Hospitalization rates for all-cause diarrhoea, rotavirus infection and diarrhoea of undetermined aetiology in children under five years of age in 2009 were 35, 37 and 36% lower than in the period 2005-2006, before rotavirus vaccine introduction. This decrease was greater in children <12 months of age: 42% for all-cause diarrhoea and 43% for rotavirus and diarrhoea of undetermined aetiology. The use of rotavirus vaccines, with relatively low vaccination coverage, in Spain has been shown to decrease hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis and all-cause diarrhoea during the study period.
    Vaccine 07/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of cases of certain immunopreventable diseases in our country. A high proportion of these have been recorded among the young adult population. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against immunopreventable diseases with the greatest health impacts on the young adult population (19-39 y of age) in Madrid. We collected a total of 1,153 serum samples from healthy volunteers undergoing routine medical visits and used ELISA to determine the presence of IgG antibodies against measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella zoster, as well as Bordetella pertussis. The Pearson's χ2 test was used to compare prevalences, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for variables with more than 2 categories. Statistical significance was achieved with p values of < 0.05. The global prevalence of antibodies was 92.1% for measles, 94.4% for rubella, 88.3% for mumps, 92.8% for varicella zoster, and 70.2% for B. pertussis. No statistically significant differences were found between genders. The prevalence of antibodies against measles was more than 95% in the group of individuals born after 1986, and the percentage of individuals susceptible to rubella was less than 5% in women born after 1986. In spite of adequate vaccination coverage, in our region, a population of young adults exists who have not achieved the objectives of the WHO for the elimination of measles and congenital rubella syndrome.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 06/2013; 9(9).
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the costs and clinical benefits of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administered annually to the 65-year-old cohort in Spain versus the alternative of not vaccinating patients and treating them only when infected. METHODS: Cases of pneumococcal disease avoided were calculated through a dynamic model based on the work of Anderson and May (1999). Sixty-six percent of the 65-year-old cohort was assumed to have been vaccinated with one PCV13 dose (304,492 subjects). Base-case estimated vaccine effectiveness and serotype coverage were 58% and 60%, respectively. Disease-related costs were calculated based on published data. RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, a total of 125,906 cases of pneumococcal disease would be avoided. Net savings of [euro sign]102 million would be obtained. The cost-saving distribution was not homogeneous, starting in the 2nd year and increasing through the 5th. To demonstrate model robustness, an additional scenario analysis was performed using extreme values of model parameters (vaccination programme coverage, vaccine effectiveness, discount rate and disease costs). Under those scenarios, net savings were always achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the assumptions of the model, the 65-year-cohort pneumococcal vaccination campaign appears to be a cost-saving intervention in the Spanish population under different scenarios.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 04/2013; 13(1):175. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To analyse the epidemiology of suicide, and compare its occurrence between the sexes and in various regions in Spain. METHOD: Age-specific analysis and spatiotemporal analysis to analyse death by suicide between 1981 and 2008 in Spain. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study. RESULTS: Death by suicide has decreased since the 1990s in Spain, although peaks in suicides correspond with times of economic crisis. Death by suicide was more common among men than among women, although the suicide mortality rate increased over the study period among women aged 35-49 years. Geographical analysis showed that rural populations and areas with historically higher levels of unemployment have higher suicide rates. In contrast, less-populated regions have lower suicide rates. CONCLUSION: Suicides in Spain exhibit a clear geographic pattern and occur at different rates between the genders. The results suggest an increasing number of suicides among women aged 35-49 years over the study period.
    Public health 01/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the least common tumours, nevertheless it is one of the most lethal. This lethality is mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of patients are diagnosed in an advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to investigate how different covariates affect the transition to death or discharge with and without complications after pancreatic resection. Methods: We analyse the impact of different factors on transitions after pancreatic resection based on a multi state model. Results: Transitions of interest include the transition to death/discharge with/without complications after pancreatic resection. We consider presence of comorbidities, higher age (>60), gender-male, lower hospital volume (<10 cases per year), type of surgery, localization of tumour and transfusion received as covariates with a potentially negative effect on the transition intensities to death with or without complications. Conclusions: The multi-state model allows for a very detailed analysis of the impact of covariates on each transition, since effects of covariates may change depending on the current state of the patient, thus helping surgeons and patients throughout the surgical process and counselling patients if needed.
    Cancer epidemiology. 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of gonorrhoea has increased worldwide in the last few years. Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the world, and is a serious public health problem because of its associated morbidity and complications. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of gonorrhoea-related hospitalisations in Spain between the years 1997 and 2006. A retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using data from the National Epidemiological Surveillance System (Minimum Data Set [MDS]), where all of the gonorrhoea-related hospitalisations that occurred in Spain during this period were analysed. We calculated the general hospitalisation rates, mortality, case-fatality rate, and length of stay by gender and age. During the course of the study, 928 hospitalisations occurred with a discharge diagnosis of gonorrhoea infection (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification: ICD 9 CM 098.0-098.89 at any diagnostic position), which represented a hospitalisation rate of 0.23 per 100,000 population, a mortality rate of 0.008 per 100,000 population, and a case-fatality of 3.77%. The main suspected causes of death were staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, malignant neoplasm and chronic diseases. The greatest hospitalisation rate was observed in children between the ages of 0 and 4years. The gonorrhoea-related hospitalisation rate in Spain remained constant during the period of the study. A better understanding of the epidemiology of gonorrhoea will allow for the creation of effective preventive measures that will lead to a reduction in the number of new infections.
    Sexual & reproductive healthcare: official journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives 06/2012; 3(2):89-92. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers of the head and neck currently figure as the 6th most important cause of cancer globally. They are strongly associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, but recent studies showed the presence of HPV in patients with these types of cancer. The incidence of cancers of the head and neck potentially attributable to HPV has increased in the last years. This study aims to provide population-based estimates of the burden of hospitalisation for head & neck neoplasm in Spain that may be useful when cost-effectiveness models are developed to evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination in Spain. Epidemiological retrospective survey to assess the burden of hospitalisation for head and neck neoplasm in the general population in Spain during the 1997-2008 period. Differences in proportions were assessed by the Chi-square test. ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons. The post hoc Bonferroni correction was used to adjust statistical significance for multiple comparisons. Poisson regression was used to assess differences in the hospitalisation rate during the study period in all the age groups. A total of 199,304 hospital discharges for head and neck malignant neoplasm were recorded during the 12-years of study: 55,475 (46,560 males and 8,915 females) corresponded to oral cavity; 46,699 (45,020 males and 1,679 females) to pharynx and 97,139 (93,374 males and 3,765 females) to larynx malignant neoplasms. Hospitalization rates increased significantly with age. Overall hospitalization rates in men were more than 10-fold higher than in women. Rates decreased significantly in men during the study period but increased significantly in women in all locations. Although a slight decrease has been observed in hospitalization rates due to head and neck neoplasm in the last years in men, they still generate a substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in adults over 50 years of age.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 06/2012; 8(6):788-98.
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    ABSTRACT: An epidemiological retrospective study has been performed to assess the burden of hospitalization by anus and penis neoplasm in the general population in Spain. All hospital discharges and deaths related to anal malign neoplasm and penile malign neoplasm from 1997 to 2008 in Spain were obtained. A total of 19,608 hospital admissions were recorded during the study period: 11,965 were related to anal malign neoplasm (4,992 in women and 6,973 in men) and 7,643 to penis malignant neoplasm. This corresponds to a hospitalization rate of 1.97 (CI 95%: 1.91-2.02) hospitalizations per 100,000 women/ year, 2.84 (CI 95%: 2.77-2.91) hospitalizations per 100,000 men/ year and 3.11 (CI 95%: 3.04- 3.18) hospitalizations per 100,000 men/ year, respectively during the study period. The hospitalization rate increased significantly during the study period in all locations. It also increased significantly with age for all locations. Hospitalization and mortality rates in men were 50% higher than in women A total of 530 deaths related to penis malignant neoplasm and 738 deaths related to anus malignant neoplasm in men and 488 in women were reported during the 12-y study period. Although a decrease in smoking prevalence has led to a decrease in the incidence of cancers in the last decade, the hospitalizations due to anal and penile malign neoplasm have not declined in our study. This might be attributed to a high prevalence of HPV infection in these particular genital malign neoplasms.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 02/2012; 8(2):201-7.
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    ABSTRACT: All the records from the Spanish information system for hospital data of patients diagnosed with leishmaniasis during a 12-year period (1997-2008) were studied. The 2,028 individuals were hospitalized because of leishmaniasis, as indicated by the principal diagnostic code. The average hospitalization rate was 0.41/100,000 inhabitants. One-third of them were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The incidence of hospitalization in the adult population with leishmaniasis co-infected with HIV increased with age, peaked at 35-39 years of age and subsequently declined. In the pediatric population, all leishmaniasis cases occurred in HIV-negative children. Incidence of hospitalizations was highest in Madrid and in the Mediterranean coast. The cost per inpatient hospital care was $9,601 corresponding to an annual direct cost of more than $1.5 million for inpatient care alone. The economical burden of leishmaniasis is not neglectable and in the 12-year study period it represented more than $19 million.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/2011; 85(5):820-5. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An important percentage of vulvar and vaginal cancers may be attributed to infections by the human papillomavirus. Although the incidence of invasive vulvar and vaginal cancers is low, it has remained stable over the past years. Hospital discharges related to malignant neoplasias and in situ carcinomas of the vulva and vagina from 1997 to 2008 were selected from the Minimum Data Set of the Ministry of Health in Spain. 17,883 hospital admissions related to vulvar and vaginal malignant neoplasias and 2,185 admissions related to in situ carcinomas of the vulva and vagina were gathered, with a hospitalization rate of 7,054 and 0.862 discharges per 100,000 women/year, respectively. The mean age of patients was 57 (SD:18) years, and the mean length of hospital stay was 8 (SD:10) days. There was a statistically significant increase in the hospitalization rate for malignant neoplasias and in situ carcinomas with increasing patient age. This increase was significant for all locations. Overall, there was a case fatality rate of 9.34% for vulvar and vaginal malignant neoplasias and 0.46% for in situ carcinomas of an external genital organ. Mortality and case fatality rates increased significantly throughout the length of the study. 92% of all deaths occurred in those older than 55 years of age. Mortality and case fatality rates also increased significantly with age. The hospitalization rate follows a north-south pattern. These data of the pre-anti-HPV vaccine era may be useful to develop cost-effectiveness models and strategies and evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination in Spain.
    Human vaccines 08/2011; 7(8):856-63. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All hospital discharges and deaths related to invasive meningococcal disease, meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia in the general population from 1997 to 2008 in Spain were obtained. Among the 11,611 meningococcal infection related discharges 53% were meningococcal meningitis and 55% were meningococcemia. The annual hospitalization rate was 2.33, 1.23 and 1.29 cases per 100,000 for invasive meningococcal disease, meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia, respectively. 846 deaths for invasive meningococcal disease, 235 for meningococcal meningitis and 605 for meningococcemia were reported. Although an important decrease in meningococcal infections related morbidity and mortality has occurred in the last twelve years in Spain, they still continue being major causes of hospitalization and death, especially in the children up to 2 years of age. Future preventive measures, such as vaccination with vaccines covering new conjugated serogroups (B and ACYW135), could further improve population health.
    Vaccine 06/2011; 29(34):5765-70. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is one of the least common tumors (2.1%), but it remains one of the most lethal. This lethality is primarily due to late stage diagnosis in the vast majority of patients. Here we demonstrate, using a Bayesian network, that we can determine a posteriori, with a high probability of success, the probability of in-hospital death of pancreatic cancer in hospitals across Spain with information related to the type of admission, the type of procedure, the primary diagnosis or the Charlson co-morbidity index. The advantages of using a Bayesian network are that it allows us to examine multiple hypotheses and to measure the effect of the introduction of variables on our hypotheses. Being able to determine deceases in the probability of survival based on hospital admission data, such as the diagnosis resulting in the present admission or the presence of co-morbidities, could facilitate the detection of deficiencies in the patient treatment and improve hospital management. Moreover, the control of related co-morbidities may have an impact on the in-hospital deaths of these patients.
    International journal of biomedical science : IJBS. 06/2011; 7(2):125-130.
  • Ruth Gil-Prieto
    Medicina Clínica 04/2011; 137(8):352-4. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the non-delivery pregnancy associated hospitalizations in Spain during the period 1997-2007. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed using data from the National Epidemiological Surveillance System for hospital data (Minimum Basic Data Set [MBDS]). Records of all pregnant women admitted to hospital with a pregnancy associated complication (excluding delivery) as a principal admitting diagnosis were studied. There were a total of 4,506,449 deliveries reported in Spain during the study period (1997-2007), with a hospitalization rate of 11.86% deliveries (95% CI, 11.83%-11.89%). The principal admitting diagnoses were abortions (10%), abnormal products of conception and non-viable pregnancies (1.5%). The mortality rate was 2.35 per 100,000 deliveries (95% CI, 1.9%-2.8%) and the case-fatality rate was 0.02% (95% CI, 0.016%-0.024%). Adolescents and women over 45 years had higher hospitalization and mortality rates. The main causes for hospitalization in pregnant women in Spain were abortions, abnormal products of conception and non-viable pregnancies. Hospitalization and mortality rates were higher in adolescents and women over 45 years, and did not vary during the study period.
    Enfermería Clínica 03/2011; 21(2):91-8.
  • Ruth Gil-Prieto
    Medicina Clinica - MED CLIN. 01/2011; 137(8):352-354.

Publication Stats

45 Citations
50.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • King Juan Carlos University
      • • Faculty of Health Sciences
      • • Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública e Inmunología y Microbiología Médicas
      Madrid, Spain
  • 2013
    • Hospital Universitario Santa Cristina
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio
      Madrid, Spain
  • 2011
    • Hospital Rey Juan Carlos - Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain