James F Sallis

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

Are you James F Sallis?

Claim your profile

Publications (649)1964.27 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundsUnhealthy body composition is a cause for concern across the lifespan.Objective The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined associations between neonatal and current body composition with academic performance among youth.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 1557 youth (745 girls) aged 10.4 ± 3.4 years. Birth weight and length at birth were self-reported. Current body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Academic performance was assessed through schools records.ResultsBirth weight was related to all academic variables in boys, independent of potential confounders, including BMI; whereas WC, BMI and BF% were related to all academic performance indicators in both boys and girls, independent of potential confounders, including birth weight (all P < 0.05). In addition, the combined adverse effects of low birth weight and current overweight on academic performance were observed in both boys and girls for grade point average (GPA) indicator. Boys in the group with none adverse effect had significantly higher scores in GPA (score +0.535; 95% confidence interval, 0.082–0.989) than boys in the group of both adverse effects (P < 0.007); among girls, GPA score was higher in the group with none adverse effect than in the groups with one or two adverse effects (P for trend = 0.029).Conclusions Neonatal and current body composition, both independently and combined, may influence academic performance in youth.
    Pediatric Obesity 07/2016; · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AbstractObjectives
    Health & Place 03/2015; 32:1-7. · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined changes in multiple physical activity domains during the transition out of high school and psychosocial and environmental determinants of these changes. A one-year prospective study was designed. The baseline sample was composed of 244 last-year high school students (58.6% female) from Valencia, Spain. Follow-up rate was 46%. Physical activity and potential determinants were measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and other evaluated scales in two waves. Total physical activity and active commuting (AC) decreased, respectively, by 21% and 36%, only in males. At time 1, access to car/motorbike (inverse), planning/psychosocial barriers (inverse), street connectivity (positive) and parental education (inverse) were significantly associated with AC (P < 0.05). Prospectively, the increase in distance to school/workplace was associated with AC decrease among males (P < 0.001). In both genders, there was a decrease in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA; -35% in males, -43% in females). At time 1, self-efficacy and social support were positive correlates of LTPA (P < 0.05). Social support decreases were associated with reductions in LTPA for males (P < 0.05). Several psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity change were identified, and these are promising targets for interventions.
    Journal of physical activity & health. 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is designed to support informed decision making at both the individual, population, and policy levels. The American College of Sports Medicine and partners convened a conference with the focus of building an agenda for CER within the context of physical activity and non-pharmacological lifestyle approaches in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. This report summarizes the conference content and consensus recommendations that culminated in a CER Roadmap for Physical Activity and Lifestyle approaches to reducing the risk of chronic disease. This conference focused on presentations and discussion around the following topic areas: 1) defining CER, 2) identifying the current funding climate to support CER, 3) summarizing methods for conducting CER, and 4) identifying CER opportunities for physical activity. This conference resulted in consensus recommendations to adopt a CER Roadmap for Physical Activity and Lifestyle approaches to reducing the risk of chronic disease. In general, this roadmap provides a systematic framework by which CER for physical activity can move from a planning phase, to a phase of engagement in CER related to lifestyle factors with particular emphasis on physical activity, to a societal change phase that results in changes in policy, practice, and health. It is recommended that physical activity researchers and healthcare providers use the roadmap developed from this conference as a method to systematically engage in and apply CER to the promotion of physical activity as a key lifestyle behavior that can be effective at impacting a variety of health-related outcomes.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 11/2014;
  • Source
  • Preventive Medicine 10/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The World Health Organization recommends strategies to improve urban design, public transportation, and recreation facilities to facilitate physical activity for non-communicable disease prevention for an increasingly urbanized global population. Most evidence supporting environmental associations with physical activity comes from single countries or regions with limited variation in urban form. This paper documents variation in comparable built environment features across countries from diverse regions. Methods The International Physical Activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) study of adults aimed to measure the full range of variation in the built environment using geographic information systems (GIS) across 12 countries on 5 continents. Investigators in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States followed a common research protocol to develop internationally comparable measures. Using detailed instructions, GIS-based measures included features such as walkability (i.e., residential density, street connectivity, mix of land uses), and access to public transit, parks, and private recreation facilities around each participant’s residential address using 1-km and 500-m street network buffers.  Results Eleven of 12 countries and 15 cities had objective GIS data on built environment features. We observed a 38-fold difference in median residential densities, a 5-fold difference in median intersection densities and an 18-fold difference in median park densities. Hong Kong had the highest and North Shore, New Zealand had the lowest median walkability index values, representing a difference of 9 standard deviations in GIS-measured walkability. Conclusions Results show that comparable measures can be created across a range of cultural settings revealing profound global differences in urban form relevant to physical activity. These measures allow cities to be ranked more precisely than previously possible. The highly variable measures of urban form will be used to explain individuals’ physical activity, sedentary behaviors, body mass index, and other health outcomes on an international basis. Present measures provide the ability to estimate dose–response relationships from projected changes to the built environment that would otherwise be impossible.
    International Journal of Health Geographics 10/2014; 13:43. · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Ciclovía or Open Streets initiatives support physical activity through cycling/rolling, and walking/running. We evaluated San Diego's first Open Streets event, CicloSDias, to document attendance, reach and marketing, and effects on social cohesion, businesses, and physical activity. Methods The comprehensive evaluation consisted of a city-wide survey 1 week before and after the event (n = 805), counts of event attendees, and surveys of event attendees (n = 713) and businesses (n = 26). Results An estimated 8311 people attended the event. Attendees had an average of 144 min (SD = 85) of physical activity, 97% met the 30 min/day guideline, and 39% met the 150 min/week guideline during the event. 27% of attendees would have been inactive without the event. Awareness of the event was 10% before and 26% after the event. When comparing event attendees to San Diego residents, Latinos and non-White race/ethnicities were under-represented. Restaurants/pubs, services, and most retail stores excluding liquor stores and food markets reported positive or neutral impacts on business. Conclusion Open Street initiatives are promising ways to promote physical activity and are desired by the community. Positive effects were observed for physical activity, social cohesion, and businesses, though reach should be expanded to include more underserved community members. Evaluating Open Streets is important for sustaining and improving these efforts.
    Preventive Medicine 10/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, there has been a marked increase in studies about built environments and physical activity. As the number of publications is growing rapidly, literature reviews play an important role in identifying primary studies and in synthesizing their findings. However, many of the reviews of effectiveness in this field demonstrate methodological limitations that might lead to inaccurate portrayals of the evidence. Some literature reviews a priori excluded intervention studies even though they provide the strongest level of evidence. The label 'systematic review' has mostly been used inappropriately. One of the major criteria of a systematic review that is hardly ever met is that the quality of the primary studies needs to be assessed and this should be reflected in the synthesis, presentation and interpretation of results. With few exceptions, 'systematic' reviews about environments and physical activity did not refer to or follow the QUORUM or PRISMA statements. This commentary points out the usefulness of the PRISMA statement to standardize the reporting of methodology of reviews and provides additional guidance to limit sources of bias in them. The findings and recommendations from this article can help in moving forward the synthesis of evidence of effectiveness not only in built environments and physical activity, but also more broadly in exercise science and public health.
    Sports Medicine 10/2014; · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents’ perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (−0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful: −2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01), and permissive feeding style (−1.04, P<0.05); high-calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children's BMI z score was positively associated with parent's use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement/modeling (−0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (−0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health.
    Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 10/2014; · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income as moderators of relations of perceived neighborhood crime, pedestrian, and traffic safety to physical activity.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 08/2014; 46(8):1554-1563. · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the independent and combined associations of the components of physical fitness with academic performance among youths. Study design This cross-sectional study included a total of 2038 youths (989 girls) aged 6-18 years. Cardiorespiratory capacity was measured using the 20-m shuttle run test. Motor ability was assessed with the 4 × 10-m shuttle run test of speed of movement, agility, and coordination. A muscular strength z-score was computed based on handgrip strength and standing long jump distance. Academic performance was assessed through school records using 4 indicators: Mathematics, Language, an average of Mathematics and Language, and grade point average score. Results Cardiorespiratory capacity and motor ability were independently associated with all academic variables in youth, even after adjustment for fitness and fatness indicators (all P ≤ .001), whereas muscular strength was not associated with academic performance independent of the other 2 physical fitness components. In addition, the combined adverse effects of low cardiorespiratory capacity and motor ability on academic performance were observed across the risk groups (P for trend <.001). Conclusion Cardiorespiratory capacity and motor ability, both independently and combined, may have a beneficial influence on academic performance in youth.
    Journal of Pediatrics 08/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender.Methods:Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18-65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations.Results:A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status.Conclusions:Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship between PA and BMI may be country- and gender-dependent, which could have important implications for country-specific health guidelines.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 02 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.115.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 07/2014; · 5.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimThere is an emerging body of evidence on the potential effects of regular physical activity on academic performance. The aim of this study was to add to the debate, by examining the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic performance in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents.Methods The Spanish UP&DOWN study is a three-year longitudinal study designed to assess the impact, over time, of physical activity and sedentary behaviours on health indicators This present analysis was conducted with 1,778 children and adolescents aged six to18 years. Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry. Academic performance was assessed using school grades.ResultsPhysical activity was inversely associated with all academic performance indicators after adjustment for potential confounders, including neonatal variables, fatness and fitness (all p<0.05). This association became non-significant among quartiles of physical activity. There were only slight differences in academic performance between the lowest and the second quartile of physical activity, compared to the highest quartile, with very small effect size (d< 0.20).Conclusion Objectively measured physical activity may influence academic performance during both childhood and adolescence, but this association was negative and very weak. Longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to further our understanding.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Paediatrica 07/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this report is to perform a systematic review of the evidence on the associations between physical activity and cognition by differentiating between academic and cognitive performance measures. Second-generation questions regarding potential mediators or moderators (i.e. sex, age and psychological variables) of this relationship were also examined. Design Systematic review. Methods Studies were identified from searches in PubMed, Sportdiscus and ERIC databases from 2000 through 2013. The search process was carried out by two independent researchers. Results A total of 20 articles met the inclusion criteria, 2 of them analyzed both cognitive and academic performance in relation to physical activity. Four articles (18%) found no association between physical activity and academic performance, 11 (50%) found positive association and one showed negative association (5%). Five articles (23%) found positive association between physical activity and cognitive performance and one showed negative association (5%). The findings of these studies show that cognitive performance is associated with vigorous physical activity and that academic performance is related to general physical activity, but mainly in girls. Results of the review also indicate that type of activity and some psychological factors (i.e. self-esteem, depression) could mediate the association between physical activity and academic performance. Conclusions Results of the review support that physical activity is associated with cognition, but more research is needed to clarify the role of sex, intensity and type of physical activity and some psychological variables of this association.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 07/2014; · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ecological models of physical activity emphasize the effects of environmental influences. "Microscale" streetscape features that may affect pedestrian experience have received less research attention than macroscale walkability (e.g., residential density). The Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measures street design, transit stops, sidewalk qualities, street crossing amenities, and features impacting aesthetics. The present study examined associations of microscale attributes with multiple physical activity (PA) measures across four age groups. Areas in the San Diego, Seattle, and the Baltimore metropolitan areas, USA, were selected that varied on macro-level walkability and neighborhood income. Participants (n = 3677) represented four age groups (children, adolescents, adults, older adults). MAPS audits were conducted along a 0.25 mile route along the street network from participant residences toward the nearest non-residential destination. MAPS data were collected in 2009-2010. Subscale and overall summary scores were created. Walking/biking for transportation and leisure/neighborhood PA were measured with age-appropriate surveys. Objective PA was measured with accelerometers. Mixed linear regression analyses were adjusted for macro-level walkability. Across all age groups 51.2%, 22.1%, and 15.7% of all MAPS scores were significantly associated with walking/biking for transport, leisure/neighborhood PA, and objectively-measured PA, respectively. Supporting the ecological model principle of behavioral specificity, destinations and land use, streetscape, street segment, and intersection variables were more related to transport walking/biking, while aesthetic variables were related to leisure/neighborhood PA. The overall score was related to objective PA in children and older adults. Present findings provide strong evidence that microscale environment attributes are related to PA across the lifespan. Improving microscale features may be a feasible approach to creating activity-friendly environments.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 06/2014; 116C:82-92. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Given the obesity epidemic, it is critical to understand factors associated with youth physical activity and sedentary behavior at home, where youth spend significant time. We examined relationships between these child behaviors and home environment factors.
    Preventive Medicine 05/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix - access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Residents' perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention at the within- and between-site levels. Associations were similar across study sites, lending support for international recommendations for designing PA-friendly built environments.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 04/2014; · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally.
    Health & Place 04/2014; 28C:22-30. · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relation of factors from multiple levels of ecological models (ie, individual, interpersonal and environmental) to active travel to/from school in an observational study of young adolescents. Participants were 294 12-15-year olds living within two miles of their school. Demographic, psychosocial and perceived built environment characteristics around the home were measured by survey, and objective built environment factors around home and school were assessed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Mixed effects multinomial regression models tested correlates of engaging in 1-4 (vs 0) and 5-10 (vs 0) active trips/week to/from school, adjusted for distance and other covariates. 64% of participants reported ≥1 active trip/week to/from school. Significant correlates of occasional and/or habitual active travel to/from school included barriers (ORs=0.27 and 0.15), parent modelling of active travel (OR=3.27 for habitual), perceived street connectivity (OR=1.78 for occasional), perceived pedestrian safety around home (OR=2.04 for habitual), objective street connectivity around home (OR=0.97 for occasional), objective residential density around home (ORs=1.10 and 1.11) and objective residential density around school (OR=1.14 for habitual). Parent modelling interacted with pedestrian safety in explaining active travel to/from school. Results supported multilevel correlates of adolescents' active travel to school, consistent with ecological models. Correlates of occasional and habitual active travel to/from school were similar. Built environment attributes around schools, particularly residential density, should be considered when siting new schools and redeveloping neighbourhoods around existing schools.
    British journal of sports medicine 03/2014; 48:1634–1639. · 3.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

36k Citations
1,964.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985–2014
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Gramercy Research Group
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
      Phoenix, AZ, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Public Health
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Group Health Cooperative
      • Group Health Research Institute
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Cambridge Institute of Public Health
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Rady Children's Hospital
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Valencia
      • Department of Teaching Musical, Visual and Corporal Expression
      Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Public Health Sciences
      University Park, MD, United States
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Health Services
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2012
    • Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH)
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
    • Seattle Children’s Research Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Maiduguri
      • Department of Physiotherapy
      Maidugari, Borno, Nigeria
  • 2005–2012
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • School of Community and Regional Planning
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Public Health
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 1994–2012
    • Stanford University
      • • Stanford Prevention Research Center
      • • Department of Health Research and Policy
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, CA, United States
    • Cooper Aerobics Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1987–2012
    • San Diego State University
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Graduate School of Public Health
      • • Department of Political Science
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Institute of Human Performance
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2002–2010
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
    • University of New South Wales
      • School of Public Health and Community Medicine
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
    • University of South Carolina
      • Department of Exercise Science
      Columbia, SC, United States
  • 2009
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutionen för biovetenskaper och näringslära
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      Blacksburg, Virginia, United States
    • Tokyo Medical University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Mie University
      • Faculty of Education
      Tsu-shi, Mie-ken, Japan
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Naval Health Research Center
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Kaiser Permanente
      Oakland, California, United States
    • North Carolina State University
      • Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management
      Raleigh, NC, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Emory University
      • Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • University of Queensland 
      • • Cancer Prevention Research Centre
      • • School of Human Movement Studies
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Exercise and Sport Science
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Wollongong
      • Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Department of Pediatrics
      San Antonio, TX, United States
  • 2000–2004
    • Saint Louis University
      • College for Public Health & Social Justice
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 1995–2004
    • Autonomous University of Baja California
      Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico
  • 1999–2003
    • Deakin University
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      • Department of Psychology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1999–2002
    • Queensland University of Technology
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2001
    • University of San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • Wake Forest University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • School of Public Health
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1986
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      Washington, West Virginia, United States