[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type I diabetes mellitus, but current immunosuppressive strategies do not consistently provide long-term survival of transplanted islets. We are therefore investigating the use of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) as gene therapy vectors to transduce rat islets with immunosuppressive genes prior to transplantation into diabetic mice.
We compared the transduction efficiency of AAV2 vectors with an AAV2 capsid (AAV2/2) to AAV2 vectors pseudotyped with AAV5 (AAV2/5), AAV8 (AAV2/8) or bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) capsids, or an AAV2 capsid with an insertion of the low density lipoprotein receptor ligand from apolipoprotein E (AAV2apoE), on cultured islets, in the presence of helper adenovirus infection to speed expression of a GFP transgene. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used. The AAV2/5 vector was superior to AAV2/2 and AAV2/8 in rat islets. Flow cytometry indicated AAV2/5-mediated gene expression in approximately 9% of rat islet cells and almost 12% of insulin-positive cells. The AAV2/8 vector had a higher dependence on the helper virus multiplicity of infection than the AAV 2/5 vector. In addition, the BAAV and AAV2apoE vectors were superior to AAV2/2 for transducing rat islets. Rat islets (300 per mouse) transduced with an AAV2/5 vector harboring the immunosuppressive transgene, tgf beta 1, retain the ability to correct hyperglycemia when transplanted into immune-deficient diabetic mice.
AAV2/5 vectors may therefore be useful for pre-treating donor islets prior to transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, first identified in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), is involved in the intracellular trafficking of lipids. Sixteen mammalian START domain-containing proteins have been identified to date. StAR, a protein targeted to mitochondria, stimulates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membranes, where it is metabolized into pregnenolone in steroidogenic cells. MLN64, the START domain protein most closely related to StAR, is localized to late endosomes along with other proteins involved in sterol trafficking, including NPC1 and NPC2, where it has been postulated to participate in sterol distribution to intracellular membranes. To investigate the role of MLN64 in sterol metabolism, we created mice with a targeted mutation in the Mln64 START domain, expecting to find a phenotype similar to that in humans and mice lacking NPC1 or NPC2 (progressive neurodegenerative symptoms, free cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes). Unexpectedly, mice homozygous for the Mln64 mutant allele were viable, neurologically intact, and fertile. No significant alterations in plasma lipid levels, liver lipid content and distribution, and expression of genes involved in sterol metabolism were observed, except for an increase in sterol ester storage in mutant mice fed a high fat diet. Embryonic fibroblast cells transfected with the cholesterol side-chain cleavage system and primary cultures of granulosa cells from Mln64 mutant mice showed defects in sterol trafficking as reflected in reduced conversion of endogenous cholesterol to steroid hormones. These observations suggest that the Mln64 START domain is largely dispensable for sterol metabolism in mice.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(18):19276-85. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously established that the ABCA1 transporter, which plays a critical role in the lipidation of extracellular apolipoprotein acceptors, traffics between late endocytic vesicles and the cell surface (Neufeld, E. B., Remaley, A. T., Demosky, S. J., Jr., Stonik, J. A., Cooney, A. M., Comly, M., Dwyer, N. K., Zhang, M., Blanchette-Mackie, J., Santamarina-Fojo, S., and Brewer, H. B., Jr. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 27584-27590). The present study provides evidence that ABCA1 in late endocytic vesicles plays a role in cellular lipid efflux. Late endocytic trafficking was defective in Tangier disease fibroblasts that lack functional ABCA1. Consistent with a late endocytic protein trafficking defect, the hydrophobic amine U18666A retained NPC1 in abnormally tubulated, cholesterol-poor, Tangier disease late endosomes, rather than cholesterol-laden lysosomes, as in wild type fibroblasts. Consistent with a lipid trafficking defect, Tangier disease late endocytic vesicles accumulated both cholesterol and sphingomyelin and were immobilized in a perinuclear localization. The excess cholesterol in Tangier disease late endocytic vesicles retained massive amounts of NPC1, which traffics lysosomal cholesterol to other cellular sites. Exogenous apoA-I abrogated the cholesterol-induced retention of NPC1 in wild type but not in Tangier disease late endosomes. Adenovirally mediated ABCA1-GFP expression in Tangier disease fibroblasts corrected the late endocytic trafficking defects and restored apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux. ABCA1-GFP expression in wild type fibroblasts also reduced late endosome-associated NPC1, induced a marked uptake of fluorescent apoA-I into ABCA1-GFP-containing endosomes (that shuttled between late endosomes and the cell surface), and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux. The combined results of this study suggest that ABCA1 converts pools of late endocytic lipids that retain NPC1 to pools that can associate with endocytosed apoA-I, and be released from the cell as nascent high density lipoprotein.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(15):15571-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular location of Niemann-Pick C2 protein (NPC2) in cultured human fibroblasts and Chinese hamster ovary cells was examined immunocytochemically and in living cells by expression of a functional red fluorescent protein chimeric analogue. RESULTS: NPC2 is present in the lysosomes of both cholesterol-depleted and -replenished cells, unlike Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) which is recruited to late endosomes only upon uptake of low-density lipoprotein. With mobilization of cholesterol from lysosomes, immunocytochemical detection of NPC2 in lysosomes is greatly diminished, whereas NPC1 remains in the late endosomal compartment. We found a partial overlap in the trafficking and organellar sites of accumulation of NPC2 and NPC1. In living cells, NPC2 traffics with NPC1 in late endosomal tubules. However, in contrast to NPC1, which remains either in late endosomal vesicles and tubules or at the peripheries of cholesterol-laden lysosomes, NPC2 moves into the central core of lysosomes. Glycolipid analysis reveals that, in contrast to null mutant NPC1 cells, which accumulate GM2 ganglioside only at the plasma membrane, with no endocytic storage, absence of NPC2 protein in null mutant NPC2 cells does not block internalization of GM2 into endocytic vesicles. This difference in the cellular distribution of GM2 in NPC1 and NPC2 null mutants is the first report of a variation in the phenotypic expression of these genotypically distinct lesions. CONCLUSION: We speculate that while NPC1 may play a major role in the sorting of glycolipids as well as cholesterol within the late endosomes, NPC2 primarily plays a role in the egress of cholesterol and, potentially, glycolipids from lysosomes. These proteins appear not to be integrated into a tightly bound biological complex, but rather represent separate functional entities that complement each other.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain-containing protein, MLN64, participates in intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Analysis of the intracellular itinerary of MLN64 and MLN64 mutants tagged with green fluorescent protein showed that the N-terminal transmembrane domains mediate endocytosis of MLN64 from the plasma membrane to late endocytic compartments. MLN64 constitutively traffics via dynamic NPC1-containing late endosomal tubules in normal cells; this dynamic movement was inhibited in cholesterol-loaded cells, and MLN64 is trapped at the periphery of cholesterol-laden lysosomes. The MLN64 START domain stimulated free cholesterol transfer from donor to acceptor mitochondrial membranes and enhanced steroidogenesis by placental mitochondria. Expression of a truncated form of MLN64 (DeltaSTART-MLN64), which contains N-terminal transmembrane domains but lacks the START domain, caused free cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes and inhibited late endocytic dynamics. The DeltaSTART-MLN64 dominant negative protein was located at the surface of the cholesterol-laden lysosomes. This dominant negative mutant suppressed steroidogenesis in COS cells expressing the mitochondrial cholesterol side chain cleavage system. We conclude that MLN64 participates in mobilization and utilization of lysosomal cholesterol by virtue of the START domain's role in cholesterol transport.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(36):33300-10. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABCA1, the ATP-binding cassette protein mutated in Tangier disease, mediates the efflux of excess cellular sterol to apoA-I
and thereby the formation of high density lipoprotein. The intracellular localization and trafficking of ABCA1 was examined
in stably and transiently transfected HeLa cells expressing a functional human ABCA1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion
protein. The fluorescent chimeric ABCA1 transporter was found to reside on the cell surface and on intracellular vesicles
that include a novel subset of early endosomes, as well as late endosomes and lysosomes. Studies of the localization and trafficking
of ABCA1-GFP in the presence of brefeldin A or monensin, agents known to block intracellular vesicular trafficking, as well
as apoA-I-mediated cellular lipid efflux, showed that: (i) ABCA1 functions in lipid efflux at the cell surface, and (ii) delivery
of ABCA1 to lysosomes for degradation may serve as a mechanism to modulate its surface expression. Time-lapse fluorescence
microscopy revealed that ABCA1-GFP-containing early endosomes undergo fusion, fission, and tubulation and transiently interact
with one another, late endocytic vesicles, and the cell surface. These studies establish a complex intracellular trafficking
pathway for human ABCA1 that may play important roles in modulating ABCA1 transporter activity and cellular cholesterol homeostasis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2001; 276(29):27584-27590. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann–Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease results from a defect in the NPC1 protein and is characterized by a pathological accumulation of cholesterol and glycolipids in endocytic organelles. We followed the biosynthesis and trafficking of NPC1 with the use of a functional green fluorescent protein-fused NPC1. Newly synthesized NPC1 is exported from the endoplasmic reticulum and requires transit through the Golgi before it is targeted to late endosomes. NPC1-containing late endosomes then move by a dynamic process involving tubulation and fission, followed by rapid retrograde and anterograde migration along microtubules. Cell fusion studies with normal and mutant NPC1 cells show that exchange of contents between late endosomes and lysosomes depends upon ongoing tubulovesicular late endocytic trafficking. In turn, rapid endosomal tubular movement requires an intact NPC1 sterol-sensing domain and is retarded by an elevated endosomal cholesterol content. We conclude that the neuropathology and cellular lysosomal lipid accumulation in NPC1 disease results, at least in part, from striking defects in late endosomal tubulovesicular trafficking.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2001; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein and endocytosed low density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol were shown to enrich separate subsets of vesicles containing lysosomal associated membrane protein 2. Localization of Rab7 in the NPC1-containing vesicles and enrichment of lysosomal hydrolases in the cholesterol-containing vesicles confirmed that these organelles were late endosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Lysobisphosphatidic acid, a lipid marker of the late endosomal pathway, was found in the cholesterol-enriched lysosomes. Recruitment of NPC1 to Rab7 compartments was stimulated by cellular uptake of cholesterol. The NPC1 compartment was shown to be enriched in glycolipids, and internalization of GalNAcbeta1-4[NeuAcalpha2-3]Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'-ceramide (G(M2)) into endocytic vesicles depends on the presence of NPC1 protein. The glycolipid profiles of the NPC1 compartment could be modulated by LDL uptake and accumulation of lysosomal cholesterol. Expression in cells of biologically active NPC1 protein fused to green fluorescent protein revealed rapidly moving and flexible tubular extensions emanating from the NPC1-containing vesicles. We conclude that the NPC1 compartment is a dynamic, sterol-modulated sorting organelle involved in the trafficking of plasma membrane-derived glycolipids as well as plasma membrane and endocytosed LDL cholesterol.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2001; 276(5):3417-25. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the NPC1 gene cause Niemann-Pick type C disease, which is characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol and other lipids in lysosomes. The NPC1 glycoprotein is located in a late endosomal compartment that transiently interacts with lysosomes. To identify factors regulating NPC1 expression and action, we analyzed the function of the human NPC1 promoter in human-derived ovarian, hepatic, and neuronal cells. A fragment containing the first 208 base pairs upstream from the major transcription initiation site was sufficient to drive near maximal NPC1 promoter activity. Deletion analysis revealed that sequences between base pairs -111 and -37 play an important role in controlling NPC1 transcription. Treatment of proliferating granulosa cells with 30 microM progesterone, which induces a reversible phenocopy of the cholesterol trafficking defect of Niemann-Pick type C disease, increased NPC1 mRNA levels threefold. The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, also increased NPC1 mRNA levels, augmenting the progesterone-induced increase in NPC1 mRNA abundance. Progesterone treatment was shown to increase the mRNA half-life, but did not affect NPC1 promoter activity. Cysteine residues in a "cysteine-rich" loop predicted to reside in the intralumenal compartment of vesicles containing NPC1 were mutated, resulting in proteins that were incapable of correcting the cholesterol trafficking defect in CT60 cells, a Chinese hamster cell line in which the endogenous NPC1 gene is inactivated. Converting isoleucine 1061, also predicted to lie within the cysteine-rich loop, to a threonine residue inactivated the protein as well. The I1061T mutation is one of the most common mutations in Niemann-Pick type C disease. All of the cysteine-rich loop mutants were localized to cholesterol-engorged lysosomes in a pattern mimicking the distribution of NPC1 in progesterone-treated cells. A recombinant protein representing the cysteine-rich loop was shown to bind to a zinc-NTA agarose column. We conclude: (1) that cis elements residing in the first 111 base pairs upstream from the transcription start site are critical for transcription of the NPC1 gene; (2) that NPC1 expression is subject to posttranscriptional regulation in response to treatments that disrupt NPC1 function; and (3) that an intralumenal cysteine-rich loop with zinc-binding activity is critical to NPC1's ability to unload lysosomal cargo.
Experimental Cell Research 09/2000; 259(1):247-56. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steroidogenic cells represent unique systems for the exploration of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. We employed cytochemical and biochemical methods to explore the expression, regulation, and function of the Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) in human granulosa-lutein cells. NPC1 was localized in a subset of lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP-2)-positive vesicles. By analyzing the sensitivity of NPC1 N-linked oligosaccharide chains to glycosidases and neuraminidase, evidence was obtained for movement of nascent NPC1 from the endoplasmic reticulum through the medial and trans compartments of the Golgi apparatus prior to its appearance in cytoplasmic vesicles. NPC1 protein content and the morphology and cellular distribution of NPC1-containing vesicles were not affected by treatment of the granulosa-lutein cells with 8-Br-cAMP, which stimulates cholesterol metabolism into progesterone. In contrast, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein levels were increased by 8-Br-cAMP. Incubation of granulosa-lutein cells with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the presence of the hydrophobic amine, U18666A, caused accumulation of free cholesterol in granules, identified by filipin staining, that contained LAMP-2 and NPC1. These granules also stained for neutral lipid with Nile red, reflecting accumulation of LDL-derived cholesterol esters. LDL-stimulated progesterone synthesis was completely blocked by U18666A, leaving steroid output at levels similar to those of cells incubated in the absence of LDL. The hydrophobic amine also blocked the LDL augmentation of 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated progesterone synthesis, reducing steroid production to levels seen in cells stimulated with 8-Br-cAMP in the absence of LDL. Steroidogenesis recovered after U18666A was removed from the culture medium. U18666A treatment caused a 2-fold or more increase in NPC1 protein and mRNA levels, suggesting that disruption of NPC1's function activates a compensatory mechanism resulting in increased NPC1 synthesis. We conclude that the NPC1 compartment plays an important role in the trafficking of LDL-derived substrate in steroidogenic cells; that NPC1 expression is up-regulated when NPC1 action is blocked; and that the NPC1 compartment can be functionally separated from other intracellular pathways contributing substrate for steroidogenesis.
Experimental Cell Research 03/2000; 255(1):56-66. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, characterized by accumulation of low density lipoprotein-derived free cholesterol in lysosomes, is caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. We examined the ability of wild-type NPC1 and NPC1 mutants to correct the NPC sterol trafficking defect and their subcellular localization in CT60 cells. Cells transfected with wild-type NPC1 expressed 170- and 190-kDa proteins. Tunicamycin treatment resulted in a 140-kDa protein, the deduced size of NPC1, suggesting that NPC1 is N-glycosylated. Mutation of all four asparagines in potential N-terminal N-glycosylation sites to glutamines resulted in a 20-kDa reduction of the expressed protein. Proteins with a single N-glycosylation site mutation localized to late endosome/lysosomal compartments, as did wild-type NPC1, and each corrected the cholesterol trafficking defect. However, mutation of all four potential N-glycosylation sites reduced ability to correct the NPC phenotype commensurate with reduced expression of the protein. Mutations in the putative sterol-sensing domain resulted in inactive proteins targeted to lysosomal membranes encircling cholesterol-laden cores. N-terminal leucine zipper motif mutants could not correct the NPC defect, although they accumulated in lysosomal membranes. We conclude that NPC1 is a glycoprotein that must have an intact sterol-sensing domain and leucine zipper motif for cholesterol-mobilizing activity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1999; 274(31):21861-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All vertebrate eggs have extracellular matrices, referred to as the zona pellucida in Mus musculus and the vitelline envelope in Xenopus laevis. The mouse zona, composed of three sulfated glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3), is critical for fertilization and early development, and mice lacking a zona pellucida produce no live offspring. The primary structures of mouse ZP1 (623 amino acids), ZP2 (713 amino acids) and ZP3 (424 amino acids) have been deduced from full-length cDNAs, but posttranslational modifications result in mature zona proteins with molecular masses of 200-180 kDa, 140-120 kDa, and 83 kDa, respectively. The vitelline envelope forms a similar structure around Xenopus eggs and contains three glycoproteins that are structurally related (39-48% amino acid similarity) to the three mouse zona proteins. To investigate whether the structural semblances are sufficient to allow incorporation of the mouse zona proteins into the Xenopus vitelline envelope, capped synthetic mRNAs encoding ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 proteins were injected into the cytoplasm of stage VI Xenopus oocytes. After 20 h of incubation the oocytes were harvested, and posttranslationally modified zona proteins were detected with monoclonal antibodies specific to mouse ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3. The oocytes were imaged with confocal microscopy to detect individual zona proteins in the extracellular matrix of the oocytes, and this localization was confirmed biochemically. Thus the mouse zona proteins appear to have been sufficiently conserved through 350 million years of evolution to be incorporated into the extracellular envelope surrounding Xenopus eggs.
Development Genes and Evolution 07/1999; 209(6):330-9. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder. A variety of studies have highlighted defective sterol trafficking from lysosomes in NP-C cells. However, the heterogeneous nature of additional accumulating metabolites suggests that the cellular lesion may involve a more generalized block in retrograde lysosomal trafficking. Immunocytochemical studies in fibroblasts reveal that the NPC1 gene product resides in a novel set of lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP2)(+)/mannose 6-phosphate receptor(-) vesicles that can be distinguished from cholesterol-enriched LAMP2(+) lysosomes. Drugs that block sterol transport out of lysosomes also redistribute NPC1 to cholesterol-laden lysosomes. Sterol relocation from lysosomes in cultured human fibroblasts can be blocked at 21 degrees C, consistent with vesicle-mediated transfer. These findings suggest that NPC1(+) vesicles may transiently interact with lysosomes to facilitate sterol relocation. Independent of defective sterol trafficking, NP-C fibroblasts are also deficient in vesicle-mediated clearance of endocytosed [14C]sucrose. Compartmental modeling of the observed [14C]sucrose clearance data targets the trafficking defect caused by mutations in NPC1 to an endocytic compartment proximal to lysosomes. Low density lipoprotein uptake by normal cells retards retrograde transport of [14C]sucrose through this same kinetic compartment, further suggesting that it may contain the sterol-sensing NPC1 protein. We conclude that a distinctive organelle containing NPC1 mediates retrograde lysosomal transport of endocytosed cargo that is not restricted to sterol.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1999; 274(14):9627-35. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an inherited lipid storage disorder that affects the viscera and central nervous system. A characteristic feature of NPC cells is the lysosomal accumulation of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol. To elucidate important structural features of the recently identified NPC1 gene product defective in NPC disease, we examined the ability of wild-type NPC1 and NPC1 mutants to correct the excessive lysosomal storage of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol in a model cell line displaying the NPC cholesterol-trafficking defect (CT60 Chinese hamster ovary cells). CT60 cells transfected with human wild-type NPC1 contained immunoreactive proteins of 170 and 190 kDa localized to the lysosomal/endosomal compartment. Wild-type NPC1 protein corrected the NPC cholesterol-trafficking defect in the CT60 cells. Mutation of conserved cysteine residues in the NPC1 N terminus to serine residues resulted in proteins targeted to lysosomal membranes encircling cholesterol-laden cores, whereas deletion of the C-terminal 4-aa residues containing the LLNF lysosome-targeting motif resulted in the expression of protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. None of these mutant NPC1 proteins corrected the NPC cholesterol-trafficking defect in CT60 cells. We conclude that transport of the NPC1 protein to the cholesterol-laden lysosomal compartment is essential for expression of its biological activity and that domains in the N terminus of the NPC1 protein are critical for mobilization of cholesterol from lysosomes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1999; 96(3):805-10. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an inherited lipid storage disorder that affects the viscera and central nervous system.
A characteristic feature of NPC cells is the lysosomal accumulation of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol. To elucidate
important structural features of the recently identified NPC1 gene product defective in NPC disease, we examined the ability of wild-type NPC1 and NPC1 mutants to correct the excessive
lysosomal storage of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol in a model cell line displaying the NPC cholesterol-trafficking
defect (CT60 Chinese hamster ovary cells). CT60 cells transfected with human wild-type NPC1 contained immunoreactive proteins
of 170 and 190 kDa localized to the lysosomal/endosomal compartment. Wild-type NPC1 protein corrected the NPC cholesterol-trafficking
defect in the CT60 cells. Mutation of conserved cysteine residues in the NPC1 N terminus to serine residues resulted in proteins
targeted to lysosomal membranes encircling cholesterol-laden cores, whereas deletion of the C-terminal 4-aa residues containing
the LLNF lysosome-targeting motif resulted in the expression of protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. None of these
mutant NPC1 proteins corrected the NPC cholesterol-trafficking defect in CT60 cells. We conclude that transport of the NPC1
protein to the cholesterol-laden lysosomal compartment is essential for expression of its biological activity and that domains
in the N terminus of the NPC1 protein are critical for mobilization of cholesterol from lysosomes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/1999; 96(3):805-810. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia is primarily explained in terms of the oxygen-dependent polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) followed by sickling of erythrocytes. Since the rate and extent of HbS polymerization depend on its intracellular concentration, it has been generally assumed that sickling occurs primarily in mature erythrocytes with their high intracellular hemoglobin concentration. In the present study, we investigated the propensity of nucleated erythroid precursors to undergo sickling; both cultured and fresh marrow-derived erythroid precursors from patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were studied. The results revealed that upon deoxygenation cultured erythroblasts underwent characteristic morphological deformation in the form of fine, fragile, elongated spicules. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated highly organized and tightly aligned hemoglobin fibers in the protruded regions. Bone marrow cells examined under partial or complete deoxygenated conditions displayed similar morphological changes. When cultured SS erythroid precursors were exposed to hydroxyurea or butyrate, drugs that may increase fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and inhibit intracellular polymerization, a significant decrease was observed in the propensity of these precursors to undergo sickling, accompanied by a three- to fivefold increase in HbF. These results suggest that, in addition to mature erythrocytes, nucleated erythroid precursors in the bone marrow have the capacity to undergo characteristic sickling as a result of HbS polymerization and may be involved in several aspects of the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia. Treatment with HbF-stimulating drugs may benefit patients with this disease by inhibiting polymerization-induced sickling of erythroid precursors in the marrow as well as mature erythrocytes in the peripheral blood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-proteins) expressed on the outer leaflet of cell membranes are involved in diverse physiologic as well as pathologic processes in humans. Previously, we demonstrated the intercellular transfer of overexpressed CD4-GPI in vitro from transduced HeLa cells to their parental cell line. In this report we present further information on the transfer process and the nature of the transferred GPI-proteins. In mixed-cell populations, the transfer of CD4-GPI was detectable within minutes at levels proportional to the ratio of donor and recipient cells. The amount of CD4-GPI detected with flow cytometry on the surface of the recipient cells varied according to cell type. Microscopy of mixed cell populations revealed discrete CD4-GPI containing aggregates on the target cells, whereas colocalized transfer of cytoplasm was not detected. Separation of cocultivated cells by semipermeable membranes largely prevented CD4-GPI transfer, but aggregates containing CD4-GPI were demonstrated by electron microscopy in supernatants passed through filters of 0.4-mm pore size.
Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 04/1998; 131(3):215-21. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucolipidosis type IV is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease of unknown etiology that causes severe neurological and ophthalmological abnormalities. In an attempt to obtain insight into the nature of the metabolic abnormality in this disorder, we prospectively evaluated 15 consecutive patients, aged 2 to 23 years, over a period of 22 months. The finding of iron deficiency in some of the patients led us to the discovery that all patients but one had markedly elevated blood gastrin levels. None had vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroscopy in three patients showed normal gross appearance of the mucosa in two patients, 4 and 7 years old, and mucosal atrophy in a 22-year-old. Parietal cells were present in normal numbers and contained large cytoplasmic inclusions that were confirmed immunohistochemically to be lysosomal in nature. Other gastric epithelial cells appeared normal. Parietal cells contained very few tubulovesicular membranes, suggesting cellular activation, whereas apical canaliculi appeared relatively nonactivated. Both subunits of the parietal cell H+/K+-ATPase were present, and both partially colocalized with f-actin at the apical membrane. We conclude that patients with mucolipidosis type IV are constitutively achlorhydric and have partially activated parietal cells. We hypothesize that the defective protein in this disease is closely associated with the final stages of parietal cell activation and is critical for a specific type of cellular vacuolar trafficking between the cytoplasm and the apical membrane domain.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1998; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin stimulates glucose transport in rat adipose cells through the translocation of GLUT4 from a poorly defined intracellular compartment to the cell surface. We employed confocal microscopy to determine the in situ localization of GLUT4 relative to vesicle, Golgi, and endosomal proteins in these physiological insulin target cells. Three-dimensional analyses of GLUT4 immunostaining in basal cells revealed an intracellular punctate, patchy distribution both in the perinuclear region and scattered throughout the cytoplasm. VAMP2 closely associates with GLUT4 in many punctate vesicle-like structures. A small fraction of GLUT4 overlaps with TGN38-mannosidase II, gamma-adaptin, and mannose-6-phosphate receptors in the perinuclear region, presumably corresponding to late endosome and trans-Golgi network structures. GLUT4 does not co-localize with transferrin receptors, clathrin, and Igp-120. After insulin treatment, GLUT4 partially redistributes to the cell surface and decreases in the perinuclear area. However, GLUT4 remains co-localized with TGN38-mannosidase II and gamma-adaptin. Therefore, the basal compartment from which GLUT4 is translocated in response to insulin comprises specialized post-endosomal VAMP2-positive vesicles, distinct from the constitutively recycling endosomes. These results are consistent with a kinetic model in which GLUT4 is sequestered through two or more intracellular pools in series.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 09/1997; 45(8):1083-96. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, a fatal neurovisceral disorder, is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol. By positional cloning methods, a gene (NPC1) with insertion, deletion, and missense mutations has been identified in NP-C patients. Transfection of NP-C fibroblasts with wild-type NPC1 cDNA resulted in correction of their excessive lysosomal storage of LDL cholesterol, thereby defining the critical role of NPC1 in regulation of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. The 1278-amino acid NPC1 protein has sequence similarity to the morphogen receptor PATCHED and the putative sterol-sensing regions of SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase.