[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and disposition of [(14)C]pomalidomide following a single oral dose to healthy male subjects. METHODS: Eight subjects were administered a single 2 mg oral suspension of [(14)C]pomalidomide. Blood (plasma), urine and feces were collected. Mass balance of radioactivity and the pharmacokinetics of radioactivity, pomalidomide and metabolites were determined. Metabolite profiling and characterization was performed. The enzymes involved in pomalidomide metabolism and the potential pharmacological activity of metabolites were evaluated in vitro. RESULTS: Mean recovery was 88 %, with 73 and 15 % of the radioactive dose excreted in urine and feces, respectively, indicating good oral absorption. Mean C (max), AUC(0-∞) and t (max) values for pomalidomide in plasma were 13 ng/mL, 189 ng*h/mL and 3.0 h. Radioactivity and pomalidomide were rapidly cleared from circulation, with terminal half-lives of 8.9 and 11.2 h. Pomalidomide accounted for 70 % of the circulating radioactivity, and no circulating metabolite was present at >10 % of parent compound. Pomalidomide was extensively metabolized prior to excretion, with excreted metabolites being similar to those observed in circulation. Clearance pathways included cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylation with subsequent glucuronidation (43 % of the dose), glutarimide ring hydrolysis (25 %) and excretion of unchanged drug (10 %). 5-Hydroxy pomalidomide, the notable oxidative metabolite, was formed primarily via CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. The hydroxy metabolites and hydrolysis products were at least 26-fold less pharmacologically active than pomalidomide in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Following oral administration, pomalidomide was well absorbed, with parent compound being the predominant circulating component. Pomalidomide was extensively metabolized prior to excretion, and metabolites were eliminated primarily in urine.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 12/2012; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apremilast is a novel, orally available small molecule that specifically inhibits PDE4 and thus modulates multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, and is currently under clinical development for the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. The pharmacokinetics and disposition of [(14)C]apremilast was investigated following a single oral dose (20 mg, 100 μCi) to healthy male subjects. Approximately 58% of the radioactive dose was excreted in urine, while faeces contained 39%. Mean C(max), AUC(0-∞) and t(max) values for apremilast in plasma were 333 ng/mL, 1970 ng*h/mL and 1.5 h. Apremilast was extensively metabolized via multiple pathways, with unchanged drug representing 45% of the circulating radioactivity and <7% of the excreted radioactivity. The predominant metabolite was O-desmethyl apremilast glucuronide, representing 39% of plasma radioactivity and 34% of excreted radioactivity. The only other radioactive components that represented >4% of the excreted radioactivity were O-demethylated apremilast and its hydrolysis product. Additional minor circulating and excreted compounds were formed via O-demethylation, O-deethylation, N-deacetylation, hydroxylation, glucuronidation and/or hydrolysis. The major metabolites were at least 50-fold less pharmacologically active than apremilast. Metabolic clearance of apremilast was the major route of elimination, while non-enzymatic hydrolysis and excretion of unchanged drug were involved to a lesser extent.