P Björk

Active Biotech, Lund, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (53)218.39 Total impact

  • Pediatric Rheumatology 11/2013; 11(Suppl 1):A96-A96. DOI:10.1186/1546-0096-11-S1-A96 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S100A4 and S100A9 proteins have been described as playing roles in the control of tumor growth and metastasis. We show here that a chemical probe, oxyclozanide (OX), selected for inhibiting the interaction between S100A9 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) interacts with both S100A9 and S100A4. Furthermore, we show that S100A9 and S100A4 interact with RAGE and TLR4; interactions that can be inhibited by OX. Hence, S100A4 and S100A9 display similar functional elements despite their primary sequence diversity. This was further confirmed by showing that S100A4 and S100A9 dimerize both in vitro and in vivo. All of these interactions required levels of Zn(++) that are found in the extracellular space but not intracellularly. Interestingly, S100A4 and S100A9 are expressed by distinct CD11b(+) subpopulations both in healthy animals and in animals with either inflammatory disease or tumor burden. The functions of S100A9 and S100A4 described in this paper, including heterodimerization, may therefore reflect S100A9 and S100A4 that are released into the extra-cellular milieu.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63012. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063012 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: S100A12 is overexpressed during inflammation and a marker of inflammatory disease. Furthermore, it has been ascribed to the group of Damage Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) that promote inflammation. However, the exact role of human S100A12 during early steps of immune activation and sepsis is only partially described thus far. Objectives: We analyzed the activation of human monocytes by granulocyte-derived S100A12 as a key function of early inflammatory processes and the development of sepsis. Methods: Circulating S100A12 was determined in patients with sepsis and in healthy subjects with experimental endotoxemia. The release of human S100A12 from granulocytes as well as the promotion of inflammation by activation of human monocytes after specific receptor-interaction was investigated by a series of in vitro experiments. Measurements and Main Results: S100A12 rises during sepsis, and its expression and release from granulocytes is rapidly induced in vitro and in vivo by inflammatory challenge. A global gene expression analysis of S100A12-activated monocytes revealed that human S100A12 induces inflammatory gene expression. These effects are triggered by an interaction of S100A12 with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Blocking S100A12 binding to TLR4 on monocytes or TLR4 expressing cell lines (HEK-TCM) abrogates the respective inflammatory signal. On the contrary, blocking S100A12 binding to its second proposed receptor (RAGE) has no significant effect on inflammatory signaling in monocytes and RAGE expressing HEK293 cells. Conclusions: Human S100A12 is an endogenous TLR4 ligand that induces monocyte activation, thereby acting as an amplifier of innate immunity during early inflammation and the development of sepsis.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2013; 187(12). DOI:10.1164/rccm.201209-1602OC · 11.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The T lymphocytes are the most important effector cells in immunotherapy of cancer. The conceptual objective for developing the tumor targeted superantigen (TTS) ABR-217620 (naptumomab estafenatox, 5T4Fab-SEA/E-120), now in phase 3 studies for advanced renal cell cancer, was to selectively coat tumor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target structures functionally similar to natural CTL pMHC target molecules. Here we present data showing that the molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity by ABR-217620 resides in the distinct interaction between the T cell receptor β variable (TRBV) 7-9 and the engineered superantigen (Sag) SEA/E-120 in the fusion protein bound to the 5T4 antigen on tumor cells. Multimeric but not monomeric ABR-217620 selectively stains TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood similar to antigen specific staining of T cells with pMHC tetramers. SEA/E-120 selectively activates TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes resulting in expansion of the subset. ABR-217620 selectively triggers TRBV7-9 expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill 5T4 positive tumor cells. Furthermore, ABR-217620 activates TRBV7-9 expressing T cell line cells in the presence of cell- and bead-bound 5T4 tumor antigen. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that ABR-217620 binds to 5T4 with high affinity, to TRBV7-9 with low affinity and to MHC class II with very low affinity. The T lymphocyte engagement by ABR-217620 is constituted by displaying high affinity binding to the tumor cells (KD approximately 1 nM) and with the mimicry of natural productive immune TCR-pMHC contact using affinities of around 1 µM. This difference in kinetics between the two components of the ABR-217620 fusion protein will bias the binding towards the 5T4 target antigen, efficiently activating T-cells via SEA/E-120 only when presented by the tumor cells.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e79082. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079082 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical for the regulation of the inflammatory process via activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and cytokine secretion. In this report, we investigated the capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -free S100A9 (DAMP) protein to activate human and mouse cells compared with lipoprotein-free LPS (PAMP). First, we showed that LPS and S100A9 were able to increase NF-κB activity followed by increased cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) secretion both in human THP-1 cells and in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Surprisingly, although S100A9 triggered a weaker cytokine response than LPS, we found that S100A9 more potently induced IκBα degradation and hence NF-κB activation. Both the S100A9-induced response and the LPS-induced response were completely absent in TLR4 knockout mice, whereas it was only slightly affected in RAGE knockout mice. Also, we showed that LPS and S100A9 NF-κB induction were strongly reduced in the presence of specific inhibitors of TLR-signalling. Chloroquine reduced S100A9 but not LPS signalling, indicating that S100A9 may need to be internalized to be fully active as a TLR4 inducer. This was confirmed using A488-labelled S100A9 that was internalized in THP-1 cells, showing a raise in fluorescence after 30 min at 37°. Chloroquine treatment significantly reduced the fluorescence. In summary, our data indicate that both human and mouse S100A9 are TLR4 agonists. Importantly, S100A9 induced stronger NF-κB activation albeit weaker cytokine secretion than LPS, suggesting that S100A9 and LPS activated NF-κB in a qualitatively distinct manner.
    Immunology 07/2012; 137(2):172-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2012.03619.x · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By breeding TRAMP mice with S100A9 knock-out (S100A9(-/-)) animals and scoring the appearance of palpable tumors we observed a delayed tumor growth in animals devoid of S100A9 expression. CD11b(+) S100A9 expressing cells were not observed in normal prostate tissue from control C57BL/6 mice but were readily detected in TRAMP prostate tumors. Also, S100A9 expression was observed in association with CD68(+) macrophages in biopsies from human prostate tumors. Delayed growth of TRAMP tumors was also observed in mice lacking the S100A9 ligand TLR4. In the EL-4 lymphoma model tumor growth inhibition was observed in S100A9(-/-) and TLR4(-/-), but not in RAGE(-/-) animals lacking an alternative S100A9 receptor. When expression of immune-regulating genes was analyzed using RT-PCR the only common change observed in mice lacking S100A9 and TLR4 was a down-regulation of TGFβ expression in splenic CD11b(+) cells. Lastly, treatment of mice with a small molecule (ABR-215050) that inhibits S100A9 binding to TLR4 inhibited EL4 tumor growth. Thus, S100A9 and TLR4 appear to be involved in promoting tumor growth in two different tumor models and pharmacological inhibition of S100A9-TLR4 interactions is a novel and promising target for anti-tumor therapies.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e34207. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034207 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite more than 25 years of research, the molecular targets of quinoline-3-carboxamides have been elusive although these compounds are currently in Phase II and III development for treatment of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases in humans. Using photoaffinity cross-linking of a radioactively labelled quinoline-3-carboxamide compound, we could determine a direct association between human S100A9 and quinoline-3-carboxamides. This interaction was strictly dependent on both Zn++ and Ca++. We also show that S100A9 in the presence of Zn++ and Ca++ is an efficient ligand of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and also an endogenous Toll ligand in that it shows a highly specific interaction with TLR4/MD2. Both these interactions are inhibited by quinoline-3-carboxamides. A clear structure-activity relationship (SAR) emerged with regard to the binding of quinoline-3-carboxamides to S100A9, as well as these compounds potency to inhibit interactions with RAGE or TLR4/MD2. The same SAR was observed when the compound's ability to inhibit acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice in vivo was analysed. Quinoline-3-carboxamides would also inhibit TNFalpha release in a S100A9-dependent model in vivo, as would antibodies raised against the quinoline-3-carboxamide-binding domain of S100A9. Thus, S100A9 appears to be a focal molecule in the control of autoimmune disease via its interactions with proinflammatory mediators. The specific binding of quinoline-3-carboxamides to S100A9 explains the immunomodulatory activity of this class of compounds and defines S100A9 as a novel target for treatment of human autoimmune diseases.
    PLoS Biology 05/2009; 7(4):e97. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000097 · 11.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human S100A12 is a member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins that are associated with many diseases including cancer, chronic inflammation and neurological disorders. S100A12 is an important factor in host/parasite defenses and in the inflammatory response. Like several other S100 proteins, it binds zinc and copper in addition to calcium. Mechanisms of zinc regulation have been proposed for a number of S100 proteins e.g. S100B, S100A2, S100A7, S100A8/9. The interaction of S100 proteins with their targets is strongly dependent on cellular microenvironment. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that influence S100A12 oligomerization and target interaction. A comprehensive series of biochemical and biophysical experiments indicated that changes in the concentration of calcium and zinc led to changes in the oligomeric state of S100A12. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed that the presence of both calcium and zinc is essential for the interaction of S100A12 with one of its extracellular targets, RAGE--the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products. By using a single-molecule approach we have shown that the presence of zinc in tissue culture medium favors both the oligomerization of exogenous S100A12 protein and its interaction with targets on the cell surface. We have shown that oligomerization and target recognition by S100A12 is regulated by both zinc and calcium. Our present work highlighted the potential role of calcium-binding S100 proteins in zinc metabolism and, in particular, the role of S100A12 in the cross talk between zinc and calcium in cell signaling.
    BMC Biochemistry 05/2009; 10:11. DOI:10.1186/1471-2091-10-11 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Human S100A12 is a member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins that are associated with many diseases including cancer, chronic inflammation and neurological disorders. S100A12 is an important factor in host/parasite defenses and in the inflammatory response. Like several other S100 proteins, it binds zinc and copper in addition to calcium. Mechanisms of zinc regulation have been proposed for a number of S100 proteins e.g. S100B, S100A2, S100A7, S100A8/9. The interaction of S100 proteins with their targets is strongly dependent on cellular microenvironment. Results The aim of the study was to explore the factors that influence S100A12 oligomerization and target interaction. A comprehensive series of biochemical and biophysical experiments indicated that changes in the concentration of calcium and zinc led to changes in the oligomeric state of S100A12. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed that the presence of both calcium and zinc is essential for the interaction of S100A12 with one of its extracellular targets, RAGE – the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products. By using a single-molecule approach we have shown that the presence of zinc in tissue culture medium favors both the oligomerization of exogenous S100A12 protein and its interaction with targets on the cell surface. Conclusion We have shown that oligomerization and target recognition by S100A12 is regulated by both zinc and calcium. Our present work highlighted the potential role of calcium-binding S100 proteins in zinc metabolism and, in particular, the role of S100A12 in the cross talk between zinc and calcium in cell signaling.
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    ABSTRACT: The structure of a mutant form of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been determined to 2.1 A resolution. The studied SEA substitution H187-->A187 (SEAH187A) leads to an almost 10-fold reduction of the binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. H187 is important for this interaction since it coordinates Zn2+. The zinc ion is thought to hold MHC class II and SEA together in a complex. Interestingly, only one of two molecules in the asymmetric unit binds Zn2+. H225, D227, a water molecule, and H44 from a symmetry-related molecule ligate Zn2+. The symmetry-related histidine is necessary for this substituted Zn2+ site to bind to Zn2+ at low zinc concentration (no Zn2+ added). Since a water molecule replaces the missing H187, H44 binds Zn2+ at the position where betaH81 from MHC class II probably will bind. Dynamic light scattering analysis reveals that in solution as well as in the crystal lattice the SEA(H187A) mutant forms aggregates. The substitution per se does not cause aggregation since wild-type SEA also forms aggregates. Addition of EDTA reduces the size of the aggregates, indicating a cross-linking function of Zn2+. In agreement with the biological function, the aggregation is weak (i.e. not revealed by gel filtration) and non-specific.
    JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 10/2001; 6(8):757-62. DOI:10.1007/s007750100251 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superantigens activate T-cells by linking the T-cell receptor to MHC class II on antigen-presenting cells, and novel reactivity can be introduced by fusing the superantigen to a targeting molecule. Thus, an antibody-targeted superantigen, which activates T cells to destroy tumour cells, might be used as cancer therapy. A suitable target is the 5T4 oncofetal antigen, which is expressed on many carcinomas. We constructed a fusion protein from a Fab of a monoclonal antibody recognizing the 5T4 antigen, and an engineered superantigen. The recombinant product 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)bound the 5T4 antigen expressed on the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line Calu-1 with a Kd of 1.2 nM while the substitution of Asp227 to Ala in the superantigen moiety reduced binding activity to MHC class II. 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)tumour reactivity was demonstrated in 7/7 NSCLC samples by immunohistochemistry, while normal tissue reactivity was low to moderate. 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)induced significant T-cell-dependent in vitro killing of sensitive 5T4 bearing Calu-1 cells, with maximum lysis at 10(-10)M, while the capacity to lyse MHC class II expressing cells was approximately 1000 times less effective. Immunotherapy of 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)against human NSCLC was investigated in SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mice carrying intreperitoneally growing Calu-1 cells showed significant reduction in tumour mass and number after intravenous therapy with 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A). Thus, 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)has highly attractive properties for therapy of human NSCLC.
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2001; 85(1):129-36. DOI:10.1054/bjoc.2001.1891 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Acta Oncologica 02/2001; 40(1):105-7. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    P Björk, T Knöös, P Nilsson
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to examine the validity of using silicon semiconductor detectors in degraded electron beams with a broad energy spectrum and a wide angular distribution. A comparison is made with diamond detector measurements, which is the dosimeter considered to give the best results provided that dose rate effects are corrected for. Two-dimensional relative absorbed dose distributions in electron beams (6-20 MeV) for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) are measured in a water phantom. To quantify deviations between the detectors, a dose comparison tool that simultaneously examines the dose difference and distance to agreement (DTA) is used to evaluate the results in low- and high-dose gradient regions, respectively. Uncertainties of the experimental measurement setup (+/- 1% and +/- 0.5 mm) are taken into account by calculating a composite distribution that fails this dose-difference and DTA acceptance limit. Thus, the resulting area of disagreement should be related to differences in detector performance. The dose distributions obtained with the diode are generally in very good agreement with diamond detector measurements. The buildup region and the dose falloff region show good agreement with increasing electron energy, while the region outside the radiation field close to the water surface shows an increased difference with energy. The small discrepancies in the composite distributions are due to several factors: (a) variation of the silicon-to-water collision stopping-power ratio with electron energy, (b) a more pronounced directional dependence for diodes than for diamonds, and (c) variation of the electron fluence perturbation correction factor with depth. For all investigated treatment cones and energies, the deviation is within dose-difference and DTA acceptance criteria of +/- 3% and +/- 1 mm, respectively. Therefore, p-type silicon diodes are well suited, in the sense that they give results in close agreement with diamond detectors, for practical measurements of relative absorbed dose distributions in degraded electron beams used for IORT.
    Medical Physics 12/2000; 27(11):2580-8. DOI:10.1118/1.1315317 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The X-ray structure of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has been determined at 1.69 A resolution. In this paper we present two structures of zinc-free SEH (apoSEH) and one zinc-loaded form of SEH (ZnSEH). SEH exhibits the conventional superantigen (SAg) fold with two characteristic domains. In ZnSEH one zinc ion per SEH molecule is bound to the C-terminal beta-sheet in the region implicated for major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) binding in SEA, SED and SEE. Surprisingly, the zinc ion has only two ligating amino acid residues His206 and Asp208. The other ligands to the zinc ion are two water molecules. An extensive packing interaction between two symmetry-related molecules in the crystal, 834 A(2)/molecule, forms a cavity that buries the zinc ions of the molecules. This dimer-like interaction is found in two crystal forms. Nevertheless, zinc-dependent dimerisation is not observed in solution, as seen in the case of SED. A unique feature of SEH as compared to other staphylococcal enterotoxins is a large negatively charged surface close to the Zn(2+) site. The interaction of SEH with MHC class II is the strongest known among the staphylococcal enterotoxins. However, SEH seems to lack a SEB-like MHC class II binding site, since the side-chain properties of structurally equivalent amino acid residues in SEH and those in SEB-binding MHC class II differ dramatically. There is also a structural flexibility between the domains of SEH. The domains of two apoSEH structures are related by a 5 degrees rotation leading to at most 3 A difference in C(alpha) positions. Since the T-cell receptor probably interacts with both domains, SEH by this rotation may modulate its binding to different TcR Vbeta-chains.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 10/2000; 302(3):527-37. DOI:10.1006/jmbi.2000.4093 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estramustine is a chemotherapeutic drug, used in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma. In the prostate, it binds specifically to a 46 kDa glycoprotein called estramustine-binding protein (EMBP), which consists of three polypeptide components; C1, C2, and C3, each coded for by a specific gene. Expression of EMBP and binding of estramustine has also been detected in malignant glioma in both rats and humans. Elevated levels of this protein in astrocytoma have proved to correlate with poor prognosis. In the present work, expression of all three polypeptide components of EMBP was confirmed in an orthotopic rat glioma model with nested reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blot (molecular weights of 8, 10, and 12 kDa). Specific binding of estramustine with a Kd of 40 for male and 50 for female rats, and a total number of binding sites of 0.7 and 0.4 pmol/mg proteins for male and female rats respectively, was demonstrated with Scatchard plot analysis. These binding characteristics are similar to those of prostatic EMBP. Further studies to elucidate how EMBP expression affects the effect of estramustine treatment, and its putative prognostic value is of special clinical interest. The confirmation of BMBP expression in BT4C rat glioma demonstrates its suitability as a model system for such studies.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 09/2000; 49(1):19-26. DOI:10.1023/A:1006494222148 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The superantigens staphylococcal enterotoxin A and E (SEA and SEE) can activate a large number of T-cells. SEA and SEE have approximately 80% sequence identity but show some differences in their biological function. Here, the two superantigens and analogues were characterized biophysically. SEE was shown to have a substantially higher thermal stability than SEA. Both SEA and SEE were thermally stabilized by 0.1 mM Zn(2+) compared with Zn(2+)-reduced conditions achieved using 1 mM EDTA or specific replacements that affect Zn(2+) coordination. The higher stability of SEE was only partly caused by the T-cell receptor (TCR) binding regions, whereas regions in the vicinity of the major histocompatibility complex class II binding sites affected the stability to a greater extent. SEE exhibited a biphasic denaturation between pH 5.0-6.5, influenced by residues in the TCR binding regions. Interestingly, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, isoelectric focusing, and circular dichroism analysis indicated that conformational changes had occurred in the SEA/E chimerical constructs relative to SEA and SEE. Thus, it is proposed that the Zn(2+) binding site is very important for the stability and potency of SEA and SEE, whereas residues in the TCR binding site have a substantial influence on the molecular conformation to control specificity and function.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2000; 275(3):1665-72. DOI:10.1074/jbc.275.3.1665 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has been described as a superantigen by sequence homology with the SEA subfamily and briefly characterized for its in vivo activity. In this study, we demonstrate that SEH is a potent T cell mitogen and inducer of T cell cytotoxicity that possesses unique MHC class II-binding properties. The apparent affinity of SEH for MHC class II molecules is the highest affinity ever measured for a staphylococcal enterotoxin (Bmax1/2 approximately 0.5 nM for MHC class II expressed on Raji cells). An excess of SEA or SEAF47A, which has reduced binding to the MHC class II alpha-chain, is able to compete for binding of SEH to MHC class II, indicating an overlap in the binding sites at the MHC class II beta-chain. The binding of SEH to MHC class II is like SEA, SED, and SEE dependent on the presence of zinc ions. However, SEH, in contrast to SEA, binds to the alanine-substituted DR1 molecule, betaH81A, believed to have impaired zinc-bridging capacity. Furthermore, alanine substitution of residues D167, D203, and D208 in SEH decreases the affinity for MHC class II as well as its in vitro potency. Together, this indicates an MHC class II binding site on SEH with a different topology as compared with SEA. These unique binding properties will be beneficial for SEH to overcome MHC class II isotype variability and polymorphism as well as to allow an effective presentation on APCs also at low MHC class II surface expression.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2000; 163(12):6686-93. · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of estramustine-binding protein has been suggested to positively correlate with the effect of the cytotoxic drug estramustine, a combination of estradiol and nornitrogen mustard used in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma. This study demonstrates expression of estramustine-binding protein in a series of meningioma using different ligand-based and immunological techniques. Scatchard plot analysis showed specific binding sites for [3H]lestramustine in meningioma tissue with a dissociation constant of 22-26 nM. Immunohistochemistry revealed an immunoreactivity in meningioma comparable to that demonstrated in prostatic carcinoma. The mean concentration (n = 6) of estramustine-binding protein in meningioma, as determined by radioimmunoassay was 159 ng/g tissue (range 18-274 ng/g). Moreover, partial characterization using size exclusion chromatography of [3H]estramustine-labeled tumor extracts and Western blot analysis of immunoprecipitated samples indicated that the structure of the estramustine-binding protein in meningioma is similar to that in rat prostate, with three polypeptide components of 10, 14, and 16 kDa, as compared to 8, 10-11, and 12 kDa in rat prostate. In conclusion, the novel observation of estramustine-binding protein and specific binding of estramustine in meningioma justify further evaluation regarding the role of estramustine-binding protein in the growth behavior of meningioma and the potential for estramustine and similar hormone-related drugs in the treatment of relapsing meningioma.
    Acta Neuropathologica 09/1999; 98(2):135-40. DOI:10.1007/s004010051061 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estracyt (EMP) has been used for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer for many years. Recently, new data from combination studies have given rise to new interest in this old drug. Explanations for the synergy found in the clinic are many, but one major factor may be the previous indication that the drug accumulates in the prostate tumor. We have, therefore, examined the level of the four metabolites, estromustine (EoM), estramustine (EaM), estrone, and estradiol in the tumor and serum of 14 patients with T2 and T3 prostate cancer receiving a single i.v. dose of 600 mg of EMP, about 12 h before radical prostatectomy. Because it has been suggested that the uptake into the prostate tumor is due to binding to the estramustine binding protein (EMBP), we have in addition measured the level of EMBP in the prostate tumor tissue. The main serum and tissue metabolite in all patients was EoM followed by EaM, estrone, and estradiol. The levels for EoM ranged from 63.8-162.8 ng/ml in the serum and from 64.8-1209 ng/ml in the prostate tumor, resulting in a mean ratio for serum to tumor of 1:5. The levels for EaM ranged from 8.3-51.4 ng/ml in the serum and 73.9-563.4 ng/ml in the tumor, giving a mean ratio for serum to tumor of 1:13. The levels of EMBP were higher in T3 tumors than in T2 tumors, 54.1 and 40.7 ng/g tissue, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the levels of EaM (r = 0.60) and the levels of EMBP in the tumor. These data demonstrate that 12 h after a single i.v. dose of 600 mg of EMP the levels of the cytotoxic metabolites EoM and EaM are substantially higher in the tumor than in the serum of the same patient and that a correlation exists between the levels of EaM in the tumor and the levels of EMBP. Thus, this supports the hypothesis that the EMBP is responsible for the retention of EoM and EaM in the prostate tumor.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/1998; 4(9):2079-84. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The monoclonal antibody 5T4, directed against a human tumor-associated antigen, was expressed as a secreted Fab superantigen fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The product is a putative agent for immunotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. During fermentation, most of the fusion protein leaked out from the periplasm to the growth medium at a level of approximately 40 mg/liter. This level was notably low compared with similar products containing identical CH1, CL, and superantigen moieties, and the Fv framework was therefore engineered. Using hybrid molecules, the light chain was found to limit high expression levels. Substituting five residues in VL increased the level almost 15 times, exceeding 500 mg/liter in the growth medium. Here, the substitutions Phe-10 --> Ser, Thr-45 --> Lys, Thr-77 --> Ser, and Leu-78 --> Val were most powerful. In addition, replacing four VH residues diminished cell lysis during fermentation. Thereby the product was preferentially located in the periplasm instead of the growth medium, and the total yield was more than 700 mg/liter. All engineered products retained a high affinity for the tumor-associated antigen. It is suggested that at least some of the identified framework residues generally have to be replaced to obtain high level production of recombinant Fab products in E. coli.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1997; 272(19):12430-6. DOI:10.1074/jbc.272.19.12430 · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
218.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2013
    • Active Biotech
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
    • Lund University
      • Department of Radiation Physics
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 1996
    • Uppsala University Hospital
      • Department of Oncology
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1994
    • Umeå University
      Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden
  • 1988–1992
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1987
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden