[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olaquindox (OLA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl-2-quinoxalincarboxamide-1,4-dioxide, is an antimicrobial and growth-promoting agent for animals, which has been banned or allowed only limited use for its potential toxicity. To thoroughly understand the metabolic pathways, metabolism of OLA in rat was studied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with MS(E) and mass defect filtering techniques. Twenty metabolites (M1-M20) were detected in rat feces and urine, of which nine phase I metabolites (M6, M7, M11-M16) and four phase II metabolites (M17-M20) were found in vivo for the first time. The structures of metabolites were reliably characterized on the basis of accurate mass and fragment ions in MS(E) spectra. The major metabolic pathways reported previously in pigs, including reduction of N→O groups, oxidation of the alcohol and hydrolysis, were also confirmed in this study. In addition, hydroxylation of the methyl group, N-dehydroxyethylation and glucuronidation were also proved to be the important metabolic pathways, which contribute to improving our knowledge about in vivo metabolism of OLA.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 04/2011; 25(7):889-98. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the determination of methaqualone, chloropromazine, promethazine, diazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, midazolam, triazolam and zolpidem residues in pork and kidney. After enzymolysis, the samples were extracted by ethyl acetate and tert-butyl methyl ether, separately. The separation of the ten sedatives was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system with a BEH C18 column. The mobile phases were acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The electrospray was operated in the positive ionization mode and the ten sedatives were identified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method of matrix-matched standard solution was adopted as the quantitative method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the concentrations of 2 - 100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients r > 0. 998. The limits of detection of the ten sedatives were 0.5 microg/kg, and the limit of quantification was 1 microg/kg. The recoveries of the ten sedatives were 64.5% - 111.4% at the spiked levels of 2, 5 and 10 microg/kg. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were both less than 15%. This method is simple, sensitive and accurate in the determination of sedative residues.
Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 01/2010; 28(1):38-42.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of terbutaline, cimaterol, salbutamol, fenoterol, clorprenaline, ractopamine, clenbuterol, tulobuterol, penbutolol residues in animal derived foods. After enzymolysis, the samples were extracted by perchloric acid, centrifuged, neutralized, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and tert-butyl methyl ether, separately. The combined extracts were applied to a solid phase extraction MCX cartridge for cleanup. The separation of beta-agonists was performed on Waters Acquity UPLC system with a BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) and the gradient elution solvent of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The method was quantified by external standard method. The calibration curves were good linear between the peak areas and the concentrations of 0.25 - 5 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient r > 0.990. The limit of detection of the 8 beta-agonists was 0.1 microg/kg, and the limit of quantification was 0.25 microg/kg. The limit of detection of penbutolol was 0.25 microg/kg, and the limit of quantification was 0.5 microg/kg. The average recoveries from spiked animal tissues at three concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 2 microg/kg ranged 87.1% - 108.6%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-batch were both less than 20%.
Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 12/2008; 26(6):709-13.