[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nasal mucosa surface is continuously confronted with a broad variety of environmental antigens, ranging from harmless agents to potentially harmful pathogens. This area is under rigorous control of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Mucosal APCs play a crucial role in inducing primary immune responses and the establishment of an immunological memory. In the present study, a detailed characterization of CD172a(+) cells, containing the APCs residing in the equine nasal mucosa was performed for the first time. CD172a(+) cells were isolated from collagenase-treated equine nasal mucosa fragments by MACS. Expression of surface markers was determined by flow cytometry and functional analysis was done by measuring the uptake of FITC conjugated ovalbumin (FITC-OVA). Cell surface phenotype of the isolated cells was as follows: 90% CD172a(+), 30% CD1c(+), 46% CD83(+), 42% CD206(+) and 28% MHC II(+). This clearly differs from the phenotype of blood-derived monocytes: 96% CD172a(+), 4% CD1c(+), 11% CD83(+), 9% CD206(+), 72% MHC II(+) and blood monocyte derived DCs: 99% CD172a(+), 13% CD1c(+), 30% CD83(+), 51% CD206(+) and 93% MHC II(+). The CD172a(+) nasal mucosal cells were functionally able to endocytose FITC-OVA but to a lesser degree than monocyte-derived DCs. Together, these results demonstrate that the isolated CD172a(+) nasal mucosal cells resemble immature DCs in the nasal area.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The upper respiratory tract mucosa represents the first line of defense, which has to be overcome by pathogens before invading the host. Considering the economic and ethical aspects involved in using experimental animals for pathogenesis studies, respiratory mucosal explants, in which the tissue's three-dimensional architecture is preserved, may be ideal alternatives. Different respiratory mucosal explant cultures have been developed. However, none of them could be inoculated with pathogens solely at the epithelium side. In the present study, equine nasal and nasopharyngeal explants were embedded in agarose (3%), leaving the epithelium side exposed to allow apical inoculation. Morphometric analysis did not show degenerative changes during 72 h of cultivation. The number of apoptotic cells in the mucosa slightly increased over time. After validation, the system was used for apical infection with a European strain (08P178) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) (107.6TCID50/mL per explant). Impermeability of agarose to virus particles was demonstrated by the absence of labeled microspheres (40nm) and a lack of EAV-antigens in RK13 cells seeded underneath the agarose layer in which inoculated explants were embedded. At 72 hpi, 27% of the EAV-positive cells were CD172a+ and 19% were CD3+ in nasal explants and 45% of the EAV-positive cells were CD172a+ and 15% were CD3+ in nasopharyngeal explants. Only a small percentage of EAV-positive cells were IgM+. This study validates the usefulness of a polarized mucosal explant system and shows that CD172a+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes represent important EAV-target cells in the respiratory mucosa.
Veterinary Research 03/2013; 44(1):22. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adaptive immunity against PRRSV has already been studied in depth, but only limited data are available on the innate immune responses against this pathogen. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between porcine natural killer (NK) cells and PRRSV-infected primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), since NK cells are one of the most important components of innate immunity and PAMs are primary target cells of PRRSV infection. NK cytotoxicity assays were performed using enriched NK cells as effector cells and virus-infected or mock-inoculated PAMs as target cells. The NK cytotoxicity against PRRSV-infected PAMs was decreased starting from 6h post inoculation (hpi) till the end of the experiment (12hpi) and was significantly lower than that against pseudorabies virus (PrV)-infected PAMs. UV-inactivated PRRSV also suppressed NK activity, but much less than infectious PRRSV. Furthermore, co-incubation with PRRSV-infected PAMs inhibited degranulation of NK cells. Finally, using the supernatant of PRRSV-infected PAMs collected at 12hpi showed that the suppressive effect of PRRSV on NK cytotoxicity was not mediated by soluble factors. In conclusion, PRRSV-infected PAMs showed a reduced susceptibility toward NK cytotoxicity, which may represent one of the multiple evasion strategies of PRRSV.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge concerning microbial infectious diseases in the current amphibian crisis is rudimentary and largely limited to ranavirosis and chytridiomycosis. The family Chlamydiaceae is gaining attention as a common cause of disease in amphibians and may harbour new and emerging amphibian pathogens. We identified a novel species of Chlamydiales (Candidatus Amphibiichlamydia ranarum) with a prevalence of 71% in exotic invasive bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) from an introduced population in the Netherlands. The sequence of a 1474 bp 16S rRNA gene fragment showed that the novel taxon forms a well-defined clade with 'Candidatus Amphibiichlamydia salamandrae' within the Chlamydiaceae family. Although none of the tadpoles examined showed signs of clinical disease, urgent evaluation of its pathogenic potential for native amphibian species is required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination is regarded as the most efficient and cost-effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Vaccine design nowadays focuses on the implementation of safer recombinant subunit vaccines. However, these recombinant subunit antigens are often poor immunogens and several strategies are currently under investigation to enhance their immunogenicity. The encapsulation of antigens in biodegradable microparticulate delivery systems seems a promising strategy to boost their immunogenicity. Here, we evaluate the capacity of polyelectrolyte complex microparticles (PECMs), fabricated by single step spray-drying, to deliver antigens to porcine dendritic cells and how these particles affect the functional maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). As clinically relevant model antigen F4 fimbriae, a bacterial adhesin purified from a porcine-specific enterotoxigenic E. coli strain, was chosen. The resulting antigen-loaded PECMs are efficiently internalised by porcine monocyte-derived DCs. F4 fimbriae-loaded PECMs (F4-PECMs) enhanced CD40 and CD25 surface expression by DCs and this phenotypical maturation correlated with an increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β. More importantly, F4-PECMs enhance both the T cell stimulatory and antigen presentation capacity of DCs. Moreover, PECMs efficiently promoted the CD8(+) T cell stimulatory capacity of dendritic cells, indicating an enhanced ability to cross-present the encapsulated antigens. These results could accelerate the development of veterinary and human subunit vaccines based on polyelectrolyte complex microparticles to induce protective immunity against a variety of extra- and intracellular pathogens.
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 11/2012; · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TO THE EDITOR: Although 2 major diseases of amphibians, chytridiomycosis and ranavirosis, have been relatively well studied, enigmatic amphibian disease and death not attributable to any of the known amphibian diseases frequently occur (1). We describe an apparently new disease in salamanders that is associated with a novel genus within the family Chlamydiaceae.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although aspergillosis is one of the most common diseases in captive birds, the pathogenesis of avian aspergillosis is poorly known. We studied the role of avian respiratory macrophages as a first line of defense against avian aspergillosis. The phagocytic and killing capacities of avian respiratory macrophages were evaluated using pigeon respiratory macrophages that were inoculated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. On average, 25% of macrophage-associated conidia were phagocytosed after one hour. Sixteen percents of these cell-associated conidia were killed after 4 h and conidial germination was inhibited in more than 95% of the conidia. A. fumigatus conidia were shown to be cytotoxic to the macrophages. Intracellularly germinating conidia were located free in the cytoplasm of necrotic cells, as shown using transmission electron microscopy. These results suggest that avian respiratory macrophages may prevent early establishment of infection, unless the number of A. fumigatus conidia exceeds the macrophage killing capacity, leading to intracellular germination and colonization of the respiratory tract.
Veterinary Research 04/2012; 43(1):32. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter (H.) suis is the most prevalent non-H. pylori Helicobacter species colonizing the stomach of humans suffering from gastric disease. In the present study, we aimed to unravel the mechanism used by H. suis to induce gastric epithelial cell damage. H. suis lysate induced mainly apoptotic death of human gastric epithelial cells. Inhibition of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity present in H. suis lysate and incubation of AGS cells with purified native and recombinant H. suis GGT showed that this enzyme was partly responsible for the observed apoptosis. Supplementation of H. suis or H. pylori GGT-treated cells with glutathione strongly enhanced the harmful effect of both enzymes and resulted in the induction of oncosis/necrosis, demonstrating that H. suis and H. pylori GGT-mediated degradation of glutathione and the resulting formation of glutathione degradation products play a direct and active role in the induction of gastric epithelial cell death. This was preceded by an increase of extracellular H(2)O(2) concentrations, generated in a cell-independent manner and causing lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, H. suis and H. pylori GGT-mediated generation of pro-oxidant glutathione degradation products brings on cell damage and causes apoptosis or necrosis, dependent on the amount of extracellular glutathione available as a GGT substrate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several approaches have been described for differential staining of blastocysts, but these methods are often time-consuming and unreliable. Here we describe a method for simultaneous differential staining and detection of apoptosis. The differential staining is based on the transcription factor CDX2 which is localized in the nucleus of trophectoderm (TE) cells but absent in the inner cell mass (ICM). Apoptosis is detected by staining of active caspase-3, a key player in several apoptotic pathways. This new approach represents a robust method for quantifying simultaneously ICM/TE ratio and apoptotic cell ratio in bovine, murine, porcine, and human blastocysts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), which caused an epidemic in ruminants in central Western Europe in 2006 and 2007, seems to differ from other bluetongue serotypes in that it can spread transplacentally and has been associated with an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive problems. For these reasons, and also because BTV-8 is threatening to spread to other parts of the world, there is a need for more information on the consequences of infection during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hatched (i.e. zona pellucida-free) in vitro produced bovine blastocysts at 8-9 days post insemination are susceptible to BTV-8 and whether such infection induces cell death as indicated by apoptosis. Exposure of hatched in vitro produced bovine blastocysts for 1 h to a medium containing 103.8 or 104.9 TCID50 of the virus resulted in active viral replication in between 25 and 100% of the cells at 72 h post exposure. The infected blastocysts also showed growth arrest as evidenced by lower total cell numbers and a significant level of cellular apoptosis. We conclude from this in vitro study that some of the reproductive problems that are reported when cattle herds are infected with BTV-8 may be attributed to direct infection of blastocysts and other early-stage embryos in utero.
Veterinary Research 01/2011; 42(1):14. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported foodborne disease in the industrialized world, mainly through consumption of contaminated chicken meat. To date, no information is available on the primary infection sources of poultry. In this study, the ability of five Campylobacter jejuni strains with different invasion potential towards Caco-2 cells to survive and replicate in the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii was tested under simulated in situ conditions (i.e. chicken broiler houses). Results indicate that environmental conditions play a crucial role in C. jejuni-A. castellanii interactions. Co-culture in general did not result in an increase of either bacteria or amoebae. However, co-culture with Acanthamoeba did result in a delayed decline and an increased long-term survival of Campylobacter. Bacterial strain-specific effects were observed, with higher survival rates for low-invasive strains. The presence of C. jejuni in general did not affect A. castellanii viability, except at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions, where the presence of the reference and low-invasive Campylobacter strains resulted in a significant decline in amoebal viability. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that intra-amoebal campylobacters were not always colocated with acidic organelles, suggesting potential bacterial interference with digestive processes. As Acanthamoeba enhances the persistence of C. jejuni, the presence of the amoeba in broiler house environments may have important implications for the ecology and epidemiology of this food pathogen.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause severe diarrhea in neonatal and recently weaned piglets. Previously, we demonstrated that oral immunization of F4 receptor positive piglets with purified F4 fimbriae induces a protective F4-specific intestinal immune response. However, in F4 receptor negative animals no F4-specific immune response can be elicited, indicating that the induction of an F4-specific mucosal immune response upon oral immunisation is receptor-dependent. Although F4 fimbriae undergo transcytosis across the intestinal epithelium in vivo, the endocytosis pathways used remain unknown. In the present study, we characterized the internalization of F4 fimbriae in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. The results in the present study demonstrate that F4 fimbriae are internalized through a clathrin-dependent pathway. Furthermore, our results suggest that F4 fimbriae are transcytosed across differentiated IPEC-J2 cells. This receptor-dependent transcytosis of F4 fimbriae may explain the immunogenicity of these fimbriae upon oral administration in vivo.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 10/2010; 137(3-4):243-50. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibronectin (Fn) is a 440 kDa glycoprotein assumed to participate in sperm-egg interaction in human. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Fn--when present during bovine IVF--strongly inhibits sperm penetration. The present study was conducted firstly to evaluate the expression of Fn and its integrin receptor (alpha(5)beta(1)) on male and female bovine gametes using indirect immunofluorescence and secondly, to determine the function of Fn during bovine IVF. Endogenous Fn was detected underneath the zona pellucida (ZP) and integrin alpha(5) on the oolemma of cumulus-denuded oocytes. Bovine spermatozoa displayed integrin alpha(5) at their equatorial segment after acrosome reaction. We established that the main inhibitory effect of exogenously supplemented Fn was located at the sperm-oolemma binding, with a (concurrent) effect on fusion, and this can probably be attributed to the binding of Fn to spermatozoa at the equatorial segment, as shown by means of Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated Fn. Combining these results, the inhibitory effect of exogenously supplemented Fn seemed to be exerted on the male gamete by binding to the exposed integrin alpha(5)beta(1) receptor after acrosome reaction. The presence of endogenous Fn underneath the ZP together with integrin alpha(5) expression on oolemma and acrosome-reacted (AR) sperm cell surface suggests a 'velcro' interaction between the endogenous Fn ligand and corresponding receptors on both (AR) sperm cell and oolemma, initiating sperm-egg binding.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pullorum infections have been associated with several enterohepatic diseases, but the mechanism of action is currently undefined. The present study was therefore set up to investigate possible cytotoxic effects of this pathogen on liver cells. A mouse hepatic cell line was exposed to H. pullorum sonicate and cytotoxicity was observed for all isolates after incubation for 72 h. Features characteristic for mitotic catastrophe characterized by chromatin condensation, formation of multinuclear distended cells and micronucleation, were recorded. In addition, intranuclear pseudoinclusions were seen in sonicate-treated cells. Finally, cells exposed to sonicate eventually underwent cell death with the morphological features of necrosis, which occurred without activation of caspase-3. The toxic factor involved in the cytotoxic activity proved to be soluble, trypsin-sensitive and stable at 56 degrees C and at -70 degrees C with a molecular weight to be over 50 kDa. The current study shows for the first time that H. pullorum causes mitotic catastrophe resulting in primary necrosis in mouse hepatocytes.
Journal of Morphology 03/2009; 270(8):921-8. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virulence genes regulated by the SsrA/B system are indispensable for systemic disease in BALB/c mice. The role of this regulating system in the pathogenesis of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs is not documented. In the present study, the interactions of Salmonella Typhimurium and an ssrA/B mutant were compared in vitro and in vivo. The ssrA/B mutant strain displayed decreased Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI-2) expression levels, showed a replication defect in mouse macrophages and was attenuated in a mouse model after oral inoculation. Using real time qRT-PCR and a porcine ileal loop model, it was shown that the ssrA/B mutant strain was not significantly attenuated in overall virulence and SPI-1 expression in specific. Flowcytometric analysis demonstrated that the ssrA/B mutant strain was defective in intracellular replication in porcine macrophages. After oral inoculation of piglets with the wild type strain or the ssrA/B mutant strain, the animals of both groups excreted Salmonella and were colonized by Salmonella to the same extent. In an intravenous mixed infection model, the ssrA/B mutant strain was defective in the colonization of several internal organs. These results suggest that the ssrA/B gene of Salmonella Typhimurium plays a limited role in the persistent intestinal colonization of pigs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Because of the high prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry, poultry meat is considered a major source of C. jejuni infections for humans. However, it is not known whether all poultry-associated C. jejuni strains are capable of causing disease in humans. Four different virulence properties of C. jejuni strains were compared between 20 poultry isolates and 24 human isolates. Strains were chosen based on their PFGE pattern to represent a heterogeneous population. The isolates were compared for their ability to invade and induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in T84 cells, their production of functional cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) using HEp-2 cells, and their sodium deoxycholate resistance. All four virulence factors were present among strains of human and poultry origin, with strong differences observed among strains. For invasion and IL-8 induction, no difference was observed between the two populations. However, on average, human isolates arrested more HEp-2 cells in their cell cycle than did the poultry isolates (P=0.041), suggesting higher CDT production by the former. The ability to survive 16 000 mug sodium deoxycholate ml(-1) was significantly more pronounced (P=0.006) among human isolates than poultry isolates, although all strains possessed the cmeABC operon. These data suggest that all four virulence properties are widespread among C. jejuni isolates, but that a higher degree of bile-salt resistance and more pronounced CDT production are associated with strains causing enteritis in humans.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2007; 56(Pt 10):1284-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present review, several cell biological and molecular aspects of virus-cell and virus-host (pig) interactions are reviewed for pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus. Concerning the virus-cell interactions, the complex cascade of events in the virus replication cycle is given together with the different mechanisms of cell-to-cell spread. The pathogenesis of pseudorabies virus infections in pigs is concentrated on the sequence of events in the respiratory tract. Finally, a short overview is given on the control of the disease and eradication of the virus by the combination of marker vaccines and discriminating ELISA.
Veterinary Research 01/2007; 38(2):229-41. · 3.43 Impact Factor