[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: How the vesicular traffic of signaling molecules contributes to T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction at the immunological synapse remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that the protein tyrosine kinase Lck, the TCRζ subunit, and the adapter LAT traffic through distinct exocytic compartments, which are released at the immunological synapse in a differentially regulated manner. Lck vesicular release depends on MAL protein. Synaptic Lck, in turn, conditions the calcium- and synaptotagmin-7-dependent fusion of LAT and TCRζ containing vesicles. Fusion of vesicles containing TCRζ and LAT at the synaptic membrane determines not only the nanoscale organization of phosphorylated TCRζ, ZAP70, LAT, and SLP76 clusters but also the presence of phosphorylated LAT and SLP76 in interacting signaling nanoterritories. This mechanism is required for priming IL-2 and IFN-γ production and may contribute to fine-tuning T cell activation breadth in response to different stimulatory conditions.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2013; · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the key covalent modifications that occur in multicellular organisms. Since its discovery more than 30 years ago, tyrosine phosphorylation has come to be understood as a fundamentally important mechanism of signal transduction and regulation in all eukaryotic cells. The tyrosine kinase Lck (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) plays a crucial role in the T-cell response by transducing early activation signals triggered by TCR (T-cell receptor) engagement. These signals result in the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs present within the cytosolic tails of the TCR-associated CD3 subunits that, once phosphorylated, serve as scaffolds for the assembly of a large supramolecular signalling complex responsible for T-cell activation. The existence of membrane nano- or micro-domains or rafts as specialized platforms for protein transport and cell signalling has been proposed. The present review discusses the signals that target Lck to membrane rafts and the importance of these specialized membranes in the transport of Lck to the plasma membrane, the regulation of Lck activity and the phosphorylation of the TCR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is essential for many cellular processes, including cell polarity and migration. Cortical platforms, formed by a subset of MT plus-end-tracking proteins, such as CLASP2, and non-MT binding proteins such as LL5β, attach distal ends of MTs to the cell cortex. However, the mechanisms involved in organizing these platforms have not yet been described in detail. Here we show that 4.1R, a FERM domain-containing protein, interacts and colocalizes with cortical CLASP2 and is required for the correct number and dynamics of CLASP2 in cortical platforms. Protein 4.1R also controls binding of CLASP2 to MTs at the cell edge by locally altering GSK3 activity. Furthermore, in 4.1R-knock down cells MT plus-ends were maintained for longer in the vicinity of cell edges, but instead of being tethered to the cell cortex, MTs continued to grow, bending at cell margins and losing their radial distribution. Our results suggest a novel role for the scaffolding protein 4.1R that, by locally controlling CLASP2 behavior, CLASP2 cortical platform turnover, and GSK3 activity, enables correct MT organization and dynamics essential for cell polarity.
Journal of Cell Science 08/2013; · 5.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endothelium maintains a barrier between blood and tissue that becomes more permeable during inflammation. Membrane rafts are ordered assemblies of cholesterol, glycolipids and proteins that modulate proinflammatory cell signaling and barrier function. In epithelial cells, the MAL family members MAL, MAL2 and myeloid-associated differentiation marker (MYADM) regulate the function and dynamics of ordered membrane domains. We analyzed the expression of these three proteins in human endothelial cells and found that only MYADM is expressed. MYADM was confined in ordered domains at the plasma membrane, where it partially colocalized with filamentous actin and cell-cell junctions. siRNA-mediated MYADM knockdown increased permeability, ICAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion, all of which are features of an inflammatory response. Barrier function decrease in MYADM-silenced cells was dependent on ICAM-1 expression. Membrane domains and the underlying actin cytoskeleton can regulate each other and are connected by ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) proteins. In endothelial cells, MYADM knockdown induced ERM activation. Triple ERM knockdown partially inhibited ICAM-1 increase induced by MYADM siRNA. Importantly, ERM knockdown also reduced ICAM-1 expression in response to the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. MYADM therefore regulates the connection between the plasma membrane and the cortical cytoskeleton and so can control the endothelial inflammatory response.
Molecular biology of the cell 12/2012; · 5.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cell antigen receptor-proximal signaling components, Rho-family GTPases, and formin proteins DIA1 and FMNL1 have been implicated in centrosome reorientation to the immunological synapse of T lymphocytes. However, the role of these molecules in the reorientation process is not yet defined. Here we find that a subset of microtubules became rapidly stabilized and that their α-tubulin subunit posttranslationally detyrosinated after engagement of the T cell receptor. Formation of stabilized, detyrosinated microtubules required the formin INF2, which was also found to be essential for centrosome reorientation, but it occurred independently of T cell receptor-induced massive tyrosine phosphorylation. The FH2 domain, which was mapped as the INF2 region involved in centrosome repositioning, was able to mediate the formation of stable, detyrosinated microtubules and to restore centrosome translocation in DIA1-, FMNL1-, Rac1-, and Cdc42-deficient cells. Further experiments indicated that microtubule stabilization was required for centrosome polarization. Our work identifies INF2 and stable, detyrosinated microtubules as central players in centrosome reorientation in T cells.
The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2012; 198(6):1025-37. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial organ morphogenesis involves sequential acquisition of apicobasal polarity by epithelial cells and development of a functional lumen. In vivo, cells perceive signals from components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), such as laminin and collagens, as well as sense physical conditions, such as matrix stiffness and cell confinement. Alteration of the mechanical properties of the ECM has been shown to promote cell migration and invasion in cancer cells, but the effects on epithelial morphogenesis have not been characterized. We analyzed the effects of cell confinement on lumen morphogenesis using a novel, micropatterned, three-dimensional (3D) Madin-Darby canine kidney cell culture method. We show that cell confinement, by controlling cell spreading, limits peripheral actin contractility and promotes centrosome positioning and lumen initiation after the first cell division. In addition, peripheral actin contractility is mediated by master kinase Par-4/LKB1 via the RhoA-Rho kinase-myosin II pathway, and inhibition of this pathway restores lumen initiation in minimally confined cells. We conclude that cell confinement controls nuclear-centrosomal orientation and lumen initiation during 3D epithelial morphogenesis.
The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2012; 198(6):1011-23. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD200, an immunoglobulin superfamily membrane glycoprotein, is expressed in a number of B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, including primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, but not diffuse large B cell lymphoma, based on a preliminary study. Here, we compare the expression of CD200 with other markers of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, including MAL and CD23, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded histologic sections from a series of 35 cases of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma and 30 cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. CD200 exhibits the greatest staining sensitivity of the markers studied: 94%, compared with CD23 (69%), MAL (86%), TRAF (86%), and REL (77%). It exhibits staining specificity of 93%, similar to that of CD23 (93%) and MAL (97%), and greater than that of TRAF (77%) and REL (83%). We conclude that CD200 is a practical and useful marker for the diagnosis of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 17 August 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.129.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apical surface of mammalian bladder urothelium is covered by large (500-1000 nm) two-dimensional (2D) crystals of hexagonally packed 16-nm uroplakin particles (urothelial plaques), which play a role in permeability barrier function and uropathogenic bacterial binding. How the uroplakin proteins are delivered to the luminal surface is unknown. We show here that myelin-and-lymphocyte protein (MAL), a 17-kDa tetraspan protein suggested to be important for the apical sorting of membrane proteins, is coexpressed with uroplakins in differentiated urothelial cell layers. MAL depletion in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells did not affect, however, the apical sorting of uroplakins, but it decreased the rate by which uroplakins were inserted into the apical surface. Moreover, MAL knockout in vivo led to the accumulation of fusiform vesicles in mouse urothelial superficial umbrella cells, whereas MAL transgenic overexpression in vivo led to enhanced exocytosis and compensatory endocytosis, resulting in the accumulation of the uroplakin-degrading multivesicular bodies. Finally, although MAL and uroplakins cofloat in detergent-resistant raft fractions, they are associated with distinct plaque and hinge membrane subdomains, respectively. These data suggest a model in which 1) MAL does not play a role in the apical sorting of uroplakins; 2) the propensity of uroplakins to polymerize forming 16-nm particles and later large 2D crystals that behave as detergent-resistant (giant) rafts may drive their apical targeting; 3) the exclusion of MAL from the expanding 2D crystals of uroplakins explains the selective association of MAL with the hinge areas in the uroplakin-delivering fusiform vesicles, as well as at the apical surface; and 4) the hinge-associated MAL may play a role in facilitating the incorporation of the exocytic uroplakin vesicles into the corresponding hinge areas of the urothelial apical surface.
Molecular biology of the cell 02/2012; 23(7):1354-66. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In red blood cells, multifunctional protein 4.1R stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane. To contribute to the characterization of functional roles of 4.1R in nonerythroid cells, we have analyzed the participation of protein 4.1R in cell migration. The distribution of endogenous 4.1R is polarized towards the leading edge of migrating cells. Exogenous 4.1R isoforms containing a complete membrane-binding domain consistently localized to plasma membrane extensions enriched in F-actin. Silencing of 4.1R caused the loss of persistence of migration in subconfluent cells and of directional migration in cells moving into a wound. Coimmunoprecipitation and pull-down assays identified the scaffold protein IQGAP1 as a partner for protein 4.1R and showed that the 4.1R membrane-binding domain is involved in binding IQGAP1. Importantly, we show that protein 4.1R is necessary for the localization of IQGAP1 to the leading edge of cells migrating into a wound, whereas IQGAP1 is not required for protein 4.1R localization. Collectively, our results indicate a crucial role for protein 4.1R in cell migration and in the recruitment of the scaffold protein IQGAP1 to the cell front.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cell membrane receptors and signaling molecules assemble at the immunological synapse (IS) in a supramolecular activation cluster (SMAC), organized into two differentiated subdomains: the central SMAC (cSMAC), with the TCR, Lck, and linker for activation of T cells (LAT), and the peripheral SMAC (pSMAC), with adhesion molecules. The mechanism of protein sorting to the SMAC subdomains is still unknown. MAL forms part of the machinery for protein targeting to the plasma membrane by specialized mechanisms involving condensed membranes or rafts. In this article, we report our investigation of the dynamics of MAL during the formation of the IS and its role in SMAC assembly in the Jurkat T cell line and human primary T cells. We observed that under normal conditions, a pool of MAL rapidly accumulates at the cSMAC, where it colocalized with condensed membranes, as visualized with the membrane fluorescent probe Laurdan. Mislocalization of MAL to the pSMAC greatly reduced membrane condensation at the cSMAC and redistributed machinery involved in docking microtubules or transport vesicles from the cSMAC to the pSMAC. As a consequence of these alterations, the raft-associated molecules Lck and LAT, but not the TCR, were missorted to the pSMAC. MAL, therefore, regulates membrane order and the distribution of microtubule and transport vesicle docking machinery at the IS and, by doing so, ensures correct protein sorting of Lck and LAT to the cSMAC.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 186(11):6345-56. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: on February 16, 2011. *These authors contributed equally to this work. Address correspondence to: J. Millan (email@example.com) and M. A. Alonso (firstname.lastname@example.org). Abbreviations used: DRM, detergent-resistant membrane; GFP, green fluorescent protein; GP, general polarization; GST-PBD, GTPase-binding domain of PAK1; GST-RBD, GTPase-binding domain of Rhotekin; GTP, guanosine triphosphatase; HA, hemagglutinin; KD, knockdown; mAb, monoclonal antibody; MARVEL, MAL and related proteins for vesicle trafficking and membrane link; MYADM, myeloid-associated differentiation marker; TfR, transferrin receptor. ABSTRACT Membrane organization into condensed domains or rafts provides molecular platforms for selective recruitment of proteins. Cell migration is a general process that re-quires spatiotemporal targeting of Rac1 to membrane rafts. The protein machinery respon-sible for making rafts competent to recruit Rac1 remains elusive. Some members of the MAL family of proteins are involved in specialized processes dependent on this type of membrane. Because condensed membrane domains are a general feature of the plasma membrane of all mammalian cells, we hypothesized that MAL family members with ubiquitous expression and plasma membrane distribution could be involved in the organization of membranes for cell migration. We show that myeloid-associated differentiation marker (MYADM), a protein with unique features within the MAL family, colocalizes with Rac1 in membrane protrusions at the cell surface and distributes in condensed membranes. MYADM knockdown (KD) cells had al-tered membrane condensation and showed deficient incorporation of Rac1 to membrane raft fractions and, similar to Rac1 KD cells, exhibited reduced cell spreading and migration. Results of rescue-of-function experiments by expression of MYADM or active Rac1L61 in cells knocked down for Rac1 or MYADM, respectively, are consistent with the idea that MYADM and Rac1 act on parallel pathways that lead to similar functional outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane organization into condensed domains or rafts provides molecular platforms for selective recruitment of proteins. Cell migration is a general process that requires spatiotemporal targeting of Rac1 to membrane rafts. The protein machinery responsible for making rafts competent to recruit Rac1 remains elusive. Some members of the MAL family of proteins are involved in specialized processes dependent on this type of membrane. Because condensed membrane domains are a general feature of the plasma membrane of all mammalian cells, we hypothesized that MAL family members with ubiquitous expression and plasma membrane distribution could be involved in the organization of membranes for cell migration. We show that myeloid-associated differentiation marker (MYADM), a protein with unique features within the MAL family, colocalizes with Rac1 in membrane protrusions at the cell surface and distributes in condensed membranes. MYADM knockdown (KD) cells had altered membrane condensation and showed deficient incorporation of Rac1 to membrane raft fractions and, similar to Rac1 KD cells, exhibited reduced cell spreading and migration. Results of rescue-of-function experiments by expression of MYADM or active Rac1L61 in cells knocked down for Rac1 or MYADM, respectively, are consistent with the idea that MYADM and Rac1 act on parallel pathways that lead to similar functional outcomes.
Molecular biology of the cell 02/2011; 22(8):1252-62. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the src-family kinase lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) at the plasma membrane is essential for it to fulfill its pivotal role in signal transduction in T lymphocytes. MAL, an integral membrane protein expressed in specific types of lymphoma, has been shown to play an important role in targeting Lck to the plasma membrane. Here we report that MAL interacts with Inverted Formin2 (INF2), a formin with the atypical property of promoting not only actin polymerization but also its depolymerization. In Jurkat T cells, INF2 colocalizes with MAL at the cell periphery and pericentriolar endosomes and along microtubules. Videomicroscopic analysis revealed that the MAL(+) vesicles transporting Lck to the plasma membrane move along microtubule tracks. Knockdown of INF2 greatly reduced the formation of MAL(+) transport vesicles and the levels of Lck at the plasma membrane and impaired formation of a normal immunologic synapse. The actin polymerization and depolymerization activities of INF2 were both required for efficient Lck targeting. Cdc42 and Rac1, which bind to INF2, regulate Lck transport in both Jurkat and primary human T cells. Thus, INF2 collaborates with MAL in the formation of specific carriers for targeting Lck to the plasma membrane in a process regulated by Cdc42 and Rac1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcytosis is a widespread pathway for apical targeting in epithelial cells. MAL2, an essential protein of the machinery for apical transcytosis, functions by shuttling in vesicular carriers between the apical zone and the cell periphery. We have identified INF2, an atypical formin with actin polymerization and depolymerization activities, which is a binding partner of MAL2. MAL2-positive vesicular carriers associate with short actin filaments during transcytosis in a process requiring INF2. INF2 binds Cdc42 in a GTP-loaded-dependent manner. Cdc42 and INF2 regulate MAL2 dynamics and are necessary for apical transcytosis and the formation of lateral lumens in hepatoma HepG2 cells. INF2 and MAL2 are also essential for the formation of the central lumen in organotypic cultures of epithelial MDCK cells. Our results reveal a functional mechanism whereby Cdc42, INF2, and MAL2 are sequentially ordered in a pathway dedicated to the regulation of transcytosis and lumen formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcytosis is a widespread pathway for apical targeting in epithelial cells. MAL2, an essential protein of the machinery for apical transcytosis, functions by shuttling in vesicular carriers between the apical zone and the cell periphery. We have iden-tified INF2, an atypical formin with actin polymeriza-tion and depolymerization activities, which is a binding partner of MAL2. MAL2-positive vesicular carriers associate with short actin filaments during transcytosis in a process requiring INF2. INF2 binds Cdc42 in a GTP-loaded-dependent manner. Cdc42 and INF2 regulate MAL2 dynamics and are necessary for apical transcytosis and the formation of lateral lumens in hepatoma HepG2 cells. INF2 and MAL2 are also essential for the formation of the central lumen in organotypic cultures of epithelial MDCK cells. Our results reveal a functional mechanism whereby Cdc42, INF2, and MAL2 are sequentially ordered in a pathway dedicated to the regulation of transcytosis and lumen formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial organs are made of tubes and cavities lined by a monolayer of polarized cells that enclose the central lumen. Lumen formation is a crucial step in the formation of epithelial organs. The Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Cdc42, which is a master regulator of cell polarity, regulates the formation of the central lumen in epithelial morphogenesis. However, how Cdc42 is regulated during this process is still poorly understood. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) control the activation of small GTPases. Using the three-dimensional Madin-Darby canine kidney model, we have identified a Cdc42-specific GEF, Intersectin 2 (ITSN2), which localizes to the centrosomes and regulates Cdc42 activation during epithelial morphogenesis. Silencing of either Cdc42 or ITSN2 disrupts the correct orientation of the mitotic spindle and normal lumen formation, suggesting a direct relationship between these processes. Furthermore, we demonstrated this direct relationship using LGN, a component of the machinery for mitotic spindle positioning, whose disruption also results in lumen formation defects.
The Journal of Cell Biology 05/2010; 189(4):725-38. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although few women with advanced serous ovarian cancer are cured, detection of the disease at an early stage is associated with a much higher likelihood of survival. We previously used gene expression array analysis to distinguish subsets of advanced cancers based on disease outcome. In the present study, we report on gene expression of early-stage cancers and validate our prognostic model for advanced-stage cancers.
Frozen specimens from 39 stage I/II, 42 stage III/IV, and 20 low malignant potential cancers were obtained from four different sites. A linear discriminant model was used to predict survival based upon array data.
We validated the late-stage survival model and show that three of the most differentially expressed genes continue to be predictive of outcome. Most early-stage cancers (38 of 39 invasive, 15 of 20 low malignant potential) were classified as long-term survivors (median probabilities 0.97 and 0.86). MAL, the most differentially expressed gene, was further validated at the protein level and found to be an independent predictor of poor survival in an unselected group of advanced serous cancers (P = 0.0004).
These data suggest that serous ovarian cancers detected at an early stage generally have a favorable underlying biology similar to advanced-stage cases that are long-term survivors. Conversely, most late-stage ovarian cancers seem to have a more virulent biology. This insight suggests that if screening approaches are to succeed it will be necessary to develop approaches that are able to detect these virulent cancers at an early stage.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2009; 15(7):2448-55. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of MAL (myelin and lymphocyte protein) has been implicated in several malignancies including esophageal, ovarian, and cervical cancers. The MAL protein functions in apical transport in polarized epithelial cells; therefore, its disruption may lead to loss of organized polarity characteristic of most solid malignancies. Bisulfite sequencing of the MAL promoter CpG island revealed hypermethylation in breast cancer cell lines and 69% of primary tumors analyzed compared with normal breast epithelial cells. Differential methylation between normal and cancer DNA was confined to the proximal promoter region. In a subset of breast cancer cell lines including T47D and MCF7 cells, promoter methylation correlated with transcriptional silencing that was reversible with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In addition, expression of MAL reduced motility and resulted in a redistribution of lipid raft components in MCF10A cells. MAL protein expression measured by immunohistochemistry revealed no significant correlation with clinicopathologic features. However, in patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, reduced MAL expression was a significant predictive factor for disease-free survival. These data implicate MAL as a commonly altered gene in breast cancer with implications for response to chemotherapy.
Molecular Cancer Research 03/2009; 7(2):199-209. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MAL2 gene, encoding a four-transmembrane protein of the MAL family, is amplified and overexpressed in breast and other cancers, yet the significance of this is unknown. MAL-like proteins have trafficking functions, but their molecular roles are largely obscure, partly due to a lack of known binding partners.
Yeast two-hybrid screening of a breast carcinoma cDNA expression library was performed using a full-length MAL2 bait, and subsequent deletion mapping experiments were performed. MAL2 interactions were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analyses and confocal microscopy was employed to compare protein sub-cellular distributions. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation of membranes extracted in cold Triton X-100 was employed to compare protein distributions between Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble fractions.
The tumor-associated protein mucin 1 (MUC1) was identified as a potential MAL2 partner, with MAL2/MUC1 interactions being confirmed in myc-tagged MAL2-expressing MCF-10A cells using co-immunoprecipitation assays. Deletion mapping experiments demonstrated a requirement for the first MAL2 transmembrane domain for MUC1 binding, whereas the MAL2 N-terminal domain was required to bind D52-like proteins. Confocal microscopy identified cytoplasmic co-localisation of MUC1 and MAL2 in breast cell lines, and centrifugation of cell lysates to equilibrium in sucrose density gradients demonstrated that MAL2 and MUC1 proteins were co-distributed between Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble fractions. However co-immunoprecipitation analyses detected MAL2/MUC1 interactions in Triton X-100-soluble fractions only. Myc-MAL2 expression in MCF-10A cells was associated with both increased MUC1 detection within Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble fractions, and increased MUC1 detection at the cell surface.
These results identify MUC1 as a novel MAL2 partner, and suggest a role for MAL2 in regulating MUC1 expression and/or localisation.