[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structured lymphoid tissues are considered the only inductive sites where primary T-cell immune responses occur. The naïve T cells in structured lymphoid tissues, once being primed by antigen-bearing dendritic cells, differentiate into memory T cells and traffic back to the mucosal sites through the bloodstream. Contrary to this belief, here we show that the vaginal type-II mucosa itself, despite the lack of structured lymphoid tissues, can act as an inductive site during primary CD8(+) T-cell immune responses. We provide evidence that the vaginal mucosa supports both the local immune priming of naïve CD8(+) T cells and the local expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, thereby demonstrating a different paradigm for primary mucosal T-cell immune induction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the most promising vaccine candidates for combinatorial strategies, we compared five SIV vaccine platforms including recombinant canary pox virus ALVAC, replication-competent adenovirus type 5 host range mutant RepAd, DNA, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), peptides and protein in distinct combinations. Three regimens used viral vectors (prime or boost) and two regimens used plasmid DNA. Analysis at necropsy showed that the DNA-based vaccine regimens elicited significantly higher cellular responses against Gag and Env than any of the other vaccine platforms. The T cell responses induced by most vaccine regimens disseminated systemically into secondary lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, spleen) and effector anatomical sites (including liver, vaginal tissue), indicative of their role in viral containment at the portal of entry. The cellular and reported humoral immune response data suggest that combination of DNA and viral vectors elicits a balanced immunity with strong and durable responses able to disseminate into relevant mucosal sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combinatorial HIV/SIV vaccine approaches targeting multiple arms of the immune system might improve protective efficacy. We compared SIV-specific humoral immunity induced in rhesus macaques by five vaccine regimens. Systemic regimens included ALVAC-SIVenv priming and Env boosting (ALVAC/Env); DNA immunization; and DNA plus Env co-immunization (DNA&Env). RepAd/Env combined mucosal replication-competent Ad-env priming with systemic Env boosting. A Peptide/Env regimen, given solely intrarectally, included HIV/SIV peptides followed by MVA-env and Env boosts. Serum antibodies mediating neutralizing, phagocytic and ADCC activities were induced by ALVAC/Env, RepAd/Env and DNA&Env vaccines. Memory B cells and plasma cells were maintained in bone marrow. RepAd/Env vaccination induced early SIV-specific IgA in rectal secretions before Env boosting, although mucosal IgA and IgG responses were readily detected at necropsy in ALVAC/Env, RepAd/Env, DNA&Env and DNA vaccinated animals. Our results suggest combined RepAd priming with ALVAC/Env or DNA&Env regimen boosting might induce potent, functional, long-lasting systemic and mucosal SIV-specific antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccines are largely evaluated for their ability to promote adaptive immunity, with little focus on the induction of negative immune regulators. Adjuvants facilitate and enhance vaccine-induced immune responses and have been explored for mediating protection against HIV. Using a regimen of peptide priming followed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost in a nonhuman primate model, we found that an SIV vaccine incorporating molecular adjuvants mediated partial protection against rectal SIVmac251 challenges. Animals treated with vaccine and multiple adjuvants exhibited a reduced viral load (VL) compared with those treated with vaccine only. Surprisingly, animals treated with adjuvant alone had reduced VLs that were comparable to or better than those of the vaccine-treated group. VL reduction was greatest in animals with the MHC class I allele Mamu-A*01 that were treated with adjuvant only and was largely dependent on CD8+ T cells. Early VLs correlated with Ki67+CCR5+CD4+ T cell frequency, while set-point VL was associated with expansion of a myeloid cell population that was phenotypically similar to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and that suppressed T cell responses in vitro. MDSC expansion occurred in animals receiving vaccine and was not observed in the adjuvant-only group. Collectively, these results indicate that vaccine-induced MDSCs inhibit protective cellular immunity and suggest that preventing MDSC induction may be critical for effective AIDS vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-level T cell expression of PD-1 during SIV infection is correlated with impaired proliferation and function. We evaluated the phenotype and distribution of T cells and Tregs during antiretroviral therapy plus PD-1 modulation (using a B7-DC-Ig fusion protein) and post-ART. Chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques received: 11 weeks of ART (Group A); 11 weeks of ART plus B7-DC-Ig (Group B); 11 weeks of ART plus B7-DC-Ig, then 12 weeks of B7-DC-Ig alone (Group C). Continuous B7-DC-Ig treatment (Group C) decreased rebound viremia post-ART compared to pre-ART levels, associated with decreased PD-1(hi) expressing T cells and Tregs in PBMCs, and PD-1(hi) Tregs in lymph nodes. It transiently decreased expression of Ki67 and α4β7 in PBMC CD4(+) and CD8(+) Tregs for up to 8 weeks post-ART and maintained Ag-specific T-cell responses at low levels. Continued immune modulation targeting PD-1(hi) cells during and post-ART helps maintain lower viremia, keeps a favorable T cell/Treg repertoire and modulates antigen-specific responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we show that interleukin-1 (IL-1) enhances antigen-driven CD8 T cell responses. When administered to recipients of OT-I T cell receptor transgenic CD8 T cells specific for an ovalbumin (OVA) peptide, IL-1 results in an increase in the numbers of wild-type but not IL1R1-/- OT-I cells, particularly in spleen, liver, and lung, upon immunization with OVA and lipopolysaccharide. IL-1 administration also results in an enhancement in the frequency of antigen-specific cells that are granzyme B+, have cytotoxic activity, and/ or produce interferon γ (IFN-γ). Cells primed in the presence of IL-1 display enhanced expression of granzyme B and increased capacity to produce IFN-γ when rechallenged 2 mo after priming. In three in vivo models, IL-1 enhances the protective value of weak immunogens. Thus, IL-1 has a marked enhancing effect on antigen-specific CD8 T cell expansion, differentiation, migration to the periphery, and memory.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2013; 210(3). DOI:10.1084/jem.20122006 · 13.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adjuvant plays an important role in increasing and directing vaccine-induced immune responses. In a previous study, we found that a mucosal SIV vaccine using a combination of IL-15 and TLR agonists as adjuvant mediated partial protection against SIVmac251 rectal challenge, whereas neither IL-15 nor TLR agonists alone as an adjuvant impacted the plasma viral loads. In this study, dissociation of CD4(+) T cell preservation with viral loads was observed in the animals vaccinated with adjuvants. Significantly higher levels of memory CD4(+) T cell numbers were preserved after SIVmac251 infection in the colons of the animals vaccinated with vaccine containing any of these adjuvants compared to no adjuvant. When we measured the viral-specific CD8(+) tetramer responses in the colon lamina propria, we found significantly higher levels of gag, tat, and pol epitope tetramer(+) T cell responses in these animals compared to ones without adjuvant, even if some of the animals had similarly high viral loads. Furthermore, this CD4(+) T preservation was positively correlated with increased levels of gag and Tat, but not pol tetramer(+) T cell responses, and inversely correlated with beta-chemokine expression. The pre-challenged APOBEC3G expression level, which has previously been shown inversely associated with viral loads, was further found positively correlated with CD4(+) T cell number preservation. Overall, these data highlight one unrecognized role of adjuvant in HIV vaccine development, and show that vaccines can produce a surprising discordance between CD4(+) T cell levels and SIV viral load.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK cells play an important role in innate immunity to mycobacteria and are a significant source of the bactericidal effector molecule granulysin. Defects in NK cells have been described in HIV-infected patients, though mechanistic studies have focused on effector molecules relevant to anti-viral, and not anti-bacterial, function. Here we used primary NK cells from healthy human donors and an in vitro system to identify the phenotype of granulysin expressing NK cells, characterize activation stimuli that regulate granulysin, and to study the immediate effects of HIV on innate activation of NK cell granulysin expression. We observe that granulysin expression is co-associated with cytotoxicity receptors (NKp46, NKG2D) known to have important function in the cytotoxic response to M.tb-infected macrophages. Granulysin expression is significantly increased following exposure to IL-15 or Mycobacterium bovis BCG, but in contrast to our previous findings with CD8(+)T cells, expression is weakly activated by IL-21. Infection of PBMC with HIV-1 suppresses NK cell induction of granulysin by IL-15, but does not impair activation by BCG. These effects of HIV-1 are associated with reduced STAT5 phosphorylation in the IL-15 activated signaling cascade. These observations suggest that HIV may impair the anti-bacterial function of NK cells and have implications for clinical use of IL-15 to augment innate cell mediated immunity in HIV+ patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of the changes induced by immunological interventions requires a baseline against which to compare those changes. The age-related changes in the CD8(+) T-cell population of cattle were studied. The results indicate that CD8(+) T-cells could be divided into γ/δ TCR1(+) and γ/δ TCR1(-) according to their expression of the γ/δ T-cell receptor. As a proportion, the CD8(+) γ/δ TCR1(+) population appears to increase with age. Within the CD8(+)γ/δ TCR1(-) a population of cells expressing a profile of surface molecules previously associated with effector memory T cells (CD45RO(+), CD62L(-), CD27(-), CD45RA(-) and CD28(-)) increases with age. Furthermore, a parallel increase with age in the proportion of CD8(+)CD45RO(+) T cells that express the cytotoxic granule protein perforin was observed. In peripheral tissues, namely lungs, it was found that the majority of CD8(+) T cells present expressed a phenotype indicative of previously primed T cells (high expression of CD45RO and perforin). In contrast, only a small population of memory CD8(+) T cells was present in lymphoid tissue where most of the CD8(+) T cells expressed a naïve phenotype. In conclusion, in cattle, like in human, CD8(+) T cells that express a phenotype associated with antigen experience accumulate with age that may play a role in immunocompetence as the individual ages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leishmania (subgenus Viannia) braziliensis is the causative agent of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) in South America, and ML is characterized by excessive T- and B-cell responses to the parasite. We speculate that the unbalanced production of inflammatory mediators in response to L. braziliensis infection contributes to cell recruitment and disease severity. To test this hypothesis, we first examined the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers to L. braziliensis infection. We observed that while L. braziliensis infection induced the production of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in human PBMCs and macrophages (MPhis), enhanced expression of CXCL10 and its receptor, chemokine CXC receptor (CXCR3), was predominantly detected in CD14(+) monocytes. The chemoattractant factors secreted by L. braziliensis-infected cells were highly efficient in recruiting uninfected PBMCs (predominantly CD14(+) cells) through Transwell membranes. Serum samples from American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) patients (especially the ML cases) had significantly higher levels of CXCL10, CCL4, and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II (sTNFRII) than did those of control subjects. Our results suggest that, following L. braziliensis infection, the production of multiple inflammatory mediators by the host may contribute to disease severity by increasing cellular recruitment.
Infection and immunity 11/2009; 78(1):301-8. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00959-09 · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunosuppression following infection with HIV-1 predisposes patients to a myriad of opportunistic pathogens, one of the most important of which is Mtb. Granulysin, expressed by NK cells and CTL, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against Mtb and several other opportunistic pathogens associated with HIV-1 infection. The immune signals that promote granulysin expression in human CTL are not fully understood. Using primary human CD8+ T cells, in this study, we identify IL-21 as a strong inducer of granulysin, demonstrate that IL-21 and IL-15 activate granulysin expression within CD8+ CD45RO+ T cells, and establish a role for Jak/STAT signaling in the regulation of granulysin within CD8+ T cells. We show that infection of PBMC from healthy donors in vitro with HIV-1 suppresses granulysin expression by CD8+ T cells, concomitant with reduced p-STAT3 and p-STAT5, following activation with IL-15 and IL-21. Of note, simultaneous signaling through IL-15 and IL-21 could partially overcome the immunosuppressive effects of HIV-1 on granulysin expression by CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection of PBMC may reduce the antimicrobial profile of activated CD8+ T cells by disrupting signaling events that are critical for the induction of granulysin. Understanding the effects of HIV-1 on CD8+ T cell activation is essential to understanding the physiological basis for inadequate cytotoxic lymphocyte activity in HIV+ patients and for informed guidance of cytokine-based therapy to restore T cell function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that Leishmania braziliensis infection can activate murine dendritic cells (DCs) and upregulate signaling pathways that are essential for the initiation of innate immunity. However, it remains unclear whether Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in L. braziliensis-mediated DC activation. To address this issue, we generated bone marrow-derived DCs from MyD88(-/-) and TLR2(-/-) mice and examined their responsiveness to parasite infection. While wild-type DCs were efficiently activated to produce cytokines and prime naïve CD4(+) T cells, L. braziliensis-infected MyD88(-/-) DCs exhibited less activation and decreased production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40. Furthermore, MyD88(-/-) mice were more susceptible to infection in that they developed larger and prolonged lesions compared to those in control mice. In sharp contrast, the lack of TLR2 resulted in an enhanced DC activation and increased IL-12 p40 production after infection. As such, L. braziliensis-infected TLR2(-/-) DCs were more competent in priming naïve CD4(+) T cells in vitro than were their controls, findings which correlated with an increased gamma interferon production in vivo and enhanced resistance to infection. Our results suggest that while MyD88 is indispensable for the generation of protective immunity to L. braziliensis, TLR2 seems to have a regulatory role during infection.
Infection and immunity 05/2009; 77(7):2948-56. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00154-09 · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide leading cause of death among infectious diseases. Development of safer and more efficacious vaccines requires a basic understanding of the protective mechanisms induced by BCG. Here we show that vaccination of cattle with BCG induces CD8+gamma/deltaTCR-CD45RO+ T-cells that can produce IFN-gamma, up-regulate transcription and expression of perforin, lyse BCG-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMvarphi) and contribute to a reduction in the number of intracellular mycobacteria. We also observed BCG-induced CD8+ responses in vivo. After infection of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis, CD8+gamma/deltaTCR-CD45RO+ cells responded more strongly to M. bovis-infected MoMvarphi than to BCG-infected MoMvarphi. These results indicate that the antigen-specific CD8+ memory response resides in the CD8+gamma/deltaTCR-CD45RO+ cell population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arenaviruses are important emerging pathogens and include a number of hemorrhagic fever viruses classified as NIAID category A priority pathogens and CDC potential biothreat agents. Infection of guinea pigs with the New World arenavirus Pichindé virus (PICV) has been used as a biosafety level 2 model for the Lassa virus. Despite continuing research, little is known about the molecular basis of pathogenesis, and this has hindered the design of novel antiviral therapeutics. Modulation of the host response is a potential strategy for the treatment of infectious diseases. We have previously investigated the global host response to attenuated and lethal arenavirus infections by using high-throughput immunoblotting and kinomics approaches. In this report, we describe the differential nuclear proteomes of a murine cell line induced by mock infection and infection with attenuated and lethal variants of PICV, investigated by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Spot identification using tandem mass spectrometry revealed the involvement of a number of proteins that regulate inflammation via potential modulation of NF-kappaB activity and of several heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear proteins. Pathway analysis revealed a potential role for transcription factor XBP-1, a transcription factor involved in major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) expression; differential DNA-binding activity was revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and differences in surface MHC-II expression were seen following PICV infection. These data are consistent with the results of several previous studies and highlight potential differences between transcriptional and translational regulation. This study provides a number of differentially expressed targets for further research and suggests that key events in pathogenesis may be established early in infection.
Journal of Virology 12/2008; 83(2):687-700. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01281-08 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to public health. The identification of safe TB vaccine candidates beyond Mycobacterium bovis BCG, is an exciting prospect for control of human TB and necessary in the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Selection of vaccine candidates for human trials which are ultimately targeted for use in children less than 5 years of age or in newborns will require an animal model that closely approximates immune function and disease. We propose that the bovine neonate and adolescent is a robust animal model for preclinical safety and efficacy evaluation of TB candidate vaccines targeting this special human population. Parallel studies conducted in bovine neonates and non-human primates with a leading auxotrophic mutant with demonstrated efficacy/safety in a rodent TB model of TB demonstrated similar findings with respect to gross pathology scoring relative to BCG. The findings indicated more numerous and severe lesions in the lung in addition to higher levels of IFN-gamma producing cells. BCG vaccinates demonstrated higher levels of FoxP3 transcripts and lower levels of IL-4 mRNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effector mechanisms used by CD4+ T cells to control mycobacteria differ between humans and rodent models of TB and should be investigated in additional animal models. In these studies, the bovine model was used to characterize the mycobactericidal CD4+ T cell response induced by vaccination with the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Antigenic stimulation of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from BCG-vaccinated cattle enhanced expression of perforin and IFNgamma in cells expressing a CD45RA-CD45RO+CD62L+ cell surface phenotype, enhanced transcription of granulysin, IFNgamma, perforin, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-21, and enhanced anti-mycobacterial activity of CD4+ T cells against BCG-infected macrophages.