Mari Shiomi

Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (5)13.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To clarify pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) factors associated with the over-anticoagulation response in Asians during warfarin induction therapy, population PK-PD analyses were conducted in an attempt to predict the time-courses of the plasma S-warfarin concentration, Cp(S), and coagulation and anti-coagulation (INR) responses. In 99 Chinese patients we analyzed the relationships between dose and Cp(S) to estimate the clearance of S-warfarin, CL(S), and that between Cp(S) and the normal prothrombin concentration (NPT) as a coagulation marker for estimation of IC 50 . We also analyzed the non-linear relationship between NPT inhibition and the increase in INR to derive the non-linear index l. Population analyses accurately predicted the time-courses of Cp(S), NPT and INR. Multivariate analysis showed that CYP2C9*3 mutation and body surface area were predictors of CL(S), that VKORC1 and CYP4F2 polymorphisms were predictors of IC 50 , and that baseline NPT was a predictor of l. CL(S) and l were significantly lower in patients with INR$4 than in those with INR,4 (190 mL/h vs 265 mL/h, P,0.01 and 3.2 vs 3.7, P,0.01, respectively). Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that CL(S), ALT and hypertension contributed significantly to INR$4. All these results indicate that factors associated with the reduced metabolic activity of warfarin represented by CL(S), might be critical determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation in Asians. Copyright: ß 2014 Ohara et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Funding: This work was supported in part by grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (KAKENHI C, 20590548) and the Department of Health, Taiwan (DOH101-TD-PB-111-TM005). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105891. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) and patient demographic characteristics are responsible for inter-individual differences in warfarin maintenance dosage requirements. At present, however, the factors associated with over-anticoagulation responses, especially before achieving the maintenance phase, have not been completely clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects of baseline coagulation activity assessed in terms of the level of fully carboxylated plasma normal prothrombin (NPT) on international normalized ratio (INR) control during the induction phase of warfarin therapy. Our objectives were to (1) identify factors associated with inter-patient variability in baseline NPT (NPT(0)); (2) estimate the therapeutic NPT (NPT(tx)) levels that can achieve an INR of 2-3; and (3) investigate the influence of NPT(0) on the INR response to warfarin by employing modelling and simulation techniques. METHODS: We measured NPT before (NPT(0)) and during the introduction of warfarin therapy for up to 3 months and analysed functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VKORC1 and CYP4F2 in 179 Chinese patients. The patients were classified into tertile groups according to NPT(0) values (i.e. high, intermediate and low groups), and in each group the NPT(tx) achieving therapeutic INR, the absolute reduction of NPT from NPT(0) to NPT(tx), and the percentage inhibition of NPT(0) [{(NPT(0) - NPT(tx))/NPT(0)} × 100] were obtained. The nonlinear relationship between NPT and INR was modelled on the basis of the INR value before warfarin treatment (INR(0)) added by the nonlinear increase in INR after warfarin initiation, which was predicted using the percentage inhibition of NPT(0) and a nonlinear coefficient (λ). The population parameter λ and its inter-individual variability and intra-individual variability in INR in the NPT-INR model were estimated by nonlinear mixed-effect modelling software NONMEM(®). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis identified age and liver disease as covariates of NPT(0), but none of the SNPs had a significant influence. Although the mean absolute NPT reduction necessary to achieve NPT(tx) was dependent on NPT(0) (i.e. the higher the NPT(0), the larger the reduction in NPT), the percentage inhibition was within the narrow range of 67-72 % of NPT(0), irrespective of NPT(0). However, a significantly higher percentage inhibition (80 % on average) was observed in patients with INR values exceeding 4.0. As the nonlinear coefficient λ in the developed model was dependent on NPT(0) (i.e. the higher the NPT(0), the larger the nonlinear λ value), the simulated nonlinear NPT-INR curves were superimposable in the three respective NPT(0) groups, and the only difference was the starting median NPT(0) level. As a result, a steeper increase in the slope of the nonlinear NPT-INR curve might be expected in patients with a lower NPT(0) after initiation of warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that INR may be prolonged by warfarin nonlinearly as a function of the percentage inhibition of NPT(0). Furthermore, these results indicate that NPT(0) may contribute to inter-individual variability in the INR response, and that patients with low NPT(0) may have the potential to show a sharp increase in INR during initiation therapy with warfarin.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 09/2012; · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carvedilol is a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist used for treating chronic heart failure (CHF). Two clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of R- and S-carvedilol, and associated covariates, in patients with CHF. Fifty-eight patients (male=45, female=13) with New York Heart Association class I-IV CHF were enrolled in two clinical studies. R- and S-carvedilol concentrations were measured using HPLC at steady-state after oral administration of carvedilol at 1.25-20 mg o.d. or b.i.d. The data from both studies were used to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters and covariates using the nonlinear mixed effects model program. For 40 patients evaluated in one clinical study, the cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 *1, *10, and *5 genotypes were determined using allele-specific primer PCR, and individual patients' oral clearance (CL/F) of both enantiomers were estimated by the empirical Bayes method. A one-compartment model with a first-order absorption rate was established, in which body weight and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein were significant covariates. Individual CL/F values for carvedilol were significantly lower in Japanese CHF patients with the CYP2D6 *1/*5, *5/*10 and *10/*10 genotypes. Estimation of the population pharmacokinetic parameters and their covariates for each enantiomer in Japanese patients with CHF showed that the CL/F values for R- and S-carvedilol were dependent on body weight, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, and CYP2D6 genotype. Prediction of exposure to free plasma carvedilol is important for dosage adjustment of beta-blocker therapy in patients with CHF.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2010; 33(8):1378-84. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of genetic polymorphisms on morphine-induced adverse events in cancer patients. We examined the relation of morphine-related adverse events to polymorphisms in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, number 1 (ABCB1), and μ-opioid receptor 1 genes in 32 Japanese cancer patients receiving oral controlled-release morphine sulfate tablets. The T/T genotype at 1236 or TT/TT diplotype at 2677 and 3435 in ABCB1 was associated with significantly lower frequency of fatigue (grades 1-3) (P = 0.012 or 0.011, Fisher’s exact test). The UGT2B7*2 genotype was associated with the frequency of nausea (grades 1-3) (P = 0.023). The frequency of nausea was higher in patients without UGT2B7*2 allele than others. The diplotype at 2677 and 3435 in ABCB1 was associated with the frequency of vomiting (grades 1-3) (P = 0.011). No patient whose diplotype was consisted of no GC allele at 2677 and 3435 suffered from vomiting. Our findings suggest that pharmacogenetics can be used to predict the risk of morphine-induced adverse events.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 06/2009; 65(2):251-8. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacodynamic (PD) characterization (concentration-dependent, time-dependent, etc.) of antibiotics is determined by aspects of the pharmacodynamic interaction between antibiotics and microorganisms. There are three major aspects of the pharmacodynamic interaction between antibiotics and microorganisms; 1) the minimum drug concentration required for the exhibition of antibacterial activity (MIC: minimum inhibitory concentration, MBC: minimum bactericidal concentration, etc.), 2) the relationship between drug concentration and bactericidal activity and 3) the magnitude of any persistent antibiotic activity (sub-MIC effect, post antibiotic effect, etc.). In the PK/PD approach based on the MIC (static MIC approach), information concerning aspect 1) alone is treated as the quantitative PD parameter (MIC), while information concerning aspects 2) and 3) are not represented as quantified PD parameters in spite of their importance in in vivo pharmacodynamic situation. On the other hand, in the PK/PD approach based on the time-kill profile (dynamic PK/PD approach), information concerning aspects 1) - 3) can all be represented as quantitative dynamic PD parameters (epsilon; the maximum kill rate constant, gamma; the Hill coefficient and EC50; the antibiotic concentration at which 50% of the maximum effect is obtained) together with the growth rates of the organisms (lambda). We thought that the PD characterization of antibiotics should be determined by integrating the dynamic PD parameters and the growth rates, so we developed a new concept integrating these parameters so that a good approximation of the time course of in vivo antibacterial activity exhibited by a antibiotic might be predicted from these parameters and the pharmacokinetics of the drug. To achieve this, we analyzed the time-kill profiles of a wide range of antibiotics against various microorganisms and obtained the dynamic PD parameters and the growth rates for the various combinations of antibiotics and microorganisms. Then we analyzed the causal relationship between the PD characteristics of the antibiotics and the dynamic PD parameters and the growth rates. As a result, we derived the following criteria for predicting the PD characteristics of antibiotics. (i) if the epsilon/lambda is greater than about 10 and gamma is less than one, the pharmacodynamics should be concentration-dependent (ii) if the epsilon/lambda is within the range 1-2 and gamma is about 5 or more, the pharmacodynamics should be time-dependent (iii) if the epsilon/lambda is within the range 1-4 and gamma is in the range 1-12, the pharmacodynamics should be time-dependent or both time- and concentration-dependent. The PD characterization of antibiotics against various strains of different microorganisms can be predicted relatively easily and quickly by utilizing these criteria. These findings make it possible to determine the kinds of causative pathogens to which the antibiotics should be applicable in the clinical sites. Furthermore, it is expected that effective strategies for development and establishing the optimum dosage regimen of novel antibiotics could be worked out more scientifically and efficiently than ever on the basis of the PK/PD parameters corresponding to the predicted PD characters.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 11/2008; 61(5):314-38.