[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Phase-IV, open-label, single-arm study (NCT01203917) to assess efficacy and safety/tolerability of first-line gefitinib in Caucasian patients with stage IIIA/B/IV, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods:Treatment: gefitinib 250 mg day(-1) until progression. Primary endpoint: objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints: disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety/tolerability. Pre-planned exploratory objective: EGFR mutation analysis in matched tumour and plasma samples.Results:Of 1060 screened patients with NSCLC (859 known mutation status; 118 positive, mutation frequency 14%), 106 with EGFR sensitising mutations were enrolled (female 70.8%; adenocarcinoma 97.2%; never-smoker 64.2%). At data cutoff: ORR 69.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 60.5-77.7), DCR 90.6% (95% CI 83.5-94.8), median PFS 9.7 months (95% CI 8.5-11.0), median OS 19.2 months (95% CI 17.0-NC; 27% maturity). Most common adverse events (AEs; any grade): rash (44.9%), diarrhoea (30.8%); CTC (Common Toxicity Criteria) grade 3/4 AEs: 15%; SAEs: 19%. Baseline plasma 1 samples were available in 803 patients (784 known mutation status; 82 positive; mutation frequency 10%). Plasma 1 EGFR mutation test sensitivity: 65.7% (95% CI 55.8-74.7).Conclusion:First-line gefitinib was effective and well tolerated in Caucasian patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Plasma samples could be considered for mutation analysis if tumour tissue is unavailable.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 21 November 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.721 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 11/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecularly targeted agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can provide similar efficacy to chemotherapy without chemotherapy-associated toxicities. Combining two agents with different modes of action could further increase the efficacy of these therapies. The TASK study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in combination with the anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab as first-line therapy in unselected, advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients.
Patients were recruited from December 2007 to September 2008. Planned sample size was 200 patients, a total of 124 patients were randomized. Patients were randomized using a minimization algorithm 1:1 to receive bevacizumab (iv 15mg/kg day 1 of each 21-day cycle) plus chemotherapy (gemcitabine/cisplatin or carboplatin/paclitaxel standard doses, 4-6 cycles) (BC arm) or bevacizumab plus erlotinib (p.o. 150mg/day; BE arm) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). If the hazard ratio (HR) of PFS for BE relative to BC was above 1.25 at the pre-planned interim analysis in favor of BC, the study would be re-evaluated. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, response rate and safety.
All randomized patients (n=63 BE; n=61 BC) were evaluated for the efficacy analyses. At the updated interim analysis, median PFS was 18.4 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0-25.1) versus 25.0 weeks (95% CI 20.6-[not reached]) for BE versus BC, respectively (HR for death or disease progression, BE relative to BC, 2.05, p=0.0183). The incidence of death was 19% for BE treatment compared with 11.5% for BC treatment. The HR for PFS at the updated interim analysis was above 1.25, therefore patients on the BE arm were permitted to change arms or switch to another drug and the study was terminated. Adverse events reported were as expected.
The TASK study did not show a benefit in terms of PFS for the combination of erlotinib with bevacizumab in unselected first-line advanced non-squamous NSCLC compared with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 08/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:AGI004 is a controlled-release transdermal patch preparation of mecamylamine. We conducted a randomised placebo-controlled phase II study of two dose levels of AGI004 in chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID).Methods:Adult patients receiving chemotherapy who had experienced diarrhoea (NCI grade 1-2) during previous cycles of chemotherapy were eligible. In all, 64 patients were randomised to receive AGI004 4 mg then 8 mg per 24 h transdermal patch or placebo for two sequential cycles of chemotherapy. Patients' severity of diarrhoea was physician-assessed using NCI grade of diarrhoea and patient-assessed using information recorded in daily diaries of bowel movements.Results:Overall AGI004 doubled the odds of a response to treatment on the first day of chemotherapy based on physician assessment of NCI grade of diarrhoea compared with placebo (odds ratio=2.0, 90% confidence interval: 0.9-4.5) and there was a trend to improved response rates for AGI004 for the full treatment cycle although these results were not statistically significant. There was also evidence of significantly improved response rates based on patient assessment of diarrhoea both overall (P=0.05) and at the 8-mg dose level (P=0.02) compared with placebo.Conclusion:AGI004 demonstrated effectiveness in reducing chemotherapy-associated diarrhoea, with results suggesting response across multiple measurements of diarrhoea. Treatment was well tolerated with no drug-related adverse events. Further evaluation of this agent in the management of CID is warranted.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 5 March 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.35 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enzastaurin is a protein kinase C inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. This study was designed to determine if maintenance enzastaurin improved the outcome of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in lung cancer (LC) patients with brain metastases (BMs).
Patients with LC (any histology) who had received WBRT for BMs were randomized to receive oral maintenance enzastaurin (1125mg on Day 1 followed by 500mg daily) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP) of BMs.
Fifty-four patients received enzastaurin and 53 patients received placebo. The median TTP of BMs was (months) enzastaurin: 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-11.9); placebo: 4.9 (95% CI: 3.6-not assessable); p=0.82. Median overall survival (OS) was (months) enzastaurin: 3.8 (95% CI: 2.6-5.6); placebo: 5.1 (95% CI: 3.7-5.7); p=0.47. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was (months) enzastaurin: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-2.3); placebo: 2.0 (95% CI: 1.3-2.3); p=0.75. The overall response rate (ORR) for extracranial disease was enzastaurin: 0%; placebo: 4.5% (p=0.49) and for intracranial disease was enzastaurin: 9.3%; placebo 6.8% (p=0.71). Grade 4 hematologic treatment-emergent adverse events were (enzastaurin vs. placebo) thrombocytopenia (5.6% vs. 1.9%) and neutropenia (5.6% vs. 0%). There was 1 treatment-related death in each arm (enzastaurin: unknown cause; placebo: pulmonary embolism). No significant differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were observed.
Enzastaurin was well tolerated but did not improve TTP of BMs, ORR, OS, PFS, or HRQoL after WBRT in LC patients with BMs.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 08/2012; 78(1):63-9. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This randomized, double-blind, multicenter study evaluated sunitinib plus erlotinib versus placebo plus erlotinib. Subjects with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer had received prior treatment with a platinum-based regimen. Here, we report safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of the combination of sunitinib and erlotinib.
Lead-in subjects in this phase II study received sunitinib 37.5 mg/d and erlotinib 150 mg/d. Safety, including dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs, cohort 1 only), pharmacokinetic profiles, and antitumor activity were investigated (cohorts 1 and 2).
Thirty patients were evaluated. The combination of sunitinib and erlotinib was tolerable. Diarrhea (76.9%), fatigue (61.5%), and decreased appetite (53.8%) were the most frequent adverse events in cohort 1; and diarrhea (52.9%) and rash (41.2%) were the most frequent adverse events in cohort 2. DLTs were observed (fatigue, n = 2 and paronychial inflammation, n = 1) in three of 13 patients evaluated for DLTs. Geometric mean ratios for the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under plasma concentration-time profile from time 0 to 24 hours of erlotinib with and without sunitinib were 1.05 and 1.03, respectively. Corresponding values for sunitinib with and without erlotinib were 0.62 and 0.62 for sunitinib, 2.13 and 2.07 for SU12662; and 0.81 and 0.79 for total drug. Three patients experienced partial response as per response evaluation criteria in solid tumor.
A dosage of sunitinib 37.5 mg/d concurrently with erlotinib 150 mg/d was tolerable and established the recommended combinatorial dose in subjects with platinum-refractory non-small-cell lung cancer. Coadministration of sunitinib with erlotinib does not affect the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib, but may result in decreased exposure to sunitinib.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 06/2012; 7(9):1406-16. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erlotinib, docetaxel, and pemetrexed are approved for the second-line treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but no head-to-head data from large clinical trials are available. We undertook the Tarceva In Treatment of Advanced NSCLC (TITAN) study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of second-line erlotinib versus chemotherapy in patients with refractory NSCLC.
TITAN was an international, randomised multicentre, open-label, phase 3 study that was done at 77 sites in 24 countries. Chemotherapy-naive patients with locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic NSCLC received up to four cycles of first-line platinum doublet chemotherapy, after which patients with disease progression during or immediately after chemotherapy were offered enrolment into TITAN. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a minimisation method to ensure balanced stratification, to receive erlotinib 150 mg/day or chemotherapy (standard docetaxel or pemetrexed regimens, at the treating investigators' discretion), until unacceptable toxicity, disease progression, or death. Patients were stratified by disease stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, smoking history, and region of residence. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. TITAN was halted prematurely because of slow recruitment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556322.
Between April 10, 2006, and Feb 24, 2010, 2590 chemotherapy-naive patients were treated with first-line platinum doublet chemotherapy, of whom 424 had disease progression and were enrolled into TITAN. 203 patients were randomly assigned to receive erlotinib and 221 were assigned to receive chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 27·9 months (IQR 11·0-36·0) in the erlotinib group and 24·8 months (12·1-41·6) in the chemotherapy group. Median overall survival was 5·3 months (95% CI 4·0-6·0) with erlotinib and 5·5 months (4·4-7·1) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·78-1·19; log-rank p=0·73). The adverse-event profile of each group was in line with previous studies. Rash (98/196 [50%] in the erlotinib group vs 10/213 [5%] in the chemotherapy group for all grades; nine [5%] vs none for grade 3 or 4) and diarrhoea (36 [18%] vs four [2%] for all grades; five [3%] vs none for grade 3 or 4) were the most common treatment-related adverse events with erlotinib, whereas alopecia (none vs 23 [11%] for all grades; none vs one [<1%] for grade 3/4) was the most common treatment-related adverse event with chemotherapy.
No significant differences in efficacy were noted between patients treated with erlotinib and those treated with docetaxel or pemetrexed. Since the toxicity profiles of erlotinib and chemotherapy differ, second-line treatment decisions should take into account patient preference and specific toxicity risk profiles.
F Hoffmann-La Roche.
The Lancet Oncology 03/2012; 13(3):300-8. · 25.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical results of a randomized phase III trial comparing pemetrexed-carboplatin (PC) with etoposide-carboplatin (EC) in chemonaive patients with extensive-stage disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC) resulted in trial closure for futility; biomarker analyses using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are described herein.
Thymidylate synthase (TS), excision repair cross complementing-1 (ERCC1), glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT), and folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) were investigated using IHC (n=395). SNPs were genotyped for TS, FPGS, γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), folate receptor-α FR-α, and solute carrier 19A1 (SLC19A1; n=611).
None of the IHC biomarkers (folate pathway or ERCC1) were found to be predictive or prognostic in this setting. rs2838952 (adjacent to SLC19A1) had significant treatment-independent association with overall survival (OS; hazard ratio 0.590, P=0.01). Nine GGH-associated SNPs interacted with rs3788205 (SLC19A1) for OS on the PC arm. rs12379987 (FPGS) interacted with treatment for OS (interaction P=0.036).
Potential ERCC1 and folate pathway IHC biomarkers failed to predict outcome in either study arm in ED-SCLC. SNPs in regions including FPGS and SLC19A1 and interacting SNPs in GGH and SLC19A1 were associated with differences in OS; however, none of these SNPs predicted for greater survival with PC over EC.
Annals of Oncology 12/2011; 23(7):1723-9. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current third consensus on the systemic treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) builds upon and updates similar publications on the subject by the Central European Cooperative Oncology Group (CECOG), which has published such consensus statements in the years 2002 and 2005 (Zielinski CC, Beinert T, Crawford J et al. Consensus on medical treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer--update 2004. Lung Cancer 2005; 50: 129-137). The principle of all CECOG consensus is such that evidence-based recommendations for state-of-the-art treatment are given upon which all participants and authors of the manuscript have to agree (Beslija S, Bonneterre J, Burstein HJ et al. Third consensus on medical treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2009; 20 (11): 1771-1785). This is of particular importance in diseases in which treatment options depend on very particular clinical and biologic variables (Zielinski CC, Beinert T, Crawford J et al. Consensus on medical treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer--update 2004. Lung Cancer 2005; 50: 129-137; Beslija S, Bonneterre J, Burstein HJ et al. Third consensus on medical treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2009; 20 (11): 1771-1785). Since the publication of the last CECOG consensus on the medical treatment of NSCLC, a series of diagnostic tools for the characterization of biomarkers for personalized therapy for NSCLC as well as therapeutic options including adjuvant treatment, targeted therapy, and maintenance treatment have emerged and strongly influenced the field. Thus, the present third consensus was generated that not only readdresses previous disease-related issues but also expands toward recent developments in the management of NSCLC. It is the aim of the present consensus to summarize minimal quality-oriented requirements for individual patients with NSCLC in its various stages based upon levels of evidence in the light of a rapidly expanding array of individual therapeutic options.
Annals of Oncology 09/2011; 23(5):1223-9. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the placebo-controlled phase III SATURN study, maintenance erlotinib after first-line chemotherapy demonstrated significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the overall study population of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
After four cycles of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, patients without progressive disease (PD) were randomised to erlotinib (150 mg/day) or placebo until PD or unacceptable toxicity. In this pre-planned analysis, data are assessed according to response to first-line chemotherapy (complete/partial response [CR/PR] or stable disease [SD]).
Following first-line chemotherapy, 889 non-PD patients were included in the intention-to-treat population (55% SD; 44% CR/PR; <1% unknown response). Erlotinib maintenance therapy significantly prolonged PFS in both the SD (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68; P < 0.0001) and CR/PR (HR = 0.74; P = 0.0059) groups, while OS was significantly prolonged in the SD group only (HR = 0.72; P = 0.0019). The erlotinib-related OS benefit in the SD group remained significant across subgroups, irrespective of tumour histology and/or EGFR mutation status. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the SD group and the overall population, and erlotinib treatment did not negatively impact quality of life.
Patients with advanced NSCLC and SD following first-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy derive a significant OS benefit from maintenance erlotinib therapy.
Annals of Oncology 05/2011; 23(2):388-94. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension (HTN), a recognized adverse effect of angiogenesis inhibitors, may be a potential biomarker of activity of these agents. We conducted a retrospective analysis to examine the incidence and predictors of the development of on-treatment HTN with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cediranib, and the relationship of this adverse event with treatment outcomes.
BR24 was a double-blind placebo-controlled phase II trial of carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy with either daily oral cediranib or placebo in patients (n = 296) with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Exploratory analyses characterized relationships between HTN, baseline variables, and efficacy outcomes.
New onset or worsening of preexisting HTN (treatment-emergent HTN) was more frequent in patients receiving cediranib (68 versus 45%, P < 0.0001). Factors associated with HTN in all randomized patients were good performance status and treatment with cediranib. In both arms, treatment-emergent HTN was associated with improved efficacy outcomes, but there was no evidence of a differential treatment effect, with nonsignificant interaction P values.
In advanced NSCLC, HTN is frequent in patients receiving chemotherapy, with or without cediranib. The development of HTN was favorably prognostic in these patients, but not predictive of a differential outcome with cediranib.
Annals of Oncology 11/2010; 21(11):2220-6. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant ascites is a common manifestation of advanced cancers, and treatment options are limited. The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab (anti-epithelial cell-adhesion molecule x anti-CD3) represents a targeted immunotherapy for the intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of malignant ascites secondary to epithelial cancers. In this phase II/III trial (EudraCT 2004-000723-15; NCT00836654), cancer patients (n = 258) with recurrent symptomatic malignant ascites resistant to conventional chemotherapy were randomized to paracentesis plus catumaxomab (catumaxomab) or paracentesis alone (control) and stratified by cancer type (129 ovarian and 129 nonovarian). Catumaxomab was administered as an i.p. infusion on Days 0, 3, 7 and 10 at doses of 10, 20, 50 and 150 mug, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint was puncture-free survival. Secondary efficacy parameters included time to next paracentesis, ascites signs and symptoms and overall survival (OS). Puncture-free survival was significantly longer in the catumaxomab group (median 46 days) than the control group (median 11 days) (hazard ratio = 0.254: p < 0.0001) as was median time to next paracentesis (77 versus 13 days; p < 0.0001). In addition, catumaxomab patients had fewer signs and symptoms of ascites than control patients. OS showed a positive trend for the catumaxomab group and, in a prospectively planned analysis, was significantly prolonged in patients with gastric cancer (n = 66; 71 versus 44 days; p = 0.0313). Although adverse events associated with catumaxomab were frequent, they were manageable, generally reversible and mainly related to its immunologic mode of action. Catumaxomab showed a clear clinical benefit in patients with malignant ascites secondary to epithelial cancers, especially gastric cancer, with an acceptable safety profile.
International Journal of Cancer 11/2010; 127(9):2209-21. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is usually limited to four to six cycles. Maintenance therapy can delay progression and prolong survival. The oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor erlotinib has proven efficacy and tolerability in second-line NSCLC. We designed the phase 3, placebo-controlled Sequential Tarceva in Unresectable NSCLC (SATURN; BO18192) study to assess use of erlotinib as maintenance therapy in patients with non-progressive disease following first-line platinum-doublet chemotherapy.
Between December, 2005, and May, 2008, 1949 patients were included in the run-in phase (four cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy). At the end of the run-in phase, 889 patients who did not have progressive disease were entered into the main study, and were randomly allocated using a 1:1 adaptive randomisation method through a third-party interactive voice response system to receive erlotinib (150 mg/day; n=438) or placebo (n=451) until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients were stratified by EGFR immunohistochemistry status, stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, chemotherapy regimen, smoking history, and region. Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) in all analysable patients irrespective of EGFR status, and PFS in patients whose tumours had EGFR protein overexpression, as determined by immunohistochemistry. This study is registered with www.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556712.
884 patients were analysable for PFS; 437 in the erlotinib group and 447 in the placebo group. After a median follow-up of 11.4 months for the erlotinib group and 11.5 months for the placebo group, median PFS was significantly longer with erlotinib than with placebo: 12.3 weeks for patients in the erlotinib group versus 11.1 weeks for those in the placebo group (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.62-0.82; p<0.0001). PFS was also significantly longer in patients with EGFR-positive immunohistochemistry who were treated with erlotinib (n=307) compared with EGFR-positive patients given placebo (n=311; median PFS 12.3 weeks in the erlotinib group vs 11.1 weeks in the placebo group; HR 0.69, 0.58-0.82; p<0.0001). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse events were rash (37 [9%] of 443 patients in the erlotinib group vs none of 445 in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (seven [2%] of 443 patients vs none of 445). Serious adverse events were reported in 47 patients (11%) on erlotinib compared with 34 patients (8%) on placebo. The most common serious adverse event was pneumonia (seven cases [2%] with erlotinib and four [<1%] with placebo).
Maintenance therapy with erlotinib for patients with NSCLC is well tolerated and significantly prolongs PFS compared with placebo. First-line maintenance with erlotinib could be considered in patients who do not progress after four cycles of chemotherapy.
F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
The Lancet Oncology 06/2010; 11(6):521-9. · 25.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown the efficacy, tolerability, and ease of administration of pemetrexed-an antifolate antineoplastic agent-in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We assessed pemetrexed as maintenance therapy in patients with this disease.
This randomised double-blind study was undertaken in 83 centres in 20 countries. 663 patients with stage IIIB or IV disease who had not progressed on four cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2), day 1) plus best supportive care (n=441) or placebo plus best supportive care (n=222) in 21-day cycles until disease progression. Treatment was randomised with the Simon and Pocock minimisation method. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment. All patients received vitamin B(12), folic acid, and dexamethasone. The primary endpoint of progression-free survival and the secondary endpoint of overall survival were analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00102804.
All randomly assigned participants were analysed. Pemetrexed significantly improved progression-free survival (4.3 months [95% CI 4.1-4.7] vs 2.6 months [1.7-2.8]; hazard ratio [HR] 0.50, 95% CI 0.42-0.61, p<0.0001) and overall survival (13.4 months [11.9-15.9] vs 10.6 months [8.7-12.0]; HR 0.79, 0.65-0.95, p=0.012) compared with placebo. Treatment discontinuations due to drug-related toxic effects were higher in the pemetrexed group than in the placebo group (21 [5%] vs three [1%]). Drug-related grade three or higher toxic effects were higher with pemetrexed than with placebo (70 [16%] vs nine [4%]; p<0.0001), specifically fatigue (22 [5%] vs one [1%], p=0.001) and neutropenia (13 [3%] vs 0, p=0.006). No pemetrexed-related deaths occurred. Relatively fewer patients in the pemetrexed group than in the placebo group received systemic post-discontinuation therapy (227 [51%] vs 149 [67%]; p=0.0001).
Maintenance therapy with pemetrexed is well tolerated and offers improved progression-free and overall survival compared with placebo in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
The Lancet 09/2009; 374(9699):1432-40. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following a phase II trial in which pemetrexed-platinum demonstrated similar activity to that of historical etoposide-platinum controls, a phase III study was conducted to compare pemetrexed-carboplatin with etoposide-carboplatin for the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC).
Chemotherapy-naive patients with ES-SCLC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of zero to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed-carboplatin (pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) on day 1; carboplatin at area under the serum concentration-time curve [AUC] 5 on day 1) or etoposide-carboplatin (etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on days 1 through 3; carboplatin AUC 5 on day 1) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. The primary objective of the study was noninferiority of pemetrexed-carboplatin overall survival with a 15% margin.
Accrual was terminated with 908 of 1,820 patients enrolled after results of a planned interim analysis. In the final analysis, pemetrexed-carboplatin was inferior to etoposide-carboplatin for overall survival (median, 8.1 v 10.6 months; hazard ratio [HR],1.56; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.92; log-rank P < .01) and progression-free survival (median, 3.8 v 5.4 months; HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.58 to 2.17; log-rank P < .01). Objective response rates were also significantly lower for pemetrexed-carboplatin (31% v 52%; P < .001). Pemetrexed-carboplatin had lower grade 3 to 4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and leukopenia than etoposide-carboplatin; grade 3 to 4 thrombocytopenia was comparable between arms and anemia was higher in the pemetrexed-carboplatin arm.
Pemetrexed-carboplatin is inferior for the treatment of ES-SCLC. Planned translational research and pharmacogenomic analyses of tumor and blood samples may help explain the study results and provide insight into new treatment strategies.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2009; 27(28):4787-92. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factors such as Neupogen are used to treat chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The aim of the study was to show that a new granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, XM02, is as safe and effective as Neupogen in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with small cell or non-small cell lung cancer.
A total of 240 patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy were randomized in cycle 1 to treatment with daily injections (subcutaneous 5 microg/kg/d) of XM02 (n = 160) or Filgrastim Neupogen (n = 80) for at least 5 days and a maximum of 14 days. In subsequent cycles, all patients received XM02.
The mean duration of severe neutropenia was 0.5 and 0.3 days in cycle 1 for XM02 and Filgrastim, respectively. In the analysis of covariance for duration of severe neutropenia in cycle 1, the estimated treatment difference "XM02 minus Filgrastim" was 0.157 days, with 95% confidence level (-0.114 days, 0.428 days), which was included in the prespecified equivalence range (-1, 1). There was no statistically significant difference of the end point incidence of febrile neutropenia in cycle 1 between XM02 and Filgrastim (p = 0.2347). The adverse event profile was similar between XM02 and Filgrastim.
XM02 demonstrated similar efficacy and safety profile as the reference medication Filgrastim in cycle 1. In conclusion, treatment with XM02 is beneficial in ameliorating severe neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in lung cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. XM02 is safe and well tolerated in the doses applied in this study.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 05/2009; 4(6):736-40. · 4.55 Impact Factor