[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retroperitoneal haematoma could be caused by different factors. It is increasing due to an increase in the use of antithrombotic and anticoagulant therapy. Diagnosis of retroperitoneal haematoma forms a big challenge in daily clinical practice. Patients with retroperitoneal haematoma could present with leg paresis, abdominal pain, shock or abdominal compartment syndrome. Retroperitoneal haematoma could be treated conservatively but surgical interference or embolization of the bleeding vessels is always an option.
To present a case with spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma presenting with scrotal haematoma together with a mini- review of retroperitoneal haematoma.
Retroperitoneal haematoma may present with a scrotal swelling and could be treated conservatively depending on the presentation and severity of the bleeding.
Libyan Journal of Medicine 01/2009; 4(3):117-9. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer world.This review article discusses the two contradictory views regarding the association of global warming with an increased incidence of malaria. On one hand, there are many who believe that there is a strong association between the recent increase in malaria incidence and global warming. They predict that as global warming continues, malaria is set to spread in locations where previously it was limited, due to cooler climate. On the other hand, several theories have been put forward which are quite contrary to this prediction. There are multiple other factors which are accountable for the recent upsurge of malaria: for example drug resistance, mosquito control programs, public health facilities, and living standards.
Libyan Journal of Medicine 01/2009; 4(1):18-22. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. One key strategic intervention is provision of early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment. A major setback has been the development of drug resistance to commonly used antimalarials. To overcome this, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have adopted Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) as a first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Artemether Lumefantrine (AL) and Artesunate Amodiaquine (ASAQ) are the main drugs of choice. There are key implementation issues, which may have a bearing on the scaling up of this new treatment. This article reviewed the published papers on ACT with focus on sustainability, compliance, and diagnosis. ACTs are costly, but highly effective. Their scaling up is the most cost effective malaria intervention currently available. Most countries rely heavily on the Global Fund for their scaling up. AL has a short shelf life, a complicated six-dose regimen that requires intake with fat to ensure sufficient bioavailability. High rates of adherence have been reported. Use of parasitic diagnosis is advocated to ensure rational use. Parasitic diagnostics like rapid test and microscopy are currently inadequate. The majority of malaria cases may continue to be diagnosed clinically leading to over prescription of drugs. ACTs are currently not available at the community level for home based management of malaria. Issues related to safety and rational use need to be addressed before their use in the informal health sector like community drug sellers and community health workers. The majority of malaria cases at the community level could go untreated or continue to be treated using less effective drugs. We conclude that ACTs are highly effective. A major challenge is ensuring rational use and access at the household level. It is hoped that addressing these issues will increase the likelihood that ACT achieves its intended goals of reducing morbidity and mortality due to malaria, and delaying the onset of drug resistance.
Libyan Journal of Medicine 01/2008; 3(1):42-8. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-operative hyperglycaemia is important with regard to outcomes of surgical operations. It affects post-operative morbidity, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Poor peri-operative blood glucose control leads to a higher risk of post-operative complication. Insulin resistance as a cause of post-operative hyperglycaemia has been blamed for some time. Nitric Oxide (NO) is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzymes. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is not a normal cellular constitute. It is expressed by cytokines and non-cytokines e.g. fasting, trauma, intravenous glucose, and lipid infusion, which are encountered in surgical operations. Review of current published data on postoperative hyperglycaemia was completed. Our studies and others were explored for the possible role of NO in this scenario. Induction and expression of iNOS enzyme in pancreatic islet cells is included in the chaotic postoperative blood glucose control. The high concentrations of iNOS derived NO are toxic to pancreatic β-cells and may inhibit insulin secretion postoperatively. Hence, current peri-operative management is questionable regarding post-operative hyperglycaemia and necessitates development of a new strategy.
Libyan Journal of Medicine 01/2008; 3(3):144-7. · 0.59 Impact Factor