K. Mildenberger

The Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague, Praha, Praha, Czech Republic

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Publications (23)31.17 Total impact

  • European Aerosol Conference (EAC), Granada, Spain, 2-7 September; 01/2012
  • 7th Asian Aerosol Conference (AAC), Xi´an, China; 08/2011
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of coated mineral dust particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) was investigated at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) during the FROST1- and FROST2-campaigns (Freezing of dust). Sulphuric acid was condensed on the particles which afterwards were optionally humidified, treated with ammonia vapour and/or heat. By means of aerosol mass spectrometry we found evidence that processing of mineral dust particles with sulphuric acid leads to surface modifications of the particles. These surface modifications are responsible for the observed reduction of the IN activation of the particles. The observed particle mass spectra suggest that different treatments lead to different chemical reactions on the particle surface. Possible chemical reaction pathways and products are suggested and the implications on IN and CCN efficiency of the treated dust particles are discussed.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2011; 11:7235-7289. · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hygroscopic properties of submicron aerosol particles were determined at a suburban site (Wuqing) in the North China Plain among a cluster of cities during the period 17 July to 12 August 2009. A High Humidity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (HH-TDMA) instrument was applied to measure the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) at 90%, 95% and 98.5% relative humidity (RH) for particles with dry diameter between 50–250 nm. The probability distribution of GF (GF-PDF) averaged over the period shows a distinct bimodal pattern, namely, a dominant more-hygroscopic (MH) group and a smaller nearly-hydrophobic (NH) group. The MH group particles were highly hygroscopic, and their GF was relatively constant during the period with average values of 1.54±0.02, 1.81±0.04 and 2.45±0.07 at 90%, 95% and 98.5% RH ( D 0=100 nm), respectively. The NH group particles grew very slightly when exposed to high RH, with GF values of 1.08±0.02, 1.13±0.06 and 1.24±0.13, respectively at 90%, 95% and 98.5% RH ( D 0=100 nm). The hygroscopic growth behaviours at different RHs were well represented by the hygroscopicity parameter κ with a single-parameter Köhler model. Thus, the calculation of GF as a function of RH and dry diameter could be facilitated by an empirical parameterization of κ as function of dry diameter. A strong diurnal pattern in number fraction of different hygroscopic groups was observed, indicating a diurnal variation of aerosol mixing state and/or chemical composition. The average number fraction of NH particles during the day was about 8%, while during the nighttime fractions up to 20% were reached. Correspondingly, the state of mixing in terms of water uptake varied significantly during a day. The high fraction of NH particles measured during the night denotes a high degree of external mixing of ambient aerosols, while during the day the degree of external mixing decreased. Simulations using a particle-resolved aerosol box model (PartMC-MOSAIC) suggest that the diurnal variations of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state were mainly caused by the evolution of the atmospheric mixing layer. The shallow nocturnal boundary layer during the night facilitated the accumulation of freshly emitted carbonaceous particles (mainly hydrophobic) near the surface while in the morning turbulence entrained the more aged and more hygroscopic particles from aloft and diluted the NH particles near the surface resulting in a decrease in the fraction of NH particles.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 01/2011; · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of coated mineral dust particles to act as ice nuclei (IN) was investigated at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) during the FROST1- and FROST2-campaigns (Freezing of dust). Sulphuric acid was condensed on the particles which afterwards were optionally humidified, treated with ammonia vapour and/or heat. By means of aerosol mass spectrometry we found evidence that processing of mineral dust particles with sulphuric acid leads to surface modifications of the particles. These surface modifications are most likely responsible for the observed reduction of the IN activation of the particles. The observed particle mass spectra suggest that different treatments lead to different chemical reactions on the particle surface. Possible chemical reaction pathways and products are suggested and the implications on the IN efficiency of the treated dust particles are discussed.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 01/2011; 11(15):7839-7858. · 5.51 Impact Factor
  • European Aerosol Conference (EAC), Manchester, UK, 4-9 September; 01/2011
  • European Aerosol Conference (EAC), Manchester, UK, 4-9 September; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols were measured at a regional/suburban site in the North China Plain (NCP), which is occasionally heavily polluted by anthropogenic aerosol particles and gases. A CCN (Cloud Condensation Nuclei) closure study is conducted with bulk CCN number concentration (NCCN) and calculated NCCN based on the aerosol number size distribution and size-resolved activation properties. The observed NCCN are higher than those observed in other locations than China, with average NCCN of roughly 2000, 3000, 6000, 10 000 and 13 000 cm−3 at supersaturations of 0.056, 0.083, 0.17, 0.35 and 0.70%, respectively. An inferred critical dry diameter (Dm) is calculated based on the measured NCCN and aerosol number size distribution assuming homogeneous chemical composition. This inferred cut off diameter varies in a wide range, indicating that it is impossible to predict NCCN with a fixed critical diameter. Size-resolved activation measurements show that most of the 300 nm particles are activated at the investigated supersaturations, while almost no particles of 30 nm are activated even at the highest supersaturation of 0.72%. The activation ratio increases with increasing supersaturation and particle size. The slopes of the activation curves for ambient aerosols are not as steep as those observed in calibrations with ammonium sulfate suggesting that the observed aerosols is an external mixture of more hygroscopic and hydrophobic particles. This conclusion is confirmed by hygroscopicity measurements performed during two intensive field studies in 2009. The calculated NCCN based on the size-resolved activation ratio and aerosol number size distribution correlate well with the measured NCCN, and show an average overestimation of 19%. Sensitivity studies of the CCN closure show that the NCCN for each supersaturation is well predicted with the campaign average of size-resolved activation curves. These results indicate that the aerosol number size distribution is critical in the prediction of possible CCN. The NCCN can be estimated with average activation curve, along with a well described aerosol number size distribution.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2011; · 4.88 Impact Factor
  • European Aerosol Conference (EAC), Manchester, UK, 4-9 September; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Large areas of China suffer from heavy air pollution (both gaseous and particulate) caused by strong economic growth in the last two decades. However, knowledge concerning the physical and chemical properties of the resulting aerosol particles populations, and their effects on the optical properties of the atmosphere, is still sparse. In the framework of the investigations presented here, comprehensive measurements concerning aerosol particle hygroscopicity, CCN ability, composition, and optical properties were performed. The investigations are part of the DFG-funded project HaChi (Haze in China) and are conducted in collaboration with the Peking University. A conclusive parameterization of aerosol hygroscopicity and activation data is aimed for, which will then be implemented in a meso-scale model to investigate aerosol-cloud-radiation and precipitation interactions. During two intensive measurements campaigns (March 2009 and July/ August 2009), in-situ aerosol measurements have been performed in an air-conditioned mobile laboratory next to the Wuqing Meteorological Station (39°23'8.53"N, 117°1'25.88"E), which is located between Bejing and Tijanjin and is thereby an ideal background site in a megacity region. The particle number size distribution (TDMPS), the particle optical properties (MAAP and nephelometer) and their hygroscopic properties at high RH (HH-TDMA, LACIS-mobile) were characterized as well as their cloud nucleating properties above supersaturation (DMT-CCNC). 24 h PM1 particle samples were continuously collected over the two campaigns in winter and summer using a DIGITEL high volume sampler (DHA-80). Additionally two 6h size-resolved samples (daytime and night-time) were collected each day applying an 11-stage Berner impactor. The size-selection of HH-TDMA, LACIS and the CCNC was synchronized with the Berner stages. Opening analysis of the winter campaign data showed that the HH-TDMA usually detected a hydrophobic and a hygroscopic mode, i.e., the particles were externally mixed. On average the growth factor in the hydrophobic mode was about 1.1 (200nm @ 98.5%). 12% of the particles were of hydrophobic nature for 200 nm and 15% over all sizes. LACIS-mobile focused on the hygroscopic mode, as this mode is mainly responsible for the optical properties of the atmosphere at high RHs. During the whole campaign very high growth factors (GFmedian = 3.56, 200 nm @ 99.2%) were observed, close to those of ammonium sulfate, with only slight dependence on the air mass. The analysis of the DIGITEL samples showed that the main components of PM1 are inorganic ions like the secondary formed ammonium nitrate und ammonium sulphate, as well as carbonaceous material. The organic carbon fraction is mostly dominated by water soluble organic carbon (80% in average) and was more analyzed in more detail for dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids, sugars and sugar related compounds. High concentrations of tracers like the anhydrosugar levoglucosan suggest biomass burning emissions as a dominant source of organic particles in the area. Closure between hygroscopic growth, CCN activation and chemical composition is aimed for with two different approaches: a) one single-parameter Köhler model applying the hygroscopicity parameter kappa following [Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007] and b) a standard Köhler model using as input parameter 4 major chemical components as analyzed from the DIGITEL samples. First tests for 200 nm particles showed very good agreement for the kappa-approach between measured and predicted critical activation. In the second approach the mass of 4 major components, namely ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride and soluble organic mater were used as input parameter of a standard Köhler model including an insoluble core. Here the hygroscopic growth factor was underestimated, but the activation point was predicted well. Petters, M. D., and S. M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 1961-1971.
    05/2010;
  • International Aerosol Conference 2010, Helsinki, Finland, 29 August - 3 September; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: During the measurement campaign FROST (FReezing Of duST), LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) was used to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of size selected, coated and uncoated Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles with a mobility diameter of 300 nm. Particles were coated with succinic acid (C4H6O4), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). Ice fractions at mixed-phase cloud temperatures ranging from 233.15 K to 239.15 K (±0.60 K) were determined for all types of particles. In this temperature range, pure ATD particles and those coated with C4H6O4 or small amounts of H2SO4 were found to be the most efficient ice nuclei (IN). ATD particles coated with (NH4)2SO4 were the most inefficient IN. Since the supercooled droplets were highly diluted before freezing occurred, a freezing point suppression due to the soluble material on the particles (and therefore in the droplets) cannot explain this observation. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the coatings lead to particle surface alterations which cause the differences in the IN abilities. Two different theoretical approaches based on the stochastic and the singular hypotheses were applied to clarify and parameterize the freezing behavior of the particles investigated. Both approaches describe the experimentally determined results, yielding parameters that can subsequently be used to compare our results to those from other studies. However, we cannot clarify at the current state which of the two approaches correctly describes the investigated immersion freezing process. But both approaches confirm the assumption that the coatings lead to particle surface modifications lowering the nucleation efficiency. The stochastic approach interprets the reduction in nucleation rate from coating as primarily due to an increase in the thermodynamic barrier for ice formation (i.e., changes in interfacial free energies). The singular approach interprets the reduction as resulting from a reduced surface density of active sites.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 01/2010; · 5.51 Impact Factor
  • International Aerosol Conference 2010, Helsinki, Finland, 29 August - 3 September; 01/2010
  • International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) 2012 Open Science Conference "Atmospheric Chemistry in the Antropocene", Beijing, China; 09/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Plant emitted volatile organic carbons (VOCs) are a major precursor of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols. The precursors are oxidized via ozonolysis, photooxidation, or by NO3 and form aerosol particles. Due to further oxidation of the organic matter the composition of the SOA may age with time. This will also change the hygroscopic growth (HG) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation of the particles. In this study we generated and aged SOA in the SAPHIR chamber at the Research Centre Juelich under near atmospheric conditions: natural sunlight, low precursor and O3 concentrations, and long reaction times. As precursor we used a mixture of 5 monoterpenes (MT) or 5 MT with 2 sesquiterpenes which had been identified as major constituents of plant emissions in previous experiments. Concentrations ranged between 4 and 100 ppb MT and the total reaction time was 36h. HG was measured at RH=10-97% by a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Analyser (HTDMA, FZ Juelich) and at RH=97-99% by the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS-mobile, IfT Leipzig). The agreement between HTDMA and LACIS-mobile data was generally good. CCN properties were measured with a continuous flow CCN Counter from DMT. SOA particles generated on a sunny day were more hygroscopic and had a lower activation diameter (Dcrit) than SOA formed under cloudy conditions. With aging it became more hygroscopic and Dcrit decreased. Sunlight enhanced this effect. But the change in HG and Dcrit due to aging was less than the difference between SOA generated under different conditions (i.e. sunny or cloudy). We did not observe a dependence of the HG on the precursor concentration.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: During the measurement campaign FROST (FReezing Of duST), LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) was used to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of coated and uncoated Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles with a mobility diameter of 300 nm. Particles were coated with succinic acid (C4H6O4), sulfuric acid (H2SO4, two different coating conditions), and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). Ice fractions at temperatures between 233.15 K and 240.65 K were determined for all types of particles acting as IN (Ice Nuclei). In this temperature range, uncoated particles and those coated with C4H6O4 or small amounts of H2SO4 started to act as IN at higher temperatures compared to particles with larger amounts of H2SO4 or (NH4)2SO4 coatings. Although the latter two showed similar hygroscopic growth and droplet activation behavior, they differed in their ability to act as IN. ATD particles coated with (NH4)2SO4 were the most inefficient IN. The ability of the investigated particles to act as IN was found not to be related to water activity for the freezing process investigated, however, in LACIS, the supercooled droplets were activated and highly diluted before the freezing occurred. Applying the measurement results, a parameterization, based on a simplified CNT (Classical Nucleation Theory) type nucleation rate expression, was developed. The simplified theory allows us to determine that thermodynamic changes at the surface are dominating the change in nucleating ability, rather than changes in surface area or kinetic effects.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2009; · 4.88 Impact Factor
  • 18th International Conference on Nucleation & Atmospheric Aerosols (ICNAA 2009), Prague, Czech Republic, 10-14 August; 01/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Measurements of the hygroscopic growth (HTDMA, LACIS-mobile), activation behavior (DMT-CCNC) - scope of this paper - and ice nucleation (AIDA chamber) were performed to estimate the cloud-forming potential of pure and coated soot particles. Globally, soot particles contribute up to 2.5 % to the atmospheric aerosol. In the framework of the investigations described here, soot particles were generated either applying a graphite-spark-generator (GFG1000) or a flame-soot-generator (Mini-CAST). With respect to the hygroscopic growth and activation behavior, the influences of the carrier-gas (GFG-soot), the OC-content (CAST-soot) and of different coating materials were investigated. Differences in the hygroscopic growth and activation behavior of GFG generated soot particles were found for the two carrier-gases considered. If nitrogen was used, neither hygroscopic growth nor activation were observed. In contrast, when argon was used, particles featured a slight hygroscopic growth and were easier to activate. Hygroscopic growth increases with decreasing OC-content of the CAST-soot, up to growth factor 1.04 at 98.4 % relative humidity. Lower OC-contents also result in the particles being activated more easily. Coating with sulfuric acid enhances the hygroscopic growth and activation behavior of CAST-soot for different OC-contents. If the soot (GFG & CAST) was coated with dicarboxylic acids (oxalic and succinic acid), no enhancement of hygroscopic growth and activation was observed. This is most likely due to evaporation of the coating material. In comparison to the hygroscopic growth and activation behavior, the same trends were observed in the ice-nucleation behavior. That is, the more active a particle is as cloud condensation nuclei, the better it functions as ice nuclei. GFG-soot with argon as carrier-gas acts as a better ice nuclei than GFG-soot with nitrogen. For the CAST-soot the ice-nucleation activity decreases with increasing OC-content. Coating with sulfuric acid increases the ice-nucleation ability of CAST-soot.
    01/2009;
  • European Aerosol Conference (EAC), Salzburg, Austria, 9-14 September; 01/2007
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