[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells cultured in vitro are able to recover from cold stress. However, the mechanisms activated during cold stress and recovery are still being determined. We here report the effects of hypothermia on cellular architecture, cell cycle progression, mRNA stability, protein synthesis and degradation in three mammalian cell lines. The cellular structures examined were, in general, well maintained during mild hypothermia (27-32 degrees C) but became increasingly disrupted at low temperatures (4-10 degrees C). The degradation rates of all mRNAs and proteins examined were much reduced at 27 degrees C, and overall protein synthesis rates were gradually reduced with temperature down to 20 degrees C. Proteins involved in a range of cellular activities were either upregulated or downregulated at 32 and 27 degrees C during cold stress and recovery. Many of these proteins were molecular chaperones, but they did not include the inducible heat shock protein Hsp72. Further detailed investigation of specific proteins revealed that the responses to cold stress and recovery are at least partially controlled by modulation of p53, Grp75 and eIF3i levels. Furthermore, under conditions of severe cold stress (4 degrees C), lipid-containing structures were observed that appeared to be in the process of being secreted from the cell that were not observed at less severe cold stress temperatures. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms involved and activated in mammalian cells upon cold stress and recovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ultrastructural detail of spore development in Scutellospora heterogama is described. Although the main ontogenetic events are similar to those described from light microscopy, the complexity of wall layering is greater when examined at an ultrastructural level. The basic concept of a rigid spore wall enclosing two inner, flexible walls still holds true, but there are additional zones within these three walls distinguishable using electron microscopy, including an inner layer that is involved in the formation of the germination shield. The spore wall has three layers rather than the two reported previously. An outer, thin ornamented layer and an inner, thicker layer are both derived from the hyphal wall and present at all stages of development. These layers differentiate into the outer spore layer visible at the light microscope level. A third inner layer unique to the spore develops during spore swelling and rapidly expands before contracting back to form the second wall layer visible by light microscopy. The two inner flexible walls also are more complex than light microscopy suggests. The close association with the inner flexible walls with germination shield formation consolidates the preferred use of the term 'germinal walls' for these structures. A thin electron-dense layer separates the two germinal walls and is the region in which the germination shield forms. The inner germinal wall develops at least two sub-layers, one of which has an appearance similar to that of the expanding layer of the outer spore wall. An electron-dense layer is formed on the inner surface of the inner germinal wall as the germination shield develops, and this forms the wall surrounding the germination shield as well as the germination tube. At maturity, the outer germinal wall develops a thin, striate layer within its substructure.