[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim
Residential mobility during childhood has been associated with several adverse health outcomes. The present study investigates the influence of residential mobility during childhood measured by the frequency of moves, the child’s age at the time of the move and the total distance moved on the development of behavioural problems in school-age children.
Subject and methods
Data (N = 2,933) of two German population-based, prospective birth-cohort studies were used. Measurement of children’s residential mobility is based on the addresses at birth, 2, 6 and 10 years, which were collected by questionnaires and subsequently geocoded. Behavioural outcomes were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire applied at 10-year follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex and age of the child, study centre, parental educational level, mother’s age at birth, single parent status and child’s time spent in front of a screen were applied.
Children with two or more relocations—odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.23–3.11—who moved at school age (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.17–3.31) or who moved more than 50 km in total (OR = 1.76, CI = 1.03–3.00) showed a significantly increased risk for the development of behavioural problems measured by the Total Difficulties Score compared to children who have never moved. Moving during early childhood and moving only short distance (less than 10 km in total) were not associated with behavioural problems.
Increased residential mobility during childhood and especially moves at school age may negatively affect children’s later behaviour. Prevention may consist in parental or teacher’s support of children to cope with moving.
Journal of Public Health 10/2014; 21(1). · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The German National Cohort (GNC) is designed to address research questions concerning a wide range of possible causes of major chronic diseases (e.g. cancer, diabetes, infectious, allergic, neurologic and cardiovascular diseases) as well as to identify risk factors and prognostic biomarkers for early diagnosis and prevention of these diseases. The collection of biomaterials in combination with extensive information from questionnaires and medical examinations represents one of the central study components.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated approximately 2,000, approximately 3,700 and approximately 9,500 SNPs explained approximately 21%, approximately 24% and approximately 29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Refractive error (RE) is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), which represent opposite ends of the distribution of the quantitative measure of spherical refraction. We performed a fixed effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association results of myopia and hyperopia from 9 studies of European-derived populations: AREDS, KORA, FES, OGP-Talana, MESA, RSI, RSII, RSIII and ERF. One genome-wide significant region was observed for myopia, corresponding to a previously identified myopia locus on 8q12 (p = 1.25610 28), which has been reported by Kiefer et al. as significantly associated with myopia age at onset and Verhoeven et al. as significantly associated to mean spherical-equivalent (MSE) refractive error. We observed two genome-wide significant associations with hyperopia. These regions overlapped with loci on 15q14 (minimum p value = 9.11610 211) and 8q12 (minimum p value 1.82610 211) previously reported for MSE and myopia age at onset. We also used an intermarker linkage-disequilibrium-based method for calculating the effective number of tests in targeted regional replication analyses. We analyzed myopia (which represents the closest phenotype in our data to the one used by Kiefer et al.) and showed replication of 10 additional loci associated with myopia previously reported by Kiefer et al. This is the first replication of these loci using myopia as the trait under analysis. ''Replication-level'' association was also seen between hyperopia and 12 of Kiefer et al.'s published loci. For the loci that show evidence of association to both myopia and hyperopia, the estimated effect of the risk alleles were in opposite directions for the two traits. This suggests that these loci are important contributors to variation of refractive error across the distribution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic polymorphism concerning the Ss3-subunit of platelet integrin receptor glycoprotein IIIa is held responsible for enhanced binding of adhesive proteins resulting in increased thrombogenic potential. Whether it is associated with mortality, HbA1c or platelet volume is tested prospectively in an epidemiological cohort.Research design and methods: Population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) S4-Survey (N = 4,028) was investigated for prognostic value of PLA1A2-polymorphism regarding all-cause mortality, correlation with HbA1c, and mean platelet volume. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate association between genotype and key variables.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many European cities mass concentrations of PM10 (particles less than 10 microm in size) are still exceeding air quality standards as set by the European Commission in 1999. As a consequence, many cities introduced low emission zones (LEZs) to improve air quality and to meet the limit values. In Germany currently 48 LEZs are in operation. By means of dispersion modeling, PM10 concentrations were estimated to decrease up to 10%. Analysis of PM10 levels conducted for Cologne, Berlin, and Munich some time after the LEZs were introduced showed reduction of PM10 mass concentration in the estimated range. The PM10 particle fraction is, however composed of particles with varying toxicity, of which diesel soot is highly health relevant. An evaluation of air quality data conducted in Berlin showed that in 2010 traffic-related soot concentrations measured along major roads decreased by 52% compared to 2007. Diesel particle emissions in Berlin were reduced in 2012 by 63% compared to a business-as-usual scenario (reference year 2007). A strong reduction of the traffic-related particle fraction of PM2.5 was also reported for Munich. Therefore, it is likely that the effects of LEZs are considerably more significant to human health than was anticipated when only considering the reduction of PM10 mass concentrations. Implications: The implementation of low emission zones in German cities might result in a reduction of PM10 levels concentrations by up to 10%. However, it is difficult to show a reduction of PM10 annual averages in this order of magnitude as meteorology has a large impact on the year-to-year variation of PM mass concentrations. Monitoring of other PM metrics such as black smoke (BS) or elemental carbon (EC) might be a better strategy for evaluating LEZs effects. The benefit of low emission zones on human health is far greater than is presently visible from routine measurements of PM10.
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 04/2014; 64(4):481-7. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 anorexia nervosa genome-wide association scan includes 2907 cases from 15 different populations of European origin genotyped on the Illumina 670K chip. We compared methods for identifying population stratification, and suggest list of markers that may help to counter this problem. It is usual to identify population structure in such studies using only common variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%; we find that this may result in highly informative SNPs being discarded, and suggest that instead all SNPs with MAF >1% may be used. We established informative axes of variation identified via principal component analysis and highlight important features of the genetic structure of diverse European-descent populations, some studied for the first time at this scale. Finally, we investigated the substructure within each of these 15 populations and identified SNPs that help capture hidden stratification. This work can provide information regarding the designing and interpretation of association results in the International Consortia
European Journal of HumanGenetics 02/2014; · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case–control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28–1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32–1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93–1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies.
There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p < 0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44–2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95–1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2014; · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine is the most common brain disorder, affecting approximately 14% of the adult population, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the results of a meta-analysis across 29 genome-wide association studies, including a total of 23,285 individuals with migraine (cases) and 95,425 population-matched controls. We identified 12 loci associated with migraine susceptibility (P < 5 x 10(-8)). Five loci are new: near AJAP1 at 1p36, near TSPAN2 at 1p13, within FHL5 at 6q16, within C7orf10 at 7p14 and near MMP16 at 8q21. Three of these loci were identified in disease subgroup analyses. Brain tissue expression quantitative trait locus analysis suggests potential functional candidate genes at four loci: APOA1BP, TBC1D7, FUT9, STAT6 and ATP5B.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A link between severe mental stress and shorter telomere length (TL) has been suggested. We analysed the impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on TL in the general population and postulated a dose-dependent TL association in subjects suffering from partial PTSD compared to full PTSD.
Data are derived from the population-based KORA F4 study (2006-2008), located in southern Germany including 3,000 individuals (1,449 men and 1,551 women) with valid and complete TL data. Leukocyte TL was measured using a quantitative PCR-based technique. PTSD was assessed in a structured interview and by applying the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). A total of 262 (8.7%) subjects qualified for having partial PTSD and 51 (1.7%) for full PTSD. To assess the association of PTSD with the average TL, linear regression analyses with adjustments for potential confounding factors were performed.
The multiple model revealed a significant association between partial PTSD and TL (beta = -0.051, p = 0.009) as well as between full PTSD and shorter TL (beta = -0.103, p = 0.014) indicating shorter TL on average for partial and full PTSD. An additional adjustment for depression and depressed mood/exhaustion gave comparable beta estimations.
Participants with partial and full PTSD had significantly shorter leukocyte TL than participants without PTSD. The dose-dependent variation in TL of subjects with partial and full PTSD exceeded the chronological age effect, and was equivalent to an estimated 5 years in partial and 10 years in full PTSD of premature aging.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e64762. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent SNPs are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (R2 approximately 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for approximately 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may share common genetic risk factors as indicated by the high co-morbidity of BD and ADHD, their phenotypic overlap especially in pediatric populations, the high heritability of both disorders, and the co-occurrence in families. We therefore examined whether known polygenic BD risk alleles are associated with ADHD. We chose the eight best SNPs of the recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BD patients of German ancestry and the nine SNPs from international GWAS meeting a 'genome-wide significance' level of α = 5 × 10(-8). A GWAS was performed in 495 ADHD children and 1,300 population-based controls using HumanHap550v3 and Human660 W-Quadv1 BeadArrays. We found no significant association of childhood ADHD with single BD risk alleles surviving adjustment for multiple testing. Yet, risk alleles for BD and ADHD were directionally consistent at eight of nine loci with the strongest support for three SNPs in or near NCAN, BRE, and LMAN2L. The polygene analysis for the BP risk alleles at all 14 loci indicated a higher probability of being a BD risk allele carrier in the ADHD cases as compared to the controls. At a moderate power to detect association with ADHD, if true effects were close to estimates from GWAS for BD, our results suggest that the possible contribution of BD risk variants to childhood ADHD risk is considerably lower than for BD. Yet, our findings should encourage researchers to search for common genetic risk factors in BD and childhood ADHD in future studies.
Journal of Neural Transmission 05/2013; 120(11). · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genetic association studies have made progress in uncovering components of the genetic architecture of the body mass index (BMI). We used the ITMAT-Broad-Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) (IBC) array comprising up to 49 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across ∼2100 metabolic and cardiovascular-related loci to genotype up to 108 912 individuals of European ancestry (EA), African-Americans, Hispanics and East Asians, from 46 studies, to provide additional insight into SNPs underpinning BMI. We used a five-phase study design: Phase I focused on meta-analysis of EA studies providing individual level genotype data; Phase II performed a replication of cohorts providing summary level EA data; Phase III meta-analyzed results from the first two phases; associated SNPs from Phase III were used for replication in Phase IV; finally in Phase V, a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of all samples from four ethnicities was performed. At an array-wide significance (P < 2.40E-06), we identify novel BMI associations in loci translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast) - apolipoprotein E - apolipoprotein C-I (TOMM40-APOE-APOC1) (rs2075650, P = 2.95E-10), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF2, rs5996074, P = 9.43E-07) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 [NTRK2, a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor gene, rs1211166, P = 1.04E-06] in the Phase IV meta-analysis. Of 10 loci with previous evidence for BMI association represented on the IBC array, eight were replicated, with the remaining two showing nominal significance. Conditional analyses revealed two independent BMI-associated signals in BDNF and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) regions. Of the 11 array-wide significant SNPs, three are associated with gene expression levels in both primary B-cells and monocytes; with rs4788099 in SH2B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) notably being associated with the expression of multiple genes in cis. These multi-ethnic meta-analyses expand our knowledge of BMI genetics.
Human Molecular Genetics 01/2013; 22(1):184-201. · 6.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, Prokopenko and colleagues provide novel evidence for causal relationship between adiposity and heart failure and increased liver enzymes using a Mendelian randomization study design.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeNeurexins are neuronal adhesion molecules located in the presynaptic terminal, where they interact with postsynaptic neuroligins to form a transsynaptic complex required for efficient neurotransmission in the brain. Recently, deletions and point mutations of the neurexin 1 (NRXN1) gene have been associated with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate if NRXN1 deletions also increase the risk of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). Methods
We screened for deletions involving the NRXN1 gene in 1,569 patients with IGE and 6,201 controls using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Key FindingsWe identified exon-disrupting deletions of NRXN1 in 5 of 1,569 patients with IGE and 2 of 6,201 control individuals (p = 0.0049; odds ratio (OR) 9.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92–51.12). A complex familial segregation pattern in the IGE families was observed, suggesting that heterozygous NRXN1 deletions are susceptibility variants. Intriguingly, we identified a second large copy number variant in three of five index patients, supporting an involvement of heterogeneous susceptibility alleles in the etiology of IGE. SignificanceWe conclude that exon-disrupting deletions of NRXN1 represent a genetic risk factor in the genetically complex predisposition of common IGE syndromes.