Per Björk

Active Biotech, Lund, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (8)40.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: S100A12 is overexpressed during inflammation and a marker of inflammatory disease. Furthermore, it has been ascribed to the group of Damage Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) that promote inflammation. However, the exact role of human S100A12 during early steps of immune activation and sepsis is only partially described thus far. Objectives: We analyzed the activation of human monocytes by granulocyte-derived S100A12 as a key function of early inflammatory processes and the development of sepsis. Methods: Circulating S100A12 was determined in patients with sepsis and in healthy subjects with experimental endotoxemia. The release of human S100A12 from granulocytes as well as the promotion of inflammation by activation of human monocytes after specific receptor-interaction was investigated by a series of in vitro experiments. Measurements and Main Results: S100A12 rises during sepsis, and its expression and release from granulocytes is rapidly induced in vitro and in vivo by inflammatory challenge. A global gene expression analysis of S100A12-activated monocytes revealed that human S100A12 induces inflammatory gene expression. These effects are triggered by an interaction of S100A12 with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Blocking S100A12 binding to TLR4 on monocytes or TLR4 expressing cell lines (HEK-TCM) abrogates the respective inflammatory signal. On the contrary, blocking S100A12 binding to its second proposed receptor (RAGE) has no significant effect on inflammatory signaling in monocytes and RAGE expressing HEK293 cells. Conclusions: Human S100A12 is an endogenous TLR4 ligand that induces monocyte activation, thereby acting as an amplifier of innate immunity during early inflammation and the development of sepsis.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2013; · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S100A4 and S100A9 proteins have been described as playing roles in the control of tumor growth and metastasis. We show here that a chemical probe, oxyclozanide (OX), selected for inhibiting the interaction between S100A9 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) interacts with both S100A9 and S100A4. Furthermore, we show that S100A9 and S100A4 interact with RAGE and TLR4; interactions that can be inhibited by OX. Hence, S100A4 and S100A9 display similar functional elements despite their primary sequence diversity. This was further confirmed by showing that S100A4 and S100A9 dimerize both in vitro and in vivo. All of these interactions required levels of Zn(++) that are found in the extracellular space but not intracellularly. Interestingly, S100A4 and S100A9 are expressed by distinct CD11b(+) subpopulations both in healthy animals and in animals with either inflammatory disease or tumor burden. The functions of S100A9 and S100A4 described in this paper, including heterodimerization, may therefore reflect S100A9 and S100A4 that are released into the extra-cellular milieu.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63012. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The T lymphocytes are the most important effector cells in immunotherapy of cancer. The conceptual objective for developing the tumor targeted superantigen (TTS) ABR-217620 (naptumomab estafenatox, 5T4Fab-SEA/E-120), now in phase 3 studies for advanced renal cell cancer, was to selectively coat tumor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target structures functionally similar to natural CTL pMHC target molecules. Here we present data showing that the molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity by ABR-217620 resides in the distinct interaction between the T cell receptor β variable (TRBV) 7-9 and the engineered superantigen (Sag) SEA/E-120 in the fusion protein bound to the 5T4 antigen on tumor cells. Multimeric but not monomeric ABR-217620 selectively stains TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood similar to antigen specific staining of T cells with pMHC tetramers. SEA/E-120 selectively activates TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes resulting in expansion of the subset. ABR-217620 selectively triggers TRBV7-9 expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill 5T4 positive tumor cells. Furthermore, ABR-217620 activates TRBV7-9 expressing T cell line cells in the presence of cell- and bead-bound 5T4 tumor antigen. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that ABR-217620 binds to 5T4 with high affinity, to TRBV7-9 with low affinity and to MHC class II with very low affinity. The T lymphocyte engagement by ABR-217620 is constituted by displaying high affinity binding to the tumor cells (KD approximately 1 nM) and with the mimicry of natural productive immune TCR-pMHC contact using affinities of around 1 µM. This difference in kinetics between the two components of the ABR-217620 fusion protein will bias the binding towards the 5T4 target antigen, efficiently activating T-cells via SEA/E-120 only when presented by the tumor cells.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e79082. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical for the regulation of the inflammatory process via activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and cytokine secretion. In this report, we investigated the capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -free S100A9 (DAMP) protein to activate human and mouse cells compared with lipoprotein-free LPS (PAMP). First, we showed that LPS and S100A9 were able to increase NF-κB activity followed by increased cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) secretion both in human THP-1 cells and in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Surprisingly, although S100A9 triggered a weaker cytokine response than LPS, we found that S100A9 more potently induced IκBα degradation and hence NF-κB activation. Both the S100A9-induced response and the LPS-induced response were completely absent in TLR4 knockout mice, whereas it was only slightly affected in RAGE knockout mice. Also, we showed that LPS and S100A9 NF-κB induction were strongly reduced in the presence of specific inhibitors of TLR-signalling. Chloroquine reduced S100A9 but not LPS signalling, indicating that S100A9 may need to be internalized to be fully active as a TLR4 inducer. This was confirmed using A488-labelled S100A9 that was internalized in THP-1 cells, showing a raise in fluorescence after 30 min at 37°. Chloroquine treatment significantly reduced the fluorescence. In summary, our data indicate that both human and mouse S100A9 are TLR4 agonists. Importantly, S100A9 induced stronger NF-κB activation albeit weaker cytokine secretion than LPS, suggesting that S100A9 and LPS activated NF-κB in a qualitatively distinct manner.
    Immunology 07/2012; 137(2):172-82. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By breeding TRAMP mice with S100A9 knock-out (S100A9(-/-)) animals and scoring the appearance of palpable tumors we observed a delayed tumor growth in animals devoid of S100A9 expression. CD11b(+) S100A9 expressing cells were not observed in normal prostate tissue from control C57BL/6 mice but were readily detected in TRAMP prostate tumors. Also, S100A9 expression was observed in association with CD68(+) macrophages in biopsies from human prostate tumors. Delayed growth of TRAMP tumors was also observed in mice lacking the S100A9 ligand TLR4. In the EL-4 lymphoma model tumor growth inhibition was observed in S100A9(-/-) and TLR4(-/-), but not in RAGE(-/-) animals lacking an alternative S100A9 receptor. When expression of immune-regulating genes was analyzed using RT-PCR the only common change observed in mice lacking S100A9 and TLR4 was a down-regulation of TGFβ expression in splenic CD11b(+) cells. Lastly, treatment of mice with a small molecule (ABR-215050) that inhibits S100A9 binding to TLR4 inhibited EL4 tumor growth. Thus, S100A9 and TLR4 appear to be involved in promoting tumor growth in two different tumor models and pharmacological inhibition of S100A9-TLR4 interactions is a novel and promising target for anti-tumor therapies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e34207. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite more than 25 years of research, the molecular targets of quinoline-3-carboxamides have been elusive although these compounds are currently in Phase II and III development for treatment of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases in humans. Using photoaffinity cross-linking of a radioactively labelled quinoline-3-carboxamide compound, we could determine a direct association between human S100A9 and quinoline-3-carboxamides. This interaction was strictly dependent on both Zn++ and Ca++. We also show that S100A9 in the presence of Zn++ and Ca++ is an efficient ligand of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and also an endogenous Toll ligand in that it shows a highly specific interaction with TLR4/MD2. Both these interactions are inhibited by quinoline-3-carboxamides. A clear structure-activity relationship (SAR) emerged with regard to the binding of quinoline-3-carboxamides to S100A9, as well as these compounds potency to inhibit interactions with RAGE or TLR4/MD2. The same SAR was observed when the compound's ability to inhibit acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice in vivo was analysed. Quinoline-3-carboxamides would also inhibit TNFalpha release in a S100A9-dependent model in vivo, as would antibodies raised against the quinoline-3-carboxamide-binding domain of S100A9. Thus, S100A9 appears to be a focal molecule in the control of autoimmune disease via its interactions with proinflammatory mediators. The specific binding of quinoline-3-carboxamides to S100A9 explains the immunomodulatory activity of this class of compounds and defines S100A9 as a novel target for treatment of human autoimmune diseases.
    PLoS Biology 05/2009; 7(4):e97. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human S100A12 is a member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins that are associated with many diseases including cancer, chronic inflammation and neurological disorders. S100A12 is an important factor in host/parasite defenses and in the inflammatory response. Like several other S100 proteins, it binds zinc and copper in addition to calcium. Mechanisms of zinc regulation have been proposed for a number of S100 proteins e.g. S100B, S100A2, S100A7, S100A8/9. The interaction of S100 proteins with their targets is strongly dependent on cellular microenvironment. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that influence S100A12 oligomerization and target interaction. A comprehensive series of biochemical and biophysical experiments indicated that changes in the concentration of calcium and zinc led to changes in the oligomeric state of S100A12. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed that the presence of both calcium and zinc is essential for the interaction of S100A12 with one of its extracellular targets, RAGE--the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products. By using a single-molecule approach we have shown that the presence of zinc in tissue culture medium favors both the oligomerization of exogenous S100A12 protein and its interaction with targets on the cell surface. We have shown that oligomerization and target recognition by S100A12 is regulated by both zinc and calcium. Our present work highlighted the potential role of calcium-binding S100 proteins in zinc metabolism and, in particular, the role of S100A12 in the cross talk between zinc and calcium in cell signaling.
    BMC Biochemistry 05/2009; 10:11. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Human S100A12 is a member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins that are associated with many diseases including cancer, chronic inflammation and neurological disorders. S100A12 is an important factor in host/parasite defenses and in the inflammatory response. Like several other S100 proteins, it binds zinc and copper in addition to calcium. Mechanisms of zinc regulation have been proposed for a number of S100 proteins e.g. S100B, S100A2, S100A7, S100A8/9. The interaction of S100 proteins with their targets is strongly dependent on cellular microenvironment. Results The aim of the study was to explore the factors that influence S100A12 oligomerization and target interaction. A comprehensive series of biochemical and biophysical experiments indicated that changes in the concentration of calcium and zinc led to changes in the oligomeric state of S100A12. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed that the presence of both calcium and zinc is essential for the interaction of S100A12 with one of its extracellular targets, RAGE – the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products. By using a single-molecule approach we have shown that the presence of zinc in tissue culture medium favors both the oligomerization of exogenous S100A12 protein and its interaction with targets on the cell surface. Conclusion We have shown that oligomerization and target recognition by S100A12 is regulated by both zinc and calcium. Our present work highlighted the potential role of calcium-binding S100 proteins in zinc metabolism and, in particular, the role of S100A12 in the cross talk between zinc and calcium in cell signaling.
    BMC Biochemistry. 01/2009;