Andrea A Domenighetti

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

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Publications (20)123.01 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcriptome is subject to multiple changes during pathogenesis, including the use of alternate 5' start-sites that can affect transcription levels and output. Current RNA sequencing techniques can assess mRNA levels, but do not robustly detect changes in 5' start-site use. Here, we developed a transcriptome sequencing strategy that detects genome-wide changes in start-site usage (5'RNA-Seq) and applied this methodology to identify regulatory events that occur in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Compared with transcripts from WT mice, 92 genes had altered start-site usage in a mouse model of HCM, including four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 1 (Fhl1). HCM-induced altered transcriptional regulation of Fhl1 resulted in robust myocyte expression of a distinct protein isoform, a response that was conserved in humans with genetic or acquired cardiomyopathies. Genetic ablation of Fhl1 in HCM mice was deleterious, which suggests that Fhl1 transcriptional changes provide salutary effects on stressed myocytes in this disease. Because Fhl1 is a chromosome X-encoded gene, stress-induced changes in its transcription may contribute to gender differences in the clinical severity of HCM. Our findings indicate that 5'RNA-Seq has the potential to identify genome-wide changes in 5' start-site usage that are associated with pathogenic phenotypes.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2014; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent human genetic studies have provided evidences that sporadic or inherited missense mutations in four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1 (FHL1), resulting in alterations in FHL1 protein expression, are associated with rare congenital myopathies, including reducing body myopathy and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. However, it remains to be clarified whether mutations in FHL1 cause skeletal muscle remodeling owing to gain- or loss- of FHL1 function. In this study, we used FHL1-null mice lacking global FHL1 expression to evaluate loss of function effects on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Histological and functional analyses of soleus, tibialis anterior, and sternohyoideus muscles demonstrated that FHL1-null mice develop an age-dependent myopathy associated with myofibrillar and intermyofibrillar (mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum) disorganization, impaired muscle oxidative capacity and increased autophagic activity. A longitudinal study established decreased survival rates in FHL1-null mice, associated with age-dependent impairment of muscle contractile function and a significantly lower exercise capacity. Analysis of primary myoblasts isolated from FHL1-null muscles demonstrated early muscle fiber differentiation and maturation defects, which could be rescued by re-expression of the FHL1A isoform, highlighting that FHL1A is necessary for proper muscle fiber differentiation and maturation in vitro. Overall, our data show that loss of FHL1 function leads to myopathy in vivo and suggest that loss of function of FHL1 may be one of the mechanisms underlying muscle dystrophy in patients with FHL1 mutations.
    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that excess of deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)/salt-induced cardiac hypertrophy in the absence of hypertension in one-renin gene mice. This model allows us to study molecular mechanisms of high-salt intake in the development of cardiovascular remodeling, independently of blood pressure in a high mineralocorticoid state. In this study, we compared the effect of 5-wk low- and high-salt intake on cardiovascular remodeling and cardiac differential gene expression in mice receiving the same amount of DOCA. Differential gene and protein expression was measured by high-density cDNA microarray assays, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in DOCA-high salt (HS) vs. DOCA-low salt (LS) mice. DOCA-HS mice developed cardiac hypertrophy, coronary perivascular fibrosis, and left ventricular dysfunction. Differential gene and protein expression demonstrated that high-salt intake upregulated a subset of genes encoding for proteins involved in inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling (e.g., Col3a1, Col1a2, Hmox1, and Lcn2). A major subset of downregulated genes encoded for transcription factors, including myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD) genes. Our data provide some evidence that vascular remodeling, fibrosis, and inflammation are important consequences of a high-salt intake in DOCA mice. Our study suggests that among the different pathogenic factors of cardiac and vascular remodeling, such as hypertension and mineralocorticoid excess and sodium intake, the latter is critical for the development of the profibrotic and proinflammatory phenotype observed in the heart of normotensive DOCA-treated mice.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 03/2012; 302(9):R1025-33. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Marcel Egger, Andrea A Domenighetti
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic elevation of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) is a major determinant in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the direct actions of Ang II on cardiomyocytes contribute to excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) remodeling are not precisely known. We review this question, as well as acute Ang II-mediated modulation of ECC. In addition, we discuss adaptive/maladaptive modulation of cardiomyocyte ECC under chronic endogenous Ang II overproduction in the heart induced by local overexpression of the of the renin-angiotensin system in the mouse.
    Trends in cardiovascular medicine 04/2010; 20(3):78-85. · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is clinical evidence to suggest that impaired myocardial glucose uptake contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertrophic, insulin-resistant cardiomyopathy. The goal of this study was to determine whether cardiac deficiency of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter, GLUT4, has deleterious effect on cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling. Cre-Lox mouse models of cardiac GLUT4 knockdown (KD, 85% reduction) and knockout (KO, >95% reduction), which exhibit similar systemic hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic states, were investigated. The Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) fluxes, Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE) activity, and contractile performance of GLUT4-deficient myocytes was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp, epifluorescence, and imaging techniques. GLUT4-KO exhibited significant cardiac enlargement characterized by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (40% increase in cell area) and fibrosis. GLUT4-KO myocyte contractility was significantly diminished, with reduced mean maximum shortening (5.0+/-0.4% vs. 6.2+/-0.6%, 5 Hz). Maximal rates of shortening and relaxation were also reduced (20-25%), and latency was delayed. In GLUT4-KO myocytes, the I(Ca) density was decreased (-2.80+/-0.29 vs. -5.30+/-0.70 pA/pF), and mean I(NCX) was significantly increased in both outward (by 60%) and inward (by 100%) directions. GLUT4-KO expression levels of SERCA2 and RyR2 were reduced by approximately 50%. NHE-mediated H(+) flux in response to NH(4)Cl acid loading was markedly elevated GLUT4-KO myocytes, associated with doubled expression of NHE1. These findings demonstrate that, independent of systemic endocrinological disturbance, cardiac GLUT4 deficiency per se provides a lesion sufficient to induce profound alterations in cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) and pH homeostasis. Our investigation identifies the cardiac GLUT4 as a potential primary molecular therapeutic target in ameliorating the functional deficits associated with insulin-resistant cardiomyopathy.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 12/2009; 48(4):663-72. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with alterations in cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and Ca(2+) handling. Chronic elevation of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) is a major determinant in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the direct actions of Ang II on cardiomyocytes contribute to ECC remodeling are not precisely known. This question was addressed using cardiac myocytes isolated from transgenic (TG1306/1R [TG]) mice exhibiting cardiac specific overexpression of angiotensinogen, which develop Ang II-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in the absence of hemodynamic overload. Electrophysiological techniques, photolysis of caged Ca(2+) and confocal Ca(2+) imaging were used to examine ECC remodeling at early ( approximately 20 weeks of age) and late ( approximately 60 weeks of age) time points during the development of cardiac dysfunction. In young TG mice, increased cardiac Ang II levels induced a hypertrophic response in cardiomyocyte, which was accompanied by an adaptive change of Ca(2+) signaling, specifically an upregulation of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-mediated Ca(2+) transport. In contrast, maladaptation was evident in older TG mice, as suggested by reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content resulting from a shift in the ratio of plasmalemmal Ca(2+) removal and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake. This was associated with a conserved ECC gain, consistent with a state of hypersensitivity in Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. Together, our data suggest that chronic elevation of cardiac Ang II levels significantly alters cardiomyocyte ECC in the long term, and thereby contractility, independently of hemodynamic overload and arterial hypertension.
    Circulation Research 06/2009; 105(1):42-50. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The response of cardiomyocytes to biomechanical stress can determine the pathophysiology of hypertrophic cardiac disease, and targeting the pathways regulating these responses is a therapeutic goal. However, little is known about how biomechanical stress is sensed by the cardiomyocyte sarcomere to transduce intracellular hypertrophic signals or how the dysfunction of these pathways may lead to disease. Here, we found that four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 (FHL1) is part of a complex within the cardiomyocyte sarcomere that senses the biomechanical stress-induced responses important for cardiac hypertrophy. Mice lacking Fhl1 displayed a blunted hypertrophic response and a beneficial functional response to pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction. A link to the Galphaq (Gq) signaling pathway was also observed, as Fhl1 deficiency prevented the cardiomyopathy observed in Gq transgenic mice. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that FHL1 plays an important role in the mechanism of pathological hypertrophy by sensing biomechanical stress responses via the N2B stretch sensor domain of titin and initiating changes in the titin- and MAPK-mediated responses important for sarcomere extensibility and intracellular signaling. These studies shed light on the physiological regulation of the sarcomere in response to hypertrophic stress.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2009; 118(12):3870-80. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the damaged heart, cardiac adaptation relies primarily on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The recent discovery of cardiac stem cells in the postnatal heart, however, suggests that these cells could participate in the response to stress via their capacity to regenerate cardiac tissues. Using models of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, we demonstrate that components of the Notch pathway are up-regulated in the hypertrophic heart. The Notch pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cell-to-cell communication system, which is crucial in many developmental processes. Notch also plays key roles in the regenerative capacity of self-renewing organs. In the heart, Notch1 signaling takes place in cardiomyocytes and in mesenchymal cardiac precursors and is activated secondary to stimulated Jagged1 expression on the surface of cardiomyocytes. Using mice lacking Notch1 expression specifically in the heart, we show that the Notch1 pathway controls pathophysiological cardiac remodeling. In the absence of Notch1, cardiac hypertrophy is exacerbated, fibrosis develops, function is altered, and the mortality rate increases. Therefore, in cardiomyocytes, Notch controls maturation, limits the extent of the hypertrophic response, and may thereby contribute to cell survival. In cardiac precursors, Notch prevents cardiogenic differentiation, favors proliferation, and may facilitate the expansion of a transient amplifying cell compartment.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2009; 205(13):3173-85. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypertrophic heart rat (HHR) was derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat of the Okamoto strain and develops cardiac hypertrophy in the absence of hypertension. The genetic basis of this hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore, we compared gene expression profiles in the left ventricular myocardium of young (8-10 weeks of age) and old (38-50 weeks) HHR with rats from an age-matched control strain, the normal heart rat (NHR). cDNA microarrays (National Institute of Aging [NIA], 15,247 clones) were used to evaluate gene expression in cardiac-derived Cy3 and Cy5 labeled cDNA. M values (log2[Cy5/Cy3]) were obtained and significant differential expression was identified using an empirical Bayesian approach with specific results verified using real-time PCR. Compared with NHR, HHR cardiac weight index (heart weight/ body weight) was significantly elevated at both ages (young: 5.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.2; old: 4.2 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.2 mg/g; p < 0.05) with no difference in body weight or in tail-cuff blood pressure detected between the strains at either age. Differential expression was observed in 65 and 390 clones in young and old HHR, respectively, with more genes exhibiting down-regulation than up-regulation in both instances (young: down 44 vs. up 21; old: down 292 vs. up 98). Our data suggest a role for the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in the etiology of cardiac enlargement in the HHR. These findings support the candidature of previously identified cardiotrophic agents in contributing to the cardiac enlargement in the normotensive HHR, and also identify novel genetic factors which may be involved in the genesis of primary cardiac hypertrophy.
    Hypertension Research 05/2008; 31(5):941-55. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired glucose uptake is associated with both cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction, but whether there are common underlying mechanisms linking these conditions is yet to be determined. Using a 'gene dose' Cre-Lox GLUT4-deficient murine model, we examined the effect of suppressed glucose availability on global myocardial gene expression and glycolysis substrate bypass on the function of isolated perfused hearts. Performance of hearts from 22- to 60-week-old male GLUT4 knockout (KO, >95% reduction in GLUT4), GLUT4 knockdown (KD, 85% reduction in cardiac GLUT4) and C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) controls was measured ex vivo in Langendorff mode perfusion. DNA microarray was used to profile mRNA expression differences between GLUT4-KO and GLUT4-KD hearts. At 22 weeks, GLUT4-KO hearts exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and impaired contractile function ex vivo, characterized by a 40% decrease in developed pressure. At 60 weeks, dysfunction was accentuated in GLUT4-KO hearts and evident in GLUT4-KD hearts. Exogenous pyruvate (5 mM) restored systolic pressure to a level equivalent to WT (GLUT4-KO, 176.8+/-13.2 mmHg vs. WT, 146.4+/-9.56 mmHg) in 22-week-old GLUT4-KO hearts but not in 60-week-old GLUT4-KO hearts. In GLUT4-KO, DNA microarray analysis detected downregulation of a number of genes centrally involved in mitochondrial oxidation and upregulation of other genes indicative of a shift to cytosolic beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids. A direct link between cardiomyocyte GLUT4 deficiency, hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction is demonstrated. These data provide mechanistic insight into the myocardial metabolic adaptations associated with short and long-term insulin resistance and indicate a window of opportunity for substrate intervention and functional 'rescue'.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 02/2008; 44(2):270-80. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It predisposes patients to heart failure, QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts direct actions on cardiac tissue inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and electro-mechanical dysfunction. However, a direct association between Ang II and cardiomyocyte electrical remodeling has yet to be demonstrated. Transgenic TG1306/1R (TG) mice with cardiac-specific Ang II overproduction demonstrate blood pressure-independent cardiac hypertrophy and exhibit significant increase in sudden death associated with mechanical dysfunction. The present study makes use of TG mice to evaluate the direct effects of high levels of intracardiac Ang II on cardiac electrophysiology. Surface-limb ECG measurements were recorded on 50- to 60-week-old TG and wild-type (WT) mice. QT interval was significantly prolonged (+20%) in TG mice relative to WT. TG mice also showed an increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmias. QT prolongation was associated with prolongation of cardiomyocyte action potential at 90% repolarization (APD90). The change in APD90 correlated with a reduction in IK1 potassium current density in TG vs. WT cardiomyocytes (at -70 mV: 0.3+/-0.1 pA/pF vs. 0.8+/-0.2 pA/pF, P<0.05). In TG mice, reduction in IK1 was associated with a significant reduction (-50%) of the mRNA encoding Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 subunits of IK1-related KCNJ2 and KCNJ12 potassium channels. These data suggest that cardiac Ang II overproduction leads to the emergence of a long QT syndrome resulting from an IK1-dependent prolongation of the action potential duration through modulation of channel subunit expression.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 01/2007; 42(1):63-70. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cardiac sodium channel Na(v)1.5 plays a key role in cardiac excitability and conduction. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of the PDZ domain-binding motif formed by the last three residues (Ser-Ile-Val) of the Na(v)1.5 C-terminus. Pull-down experiments were performed using Na(v)1.5 C-terminus fusion proteins and human or mouse heart protein extracts, combined with mass spectrometry analysis. These experiments revealed that the C-terminus associates with dystrophin, and that this interaction was mediated by alpha- and beta-syntrophin proteins. Truncation of the PDZ domain-binding motif abolished the interaction. We used dystrophin-deficient mdx(5cv) mice to study the role of this protein complex in Na(v)1.5 function. Western blot experiments revealed a 50% decrease in the Na(v)1.5 protein levels in mdx(5cv) hearts, whereas Na(v)1.5 mRNA levels were unchanged. Patch-clamp experiments showed a 29% decrease of sodium current in isolated mdx(5cv) cardiomyocytes. Finally, ECG measurements of the mdx(5cv) mice exhibited a 19% reduction in the P wave amplitude, and an 18% increase of the QRS complex duration, compared with controls. These results indicate that the dystrophin protein complex is required for the proper expression and function of Na(v)1.5. In the absence of dystrophin, decreased sodium current may explain the alterations in cardiac conduction observed in patients with dystrophinopathies.
    Circulation Research 09/2006; 99(4):407-14. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    Qing Wang, Andrea A Domenighetti, Thierry Pedrazzini, Michel Burnier
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    ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated previously that deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt induces cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction independent of blood pressure (BP) in 1-renin gene mice. Because these mice also develop hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis caused by mineralocorticoid excess, we investigated whether correcting hypokalemia by dietary potassium supplementation would prevent the DOCA/salt-induced cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, and electrocardiographic changes in normotensive, 1-renin gene and hypertensive, 2-renin gene mice. All mice were studied after 5 weeks of DOCA and salt administration. Potassium was given by adding 0.4 or 0.6% KCl to the drinking water. Our results show that correction of hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis prevents cardiac hypertrophy and normalizes cardiac function without affecting BP in normotensive, 1-renin gene mice. In hypertensive, 2-renin gene mice, potassium supplementation induces a significant decrease in BP. The decrease in BP and correction of kalemia are associated with a significant but partial correction of cardiac hypertrophy. In both group of mice, electrocardiographic alterations were measured after administration of DOCA/salt, which could be corrected by potassium supplementation. Thus, these results show that correction of hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis does prevent the development of cardiac hypertrophy and normalizes cardiac function independent of BP in normotensive, 1-renin gene mice that receive excess mineralocorticoid and salt. In 2-renin gene, hypertensive mice, potassium supplementation also prevents the development of cardiac hypertrophy, but the effect cannot be separated from the decrease in BP.
    Hypertension 10/2005; 46(3):547-54. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic elevation of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) is detrimental to the heart. In addition to its hemodynamic effects, Ang II exerts cardiotrophic actions that contribute to cardiomyocyte remodeling. However, it remains to be clarified whether these direct actions of Ang II are sufficient to cause contractile dysfunction and heart failure in the absence of altered hemodynamic conditions. In this study, we used TG1306/1R (TG) mice that develop Ang II-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in absence of elevated blood pressure to investigate the phenotypic changes in cardiomyocytes during the adaptive response to chronic cardiac-specific endogenous Ang II stimulation. A 94-week longitudinal study demonstrated that TG mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy with aging and exhibit a significant increase in mortality compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Cardiac hypertrophy in TG mice is associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (15 to 20 weeks: length +20%; 35 to 40 weeks: length +10%, width +15%) but not collagen deposition. In vivo analysis of cardiac function revealed age-dependent systolic and diastolic dysfunction in TG mice (approximately 45% reduction in dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin at 50 to 60 weeks of age compared with WT). Analysis of isolated cardiomyocyte isotonic shortening showed impaired contractility in TG cardiomyocytes (30% to 40% decrease in rates of shortening and lengthening). In TG hearts, chronic Ang II exposure induced downregulation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2) and diminution of Ca2+ transients, indicative of an underlying disturbance in calcium homeostasis. In conclusion, chronic Ang II myocardial stimulation without hemodynamic overload is sufficient to produce cardiomyocyte and cardiac dysfunction culminating in heart failure.
    Hypertension 09/2005; 46(2):426-32. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION/HYPOTHESIS: Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor predictive of cardiovascular disease and is significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which angiotensin II (Ang II) and dietary sodium exert additive effects on the development of cardiac hypertrophy is unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that, where there is a genetic predisposition to Ang II-dependent hypertrophy, there is also an increased susceptibility to sodium-induced hypertrophy mediated by AT1-receptor expression. Diets of low sodium (LS, 0.3% w:w) and high sodium (HS, 4.0% w:w) content were fed to adult (age 25 weeks) control wild-type mice (WT) and to transgenic mice exhibiting cardiac-specific overexpression of angiotensinogen (TG). At the conclusion of a 40-day treatment period, cardiac tissue weights were compared and the relative expression levels of Ang II receptor subtypes (AT(1A) and AT(2)) were evaluated using RT-PCR. WT and TG mice fed HS and LS diets maintained comparable weight gains during the treatment period. The normalised heart weights of TG mice were elevated compared to WT, and the extent of the increase was greater for mice maintained on the HS diet treatments (WT 12% vs TG 41% increase in cardiac weight index). While a similar pattern of growth was observed for ventricular tissues, the atrial weight parameters demonstrated an additional significant effect of dietary sodium on tissue weight, independent of animal generic type. No differences in the relative (GAPDH normalised) expression levels of AT(1A)- and AT(2)-receptor mRNA were observed between diet or animal generic groups. This study demonstrates that, where there is a pre-existing genetic condition of Ang II-dependent cardiac hypertrophy, the pro-growth effect of elevated dietary sodium is selectively augmented. In TG and WT mice, this effect was evident with a relatively short dietary treatment intervention (40 days). Evaluation of the levels of Ang II receptor mRNA further demonstrated that this differential growth response was not associated with an altered relative expression of either AT(1A)- or AT(2)-receptor subtypes. The cellular mechanistic bases for this specific ANG II-dietary sodium interaction remain to be elucidated.
    Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 01/2005; 5(4):169-75. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Myocardial infarction (MI) poses a significant risk for sudden cardiac death. The effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockade in attenuating unfavourable post-MI outcomes indicates an important role for angiotensin (Ang) II signalling in the post-MI remodelling process. 2. AT1 and AT2 receptor expression is known to be altered during the early postinjury period and at the later failure stage in the infarcted heart. The aim of the present investigation was to characterize AngII receptor expression shifts in the intermediate, adaptive phases of post-MI hypertrophic remodelling. 3. The present study investigated relative cardiac AT1 and AT2 receptor expression levels using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (GAPDH normalized) in rats at 4 and 20 weeks after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. 4. Heart weight and normalized heart weight were significantly higher in the MI group than in the sham group 4 weeks post-MI, with significant hypertrophy of the left ventricle, left atrium and right ventricle in MI rats. At 20 weeks post-MI, left ventricular hypertrophy remained significant, whereas the mass of the other cardiac tissues was not different to that of sham controls. 5. AT2 receptor expression was markedly reduced in both the non-infarct and infarcted areas of the left ventricular wall in the MI group compared with the sham-operated group 4 weeks after surgery. Expression levels were reduced to 8 and 13% of sham values in the viable and scar tissue regions, respectively. By 20 weeks post-MI, there was no evidence of AT2 receptor expression suppression in the left ventricle. No significant relative changes in AT1 receptor mRNA levels were observed at either 4 or 20 weeks post-MI. 6. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, a selective downregulation of left ventricular AT2 receptor expression in the intermediate phase of post-MI ventricular remodelling in the rat. This downregulation may provide an enhanced AT1 receptor-mediated compensatory progrowth signal in the early adaptive post-MI growth phase. A more detailed understanding of the time-course of differential AT1 and AT2 receptor expression regulation post-MI may potentially identify an optimal window for targeted pharmacological intervention in the treatment of MI.
    Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 09/2004; 31(8):512-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic and structural consequences of a decrease in glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) levels on the heart. The CreLoxP system was utilised to delete GLUT4 in muscle tIssue including heart. The presence of the PGK-neoR cassette in the GLUT4-Lox mice resulted in reduced expression in all tIssues to levels 15-30% of wild-type control mice. In mice expressing Cre recombinase, there was a further reduction of GLUT4 in cardiac tIssue to almost undetectable levels. Cardiac glucose uptake was measured basally and during a euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamp using 2-deoxy-[1-(14)C]glucose. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was normal in hearts expressing 15% of normal GLUT4 levels but markedly reduced in mice with more profound reduction in GLUT4. Cardiac enlargement occurred only when GLUT4 levels were less than 5% of normal values. In heart there is a threshold level of GLUT4 above which insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is maintained. As little as 5% of normal GLUT4 levels expressed in heart is sufficient to prevent the development of cardiac hypertrophy.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 01/2004; 31(3):449-59. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to induce cardiac growth and modulate myocardial contractility. It has been reported that elevated levels of endogenous Ang II contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensives. However, the long-term functional effects of cardiac exposure to Ang II in normotensives is unclear. A recently developed transgenic mouse (TG1306/1R), in which cardiac-specific overproduction of Ang II produces primary hypertrophy, provides a new experimental model for investigation of this phenotype. The aim of the present study was to use this model to investigate whether there is a functional deficit in primary hypertrophy that may predispose to cardiac failure and sudden death. We hypothesised that primary cardiac hypertrophy is associated with mechanical dysfunction in the basal state. Normotensive heterozygous TG1306/1R mice harbouring multiple copies of a cardiac-specific rat angiotensinogen gene1 were studied at age 30-40 weeks and compared with age-matched wild-type littermates. Left ventricular function was measured ex vivo in bicarbonate buffer-perfused, Langendorff- mounted hearts (at a perfusion pressure of 80 mmHg, 37 degrees C) using a fluid-filled PVC balloon interfaced to a pressure transducer and digital data acquisition system. There was no difference in the mean (+SEM) intrinsic heart rate of TG1306/1R and wild-type control mice (357.4 +/- 11.8 vs. 367.5 +/- 20.9 bpm, n=9 & 7). Under standardised end-diastolic pressure conditions, TG1306/1R hearts exhibited a significant reduction in peak developed pressure (132.2 +/- 9.4 vs. 161.5 +/- 3.1 mmHg, n=9 & 7, p<0.05) and maximum rate of pressure development (3566.7 +/- 323.7 vs. 4486.3 +/- 109.4 mmHg, n=9 & 7, p<0.05). TG1306/1R mice show a significant correlation between incidence of arrhythmia and increasing heart size (Spearman s correlation coefficient 0.61). These data demonstrate that chronic in vivo exposure to elevated levels of intra-cardiac Ang II is associated with significant contractile abnormalities evident in the ex vivo intact heart. Our findings suggest that endogenous overproduction of cardiac Ang II, independent of changes in blood pressure, is sufficient to induce ventricular remodelling that culminates in impaired cardiac function which may precede failure.
    Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 09/2003; 4(3):186-90. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    Qing Wang, Andrea Domenighetti
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    ABSTRACT: Es ist bekannt, dass eine hohe Natriumaufnahme einen negativen Einfluss auf den Blutdruck und das Auftreten von kardiovaskulären Komplikationen ausübt. Dementsprechend wird grosser Wert auf die Prävention kardiovaskulärer Erkrankungen durch Reduktion der Salzaufnahme gelegt. Allerdings gibt es auch substanzielle klinische und experimentelle Hinweise, dass Kaliummangel oder Hypokaliämie sowohl auf das kardiovaskuläre System als auch auf die Nieren einen negativen Einfluss hat und demzufolge zur Pathogenese der Hypertonie, des Schlaganfalls, der ventrikulären Arrhythmien sowie von Nierenschädigungen beiträgt. So konnte gezeigt werden, dass die «Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)»-Ernährung, eine Ernährung mit einem niedrigen Natriumgehalt und einem hohen Anteil von kaliumhaltigen Nahrungsmitteln (Früchte und Gemüse), bei hypertensiven Patienten den Blutdruck wirksam zu senken vermag, und sie wird nun bei Patienten mit Hypertonie oder anderen kardiovaskulären Risikofaktoren standardmässig als Lebensstiländerung empfohlen. Es konnte experimentell gezeigt werden, dass eine hohe Kaliumaufnahme den Blutdruck zu senken und das Risiko für zerebrovaskuläre Ereignisse zu reduzieren vermag. Allerdings sind die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Kalium, Blutdruck und kardialer sowie renaler Hypertrophie noch immer nur unvollständig verstanden. In früheren Studien konnten wir zeigen, dass Mäuse, die eine salzreiche Ernährung und ein zur Natriumretention führendes Medikament (Mineralokortikoide) erhielten, selbst bei normalen Blutdruckwerten eine kardiale und renale Hypertrophie sowie eine schwere kardiale Dysfunktion entwickelten. Da diese Tiere auch eine durch das Mineralokortikoid und den Salzüberschuss verursachte Hypokaliämie und eine metabolische Alkalose entwickeln, haben wir untersucht, ob die Korrektur der Hypokaliämie durch eine Kaliumsupplementation mit der Ernährung die kardiale Hypertrophie, die kardiale Dysfunktion und die elektrokardiographischen Veränderungen bei diesen Mäusen verhindern würde. Unsere Resultate zeigen, dass die Korrektur der Hypokaliämie und der metabolischen Alkalose tatsächlich die Entwicklung einer kardialen Hypertrophie verhindert und die Herzfunktion sowie die elektrokardiographischen (EKG) Veränderungen normalisiert, ohne dabei den Blutdruck zu beeinflussen. Der Einfluss der Korrektur der Hypokaliämie auf das Herz war dabei etwas grösser als auf die Nieren. Demnach liefern unsere Resultate zusätzliche Hinweise dafür, dass Kalium bei der Regulation der Herzfunktion eine wichtige Rolle spielt und dass eine Hypokaliämie vermieden werden sollte, um die Entwicklung einer kardialen Dysfunktion zu verhindern. Ausserdem haben unsere Resultate erstmals gezeigt, dass Kalium die Herzfunktion unabhängig vom Blutdruck beeinflusst.

Publication Stats

382 Citations
123.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2010
    • Universität Bern
      • Department of Physiology
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
  • 2003–2009
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Physiology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2007
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • Département de médecine
      Lausanne, VD, Switzerland