[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysphagia is a symptom so common and diverse that is often considered as a disease in its own right. Its severity can range from a trivial problem to a lethal condition. It can seriously compromise the quality of life of affected patients, therefore management should be prompt. The implications of dysphagia in healthcare costs are immense. Assessment of dysphagic patients is based on a comprehensive history and thorough examination. In the present review we discuss physiology, aetiology, diagnosis and management emphasizing the role of a multidisciplinary team approach. We also focus on the role of fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing which revolutionized over recent years the assessment of the dysphagic patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine clinical features that could predict the presence of tonsillar malignancy in children and adults. A retrospective review of the histopathologic reports of the children, who underwent tonsillectomy (753 cases) during the past 16 years (January 1991-December 2006) in a busy district general hospital, was undertaken. We compared the results to the pre-operative data of the patients, for risk factors of malignancy. Such proposed risk factors were tonsillar asymmetry, palpable firmness, visible lesions, neck adenopathy, history of malignancy, and systemic symptoms. The same data (history, risk factors and histopathologic results) were reviewed for an adult group (>16 years old, 1,027 cases) who underwent tonsillectomy during that period, and the results of the two groups were compared. In the pediatric group only one case was diagnosed as lymphoma (0.13%) and the rest as chronic inflammation (47%), reactive tonsil tissue (26%), lymphoid hyperplasia (19%) and actinomycosis (8%). In the lymphoma case, the diagnosis was suspected preoperatively by history and clinical manifestations. In the adult group, there were 21 cases of malignancy out of 1,027 cases (2.04%), again with one or more positive risk factors in the pre-surgery history. Based on our review, it is concluded that histopathology of tonsillectomy is not necessary in children unless there is clinical suspicion based on preoperative findings. A protocol based on proposed risk factors which may be predictive of possible malignancy can be used as a guide to intraoperative histology.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 12/2008; 266(8):1309-13. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the evidence surrounding the use of certain complementary supplements in otolaryngology. We specifically focussed on four commonly used supplements: spirulina, Ginkgo biloba, Vertigoheel and nutritional supplements (cod liver oil, multivitamins and pineapple enzyme).
A systematic review of the English and foreign language literature. Inclusion criteria: in vivo human studies. Exclusion criteria: animal trials, in vitro studies and case reports. We also excluded other forms of 'alternative medicine' such as reflexology, acupuncture and other homeopathic remedies.
Lack of common outcome measures prevented a formal meta-analysis. Three studies on the effects of spirulina in allergy, rhinitis and immunomodulation were found. One was a double-blind, placebo, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of patients with allergic rhinitis, demonstrating positive effects in patients fed spirulina for 12 weeks. The other two studies, although non-randomised, also reported a positive role for spirulina in mucosal immunity. Regarding the use of Ginkgo biloba in tinnitus, a Cochrane review published in 2004 showed no evidence for this. The one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that followed confirmed this finding. Regarding the use of Vertigoheel in vertigo, two double-blind RCTs and a meta-analysis were identified. The first RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was equally effective in reducing the severity, duration and frequency of vertigo compared with betahistine. The second RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was a suitable alternative to G. biloba in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related vertigo. A meta-analysis of only four clinical trials confirms that Vertigoheel was equally effective compared with betahistine, G. biloba and dimenhydrinate. Regarding multivitamins and sinusitis, two small paediatric pilot studies reported a positive response for chronic sinusitis and otitis media following a course of multivitamins and cod liver oil. Regarding bromelain (pineapple enzyme) and sinusitis, one randomised, multicentre trial including 116 children compared bromelain monotherapy to bromelain with standard therapy and standard therapy alone, for the treatment of acute sinusitis. The bromelain monotherapy group showed a faster recovery compared with the other groups.
The positive effects of spirulina in allergic rhinitis and of Vertigoheel in vertigo are based on good levels of evidence, but larger trials are required. There is overwhelming evidence that G. biloba may play no role in tinnitus. There is limited evidence for the use of multivitamins in sinus symptoms, and larger randomised trials are required.
The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 09/2007; 121(8):779-82. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common complications of tonsillectomy are well recognized and are frequently explained to patients during the process of informed consent. This systematic review serves as a reminder of the unusual complications of this routine procedure.
Studies were located using systematic searches in Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library electronic databases, together with hand searching of key texts, references, and reviews relevant to the field. Keywords used included the terms tonsillectomy, complications, unusual, and rare. References from the relevant articles were also searched for.
The review was limited to English-language articles. Because of the low incidence of these complications, all cases were included regardless of age.
Complications of tonsillectomy in children with various syndromes were excluded.
Based on our criteria, 20 articles were identified. Only 10 articles were found suitable for review. All articles were either single case reports or small case series. Because of the small study cohort, the patients' ages ranged widely, from 3 to 21 years, with no sex dominance. The complications were categorized into intraoperative and immediate postoperative (<24 hours), intermediate (<2 weeks), and long-term (>2 weeks) unusual complications. Rare complications reviewed include intraoperative vascular injury, subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinitis, Eagle syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation, cervical osteomyelitis, and taste disorders.
It is important that the otolaryngologist is aware that although the complications discussed are rare and interesting, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality risks. Tonsillectomy, a very common ear, nose, and throat procedure, may not be so straightforward after all.
American Journal of Otolaryngology 01/2007; 28(6):419-22. · 1.23 Impact Factor