James F Sallis

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (703)2200.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To reverse the global epidemic of physical inactivity that is responsible for more than 5 million deaths per year, many groups recommend creating "activity-friendly environments."Such environments may have other benefits, beyond facilitating physical activity, but these potential co-benefits have not been well described. The purpose of the present paper is to explore a wide range of literature and conduct an initial summary of evidence on co-benefits of activity-friendly environments. An extensive but non- systematic review of scientific and "gray" literature was conducted. Five physical activity settings were defined: parks/open space/trails, urban design, transportation, schools, and workplaces/buildings. Several evidence-based activity-friendly features were identified for each setting. Six potential outcomes/co-benefits were searched: physical health, mental health, social benefits, safety/injury prevention, environmental sustainability, and economics. A total of 418 higher-quality findings were summarized. The overall summary indicated 22 of 30 setting by outcome combinations showed "strong" evidence of co-benefits. Each setting had strong evidence of at least three co-benefits, with only one occurrence of a net negative effect. All settings showed the potential to contribute to environmental sustainability and economic benefits. Specific environmental features with the strongest evidence of multiple co-benefits were park proximity, mixed land use, trees/greenery, accessibility and street connectivity, building design, and workplace physical activity policies/programs. The exploration revealed substantial evidence that designing community environments that make physical activity attractive and convenient is likely to produce additional important benefits. The extent of the evidence justifies systematic reviews and additional research to fill gaps.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2015; 12(1):188. DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0188-2 · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • Preventing chronic disease 09/2015; 12. DOI:10.5888/pcd12.150098 · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 09/2015; 115(9):A76. DOI:10.1016/j.jand.2015.06.268 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relation of classroom physical activity breaks to students' physical activity and classroom behavior. Six elementary-school districts in California implemented classroom physical activity interventions in 2013-2014. Students' (N=1322) accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school and teachers' (N=397) reports of implementation and classroom behavior were assessed in 24 schools at two time points (both post-intervention). Mixed-effects models accounted for nested data. Minutes/day of activity breaks was positively associated with students' MVPA (βs=.07-.14; ps=.012-.016). Students in classrooms with activity breaks were more likely to obtain 30 minutes/day of MVPA during school (OR=1.75; p=.002). Implementation was negatively associated with students having a lack of effort in class (β=-.17; p=.042), and student MVPA was negatively associated with students being off task or inattentive in the classroom (β=-.17; p=.042). Students provided with 3-4 physical activity opportunities (classroom breaks, recess, PE, dedicated PE teacher) had ≈5 more minutes/day of school MVPA than students with no opportunities (B=1.53 minutes/opportunity; p=.002). Implementing classroom physical activity breaks can improve student physical activity during school and behavior in the classroom. Comprehensive school physical activity programs that include classroom-based activity are likely needed to meet the 30 minute/day school physical activity guideline. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.08.006 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    Marc Adams · Jim Chapman · James Sallis · Larry Frank
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    DESCRIPTION: GIS templates for built environment and physical activity research. Also available at: http://www.ipenproject.org/methods_gis.html
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    ABSTRACT: Characterizing neighborhood environments in relation to physical activity is complex. Latent profiles of parents' perceptions of neighborhood characteristics were examined in relation to accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among 678 children (ages 6-12) in two US regions. Neighborhood environment profiles derived from walkability, transit access, aesthetics, crime and traffic safety, pedestrian infrastructure, and recreation/park access were created for each region. The San Diego County profile lowest on walkability and recreation/park access was associated with an average of 13 fewer min/day of children's out-of-school MVPA compared to profiles higher on walkability and recreation/park access. Seattle/King County profiles did not differ on children's MVPA. Neighborhood environment profiles were associated with children's MVPA in one region, but results were inconsistent across regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Health & Place 07/2015; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.05.006 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Methods: Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N1⁄42,199, aged 20–65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001–2005 from Seattle / King County WA and Baltimore MD / Washington DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer- measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results: Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); moderately high walkability/transit/ recreation (MH-MH-MH); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-HH). All measures were higher in the HHH than the LLL profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all po0.05). Baltimore region LPAs yielded four profiles, including L-L-L; M-M-M; high land use mix, transit, and recreation (HLU-HT-HRA); and high intersection density, high retail floor area ratio (HID-HRFAR). HLU-HT-HRA and L-L-L differed by 12.3 MVPA minutes/day; HID-HRFAR and L-L-L differed by 157.4 minutes/week for walking for trans- portation (all ps<0.05). Conclusions: Patterns of environmental features explain greater differences in adults’ PA than the four-component walkability index.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.05.024 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of walking and cycling for transport is low, varying greatly across countries. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions related to walking and cycling for transport in different countries. Therefore it is challenging to prioritize appropriate built environment interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults' neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self-report data were taken from 13,745 adults (18 - 65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. Walking for transport outcomes were significantly associated with perceived residential density, land use mix access, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. Any cycling for transport was significantly related to perceived land use mix access, street connectivity, infrastructure, aesthetics, safety, and perceived distance to destinations. Between-city differences existed for some attributes in relation to walking or cycling for transport. Many perceived environmental attributes supported both cycling and walking; however highly walkable environments may not support cycling for transport. People appear to walk for transport despite safety concerns. These findings can guide the implementation of global health strategies.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 07/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409466 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association of maternal physical activity before and during pregnancy with academic performance in youth. This study included 1868 youth (6-18 years) and their mothers. Mothers recalled their physical activity before and during pregnancy. Mothers were categorized into four groups: "remained active", "became inactive", "became active" and "remained inactive". Academic performance was assessed through school records. Boys whose mothers practiced physical activity before or during pregnancy had significantly higher scores in academic performance indicators independently of physical activity, fitness, current body mass index (BMI) and birthweight than those whose mothers did not practice physical activity before or during pregnancy (all p < 0.05). In addition, boys whose mothers remained active had higher scores in all academic indicators (ranging from +0.358 to +0.543) than boys whose mothers remained inactive. Boys whose mothers remained active had higher scores in Language (score +0.546; 95% CI, 0.150-0.940), average of Math and Language (score +0.468; 95% CI, 0.100-0.836) and grade point average (GPA) (score +0.368; 95% CI, 0.092-0.644) than boys whose mothers became active. Maternal physical activity before and during pregnancy may positively influence youth's academic performance. Continuing maternal physical activity practice during pregnancy may have greater benefits for youth's academic performance.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/14767058.2015.1049525 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundsUnhealthy body composition is a cause for concern across the lifespan.Objective The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined associations between neonatal and current body composition with academic performance among youth.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 1557 youth (745 girls) aged 10.4 ± 3.4 years. Birth weight and length at birth were self-reported. Current body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Academic performance was assessed through schools records.ResultsBirth weight was related to all academic variables in boys, independent of potential confounders, including BMI; whereas WC, BMI and BF% were related to all academic performance indicators in both boys and girls, independent of potential confounders, including birth weight (all P < 0.05). In addition, the combined adverse effects of low birth weight and current overweight on academic performance were observed in both boys and girls for grade point average (GPA) indicator. Boys in the group with none adverse effect had significantly higher scores in GPA (score +0.535; 95% confidence interval, 0.082–0.989) than boys in the group of both adverse effects (P < 0.007); among girls, GPA score was higher in the group with none adverse effect than in the groups with one or two adverse effects (P for trend = 0.029).Conclusions Neonatal and current body composition, both independently and combined, may influence academic performance in youth.
    Pediatric Obesity 06/2015; 10(3):157-164. DOI:10.1111/ijpo.239 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of youth are not meeting the US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Dance is a popular activity, particularly for girls, and has the potential to increase physical activity for many youth. This study investigated physical activity of children and adolescents in 7 dance types: ballet, hip-hop, jazz, Latin-flamenco, Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico, partnered, and tap. Data were collected in 17 private studios and 4 community centers in San Diego, California. A total of 264 girls from 66 classes participated (n =154 children; n = 110 adolescents). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and activity levels during class were calculated. Participants recorded an average of 17.2 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (36% of class), but this varied by age and dance type. For children, dance type differences were observed with percent of class in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ranging from 13.6% (Latin-flamenco) to 57% (hip-hop). For adolescents, there were no differences across dance types. Children were more active than adolescents in all types except ballet. Children and adolescents were more active in private compared with community center classes. Overall, physical activity in youth dance classes was low; 8% of children and 6% of adolescents met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 30-minute guideline for after-school physical activity during dance. To increase physical activity in dance classes, teaching methods could be employed to increase activity in all types, or emphasis could be placed on greater participation in more active dance types. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    PEDIATRICS 06/2015; 135(6):1066-1073. DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-2415 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the associations of (i) objectively measured and self-reported sedentary behavior during leisure time with academic performance and (ii) patterns of sedentary behavior with academic performance. This study was conducted with 1146 youth aged 12.5±2.5 years in Spain during 2011-2012. Leisure-time sedentary behavior during out-of -school hours was assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Academic performance was assessed through school grades. Objectively measured sedentary leisure-time was not significantly associated with academic performance. Time spent in Internet surfing, listening to music, and sitting without doing anything were negatively associated with all academic performance indicators (β ranging from - 0.066 to - 0.144; all p<0.05). However, time spent in doing homework/study without computer and reading for fun were positively associated (β ranging from 0.058 to 0.154; all p<0.05). Five major sedentary patterns were identified. The "high social-low TV/video" and the "low studying-high TV/video" patterns were negatively associated with all academic indicators (β ranging from - 0.085 to - 0.148; all p<0.05). The "educational" pattern was positively associated with all academic indicators (β ranging from 0.063 to 0.105; all p<0.05). Specific domains of self-reported sedentary behavior during leisure-time, but not objectively measured sedentary leisure time, may influence academic performance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 05/2015; 77. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.05.013 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ecological models of health behaviour are an important conceptual framework to address the multiple correlates of obesity. Several single-country studies previously examined the relationship between the built environment and obesity in adults, but results are very diverse. An important reason for these mixed results is the limited variability in built environments in these single-country studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighbourhood built environmental attributes and BMI/weight status in a multi-country study including 12 environmentally and culturally diverse countries. A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted in 17 cities (study sites) across 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Brazil, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the UK and USA). Participants (n = 14222, 18-66 years) self-reported perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes. Height and weight were self-reported in eight countries, and measured in person in four countries. Three environmental attributes were associated with BMI or weight status in pooled data from 12 countries. Safety from traffic was the most robust correlate, suggesting that creating safe routes for walking/cycling by reducing the speed and volume of traffic might have a positive impact upon weight status/BMI across various geographical locations. Close proximity to several local destinations was associated with BMI across all countries, suggesting compact neighbourhoods with more places to walk related to lower BMI. Safety from crime showed a curvilinear relationship with BMI, with especially poor crime safety being related to higher BMI. Environmental interventions involving these three attributes appear to have international relevance and focusing on these might have implications for tackling overweight/obesity.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 05/2015; 12(1):62. DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0228-y · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • Karen Glanz · James F Sallis · Brian E Saelens
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    ABSTRACT: In the past 15 years, researchers, practitioners, and community residents and leaders have become increasingly interested in associations among built environments and physical activity, diet, and obesity. Numerous tools to measure activity and food environments have been developed but vary in quality and usability. Future progress depends on aligning these tools with new communication technology and increasing their utility for planning and policy. The Built Environment Assessment Training Institute Think Thank was held in July 2013. Expert participants discussed priorities, gaps, and promising opportunities to advance the science and practice of measuring obesity-related built environments. Participants proposed and voted on recommended future directions in two categories: "big ideas" and additional recommendations. Recommendations for the first "big idea" involve developing new, simplified built environment assessment tools and deploying them through online trainings and easily accessible web-based apps. Future iterations of the tools would link to databases of key locations (e.g., parks, food stores); have built-in scoring and analysis; and provide clear, simple feedback to users. A second "big idea" addresses dissemination of results from built environment assessments and translation into policies including land use and food access planning. Additional recommendations include (1) improving multidisciplinary collaborations; (2) engaging stakeholders across sectors; (3) centralized data resource centers; (4) increased use of emerging technologies to communicate findings; and (5) advocating for expanded funding for measurement development, training, and dissemination. Implementing these recommendations is likely to improve the quality of built environment measures and expand their use in research and practice. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American journal of preventive medicine 05/2015; 48(5):615-9. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.01.023 · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • James F Sallis
    Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP 05/2015; 21 Suppl 3:S88-9. DOI:10.1097/PHH.0000000000000246 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study evaluated school physical and social environment interventions on middle school students' physical activity. Methods: The intervention included opportunities for students' physical activity on-campus before, during, and after school hours involving increased access to sports equipment and trained supervisors. Systematic observations were conducted around 151 targeted areas in 24 middle schools over 3 years. Randomized regression models were conducted. Results: Overall intervention effects were statistically non-significant, but increased supervision and sports equipment availability were correlated with increases in observed physical activity. Results showed a significant intervention effect for observed before-school physical activity for girls. Conclusions: Though school environment changes can be difficult to achieve, environmental improvements were associated with greater physical activity.
    05/2015; 2(3). DOI:10.14485/HBPR.2.3.1
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    ABSTRACT: Crime is both a societal safety and public health issue. Examining different measures and aspects of crime-related safety and their correlations may provide insight into the unclear relationship between crime and children's physical activity. We evaluated five neighborhood crime-related safety measures to determine how they were interrelated. We then explored which crime-related safety measures were associated with children's total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and MVPA in their neighborhoods. Significant positive correlations between observed neighborhood incivilities and parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder were found (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002), as were associations between parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder and perceptions of stranger danger (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002). Parent report of prior crime victimization in their neighborhood was associated with observed neighborhood incivilities (r = 0.22, p = 0.007) and their perceptions of both stranger danger (r = 0.24, p = 0.003) and general crime and disorder (r = 0.37, p < 0.0001). After accounting for covariates, police-reported crime within the census block group in which children lived was associated with less physical activity, both total and in their neighborhood (beta = -0.09, p = 0.005, beta = -0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). Neighborhood-active children living in the lowest crime-quartile neighborhoods based on police reports had 40 min more of total MVPA on average compared to neighborhood-active children living in the highest crime-quartile neighborhoods. Findings suggest that police reports of neighborhood crime may be contributing to lower children's physical activity.
    Journal of Urban Health 03/2015; 92(3). DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9949-0 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58 dance classes at 21 dance studios in Southern California. MVPA and sedentary behavior were assessed with accelerometry, with data aggregated to 15-s epochs. Percent and minutes of MVPA and sedentary behavior during dance class segments and percent of class time and minutes spent in each segment were calculated using Freedson age-specific cut points. Differences in MVPA (Freedson 3 Metabolic Equivalents of Tasks age-specific cut points) and sedentary behavior ( < 100 counts/min) were examined using mixed-effects linear regression. The length of each class segment was fairly consistent across dance types, with the exception that in ballet, more time was spent in technique as compared with private jazz/hip-hop classes and Latin-flamenco and less time was spent in routine/practice as compared with Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico. Segment type accounted for 17% of the variance in the proportion of the segment spent in MVPA. The proportion of the segment in MVPA was higher for routine/practice (44.2%) than for technique (34.7%). The proportion of the segment in sedentary behavior was lowest for routine/practice (22.8%). The structure of dance lessons can impact youths' physical activity. Working with instructors to increase time in routine/practice during dance classes could contribute to physical activity promotion in youth.
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport 03/2015; 86(3):1-8. DOI:10.1080/02701367.2015.1014084 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood vvalkability and total physical activity in youth. Methods: Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low vvalkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GlS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Results: Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time. Residential density was positively related to walking. Conclusions: Increasing walking in youth could be effective in increasing total physical activity. Built environment findings suggest potential for increasing walking in youth through improving neighborhood walkability. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved,
    Health & Place 03/2015; 32:1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.12.008 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Creating "activity-friendly environments" is recommended to promote physical activity, but potential co-benefits of such environments have not been well described. An extensive but non-systematic review of scientific and "gray" literature was conducted to explore a wide range of literature to understand the co-benefits of activity-friendly environments on physical health, mental health, social benefits, safety/injury prevention, environmental sustainability, and economics. Five physical activity settings were defined: parks/trails, urban design, transportation, schools, and workplaces/buildings. KEY FINDINGS A total of 418 higher-quality findings were summarized based on direction of association and quality of source. The overall summary indicated 22 of 30 setting by outcome combinations showed “strong” evidence of co-benefits. Each setting had strong evidence of at least 3 of the 6 co-benefits, and parks and trails had strong evidence of all 6 co-benefits. Thus, for each setting there are multiple features that can be designed to both facilitate physical activity and produce co-benefits. All five physical activity settings could be designed so they have positive effects on economic outcomes, including increased home value, greater retail activity, reduced health care costs, and improved productivity. Activity-friendly design in all settings had strong evidence of environmental co-benefits based on reduced pollution and carbon emissions. There were many gaps in evidence of co-benefits in the schools and workplace settings as well the health consequences of environments that support active travel. Overall, there was little evidence of negative consequences of activity-friendly environments. IMPLICATIONS The most important conclusion of this review is that creating communities, transportation systems, schools, and buildings that make physical activity attractive and convenient also produces a wide range of other benefits for communities. Rather than thinking that designing one feature of a transportation system or school is sufficient, we encourage decision-makers and designers to consider how features in all settings can be optimized for physical activity and multiple other benefits. We urge mayors, other city officials, and staff in multiple departments to consult these findings as an aid in decision-making. For a Web-based version of this report, visit: http://activelivingresearch.org/making-case-designing-active-cities A peer-reviewed paper based on this report is available online through open access: Sallis, JF, et al. (2015). Co-benefits of designing communities for active living: an exploration of literature. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12:30.

Publication Stats

50k Citations
2,200.63 Total Impact Points


  • 1985–2015
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Athens State University
      Афіни, Alabama, United States
  • 2013
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
      Phoenix, AZ, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Health Services
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • School of Community and Regional Planning
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • University of Maiduguri
      • Department of Physiotherapy
      Maidugari, Borno, Nigeria
  • 1970–2013
    • San Diego State University
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Graduate School of Public Health
      • • Department of Political Science
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Seattle Children’s Research Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Stanford University
      • Stanford Prevention Research Center
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1985–2010
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Public Health
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2008
    • George Mason University
      페어팩스, Virginia, United States
    • Naval Health Research Center
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2005
    • Emory University
      • Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education
      Atlanta, GA, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Exercise and Sport Science
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2004
    • Saint Louis University
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 2003
    • Deakin University
      • Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 2002
    • University of New South Wales
      • School of Public Health and Community Medicine
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
    • Queensland University of Technology
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • University of South Carolina
      • Department of Exercise Science
      Columbia, SC, United States
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2001
    • University of San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Wake Forest University
      • Department of Health and Exercise Science
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      • Department of Psychology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1996
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 1995
    • Autonomous University of Baja California
      Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico
  • 1994
    • Cooper Aerobics Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States