ABSTRACT: In obese patients, concomitant use of clonidine and ketamine might be suitable to reduce the doses and minimize the undesired side effects of anesthetic and analgesic drugs. In this study, we evaluated the perioperative effects of administration of clonidine and ketamine in morbidly obese patients undergoing weight loss surgery at a university hospital in Rome, Italy.
A total of 50 morbidly obese patients undergoing open biliopancreatic diversion for weight loss surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into a study group (n = 23) receiving a slow infusion of ketamine-clonidine before anesthesia induction and a control group (n = 27) who received standard anesthesia. The hemodynamic profile, intraoperative end-tidal sevoflurane and opioid consumption, tracheal extubation time, Aldrete score, postoperative pain assessment by visual analog scale, and analgesic requirements were recorded.
The patients in the study group required less end-tidal sevoflurane, lower total doses of fentanyl (3.8 +/- 0.3 gamma/kg actual body weight versus 5.0 +/- 0.2 gamma/kg actual body weight, respectively; P <.05) and had a shorter time to extubation (15.1 +/- 5 min versus 28.2 +/- 6 min, P <.05). The Aldrete score was significantly better in the postanesthesia care unit in the study group. The study group consumed less tramadol than did the control group (138 +/- 57 mg versus 252 +/- 78 mg, P <.05) and had a lower visual analog scale score postoperatively during the first 6 hours.
The preoperative administration of low doses of ketamine and clonidine at induction appears to provide early extubation and diminished postoperative analgesic requirements in morbidly obese patients undergoing open bariatric surgery.
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 11/2008; 5(1):67-71. · 3.93 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a surgical procedure performed in patients with untreatable obesity and insulin resistance. The demonstrated metabolic and hormonal results of this procedure include the reversal of insulin resistance; an increase in diet-induced thermogenesis; and modifications of gut hormones, such as gastrin, enteroglucagon, neurotensin, and cholecystokinin. On the other hand, obesity is a condition of increased oxidative stress; however, few studies have investigated antioxidant systems in obese persons with BPD. To evaluate the metabolic status and antioxidant systems in such patients, we studied a group of 11 morbidly obese patients, aged 28 to 62 years, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 54.71 +/- 2.52 kg/m(2), before and after successful BPD (mean post-BPD BMI, 44.68 +/- 1.51 kg/m(2)). A control group composed of 10 slightly overweight women, with a mean BMI of 28.5 +/- 0.72 kg/m(2), was also studied. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) levels (also normalized for cholesterol levels) and total antioxidant capacity in blood plasma were assessed in these populations. The most striking datum was the extremely low level of CoQ(10) in postoperative period (0.34 +/- 0.16 vs 0.66 +/- 0.09 mug/mL, P = .04); also, the data corrected for cholesterol levels presented the same pattern, with a more marked significance (152.46 +/- 11.13 vs 186.4 +/- 17.98 nmol/mmol, P = .001). This could be due to lipid malabsorption after surgery. In fact, the pre-BPD data present all the metabolic and hormonal characteristics of severe obesity; and after BPD, there was a net improvement in the metabolic parameters. The first pathophysiologic phenomenon seems to be lipid malabsorption that has been argued to be the cause of insulin resistance reversion. This metabolic interpretation is also confirmed by the absence of significant variations of total antioxidant capacity (57.5 +/- 5.3 vs 66 +/- 5.3). The mechanisms of these phenomena remain to be established. These data suggest the importance of correcting postsurgical metabolic complications, in these clinical populations, with CoQ(10) supplementation.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 11/2008; 57(10):1384-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Therapeutic biliary endoscopy after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for morbid obesity is not possible through the anatomical route. In the case of a long excluded afferent limb, the possibility to reach endoscopically the papilla through a surgical gastrostomy or jejunostomy has been reported. A case of laparoscopy-assisted ERCP performed 4 years after laparoscopic BPD with distal gastrectomy, is reported. Access to the papilla was obtained laparoscopically by enterotomy, insertion of a trocar into a jejunal loop 40 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz and passage of the duodenoscope through the trocar to the papilla. A guidewire was laparoscopically advanced into the cystic duct, and bile duct cannulation was achieved using the rendez-vous technique; endoscopic sphincterotomy and extraction of stones were successful. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and the enterotomy was sutured. The clinical course was uneventful.
Obesity Surgery 03/2007; 17(2):251-4. · 3.29 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Background: Obesity causes anesthesiologists a broad variety of perioperative theoretical and practical problems. The aim
of this study was to compare two protocols of anesthesia employing Isoflurane and Sevoflurane and evaluate the cardiorespiratory
parameters, postoperative recovery and analgesia. Methods: 90 patients underwent biliopancreatic diversion. 60 patients (group
A) received Isoflurane and 30 patients (group B) were anesthetized with Sevoflurane. Intraoperative monitoring consisted of
EKG, invasive arterial pressure, Sp02, EtCO2, Etanest, Spirometry, urinary output and TOF. Cardiorespiratory parameters and end tidal expiratory concentrations of volatile agents
were collected during specific phases of surgery: 1) before induction of anesthesia, 2) after intubation, 3) after skin incision,
4) after positioning of costal retractors, 5) in the reverse Trendelenburg position, 6) end of surgery. During the postoperative
period the Aldrete test was carried out to evaluate the recovery from anesthesia. VAS was administered for 6 hours after the
end of surgery to set the quality of analgesia. Results: No statistically significant differences in cardiorespiratory parameters
were found between the two groups. Extubation time was significantly less in the Sevoflurane Group than in the Isoflurane
(15 ± 7 min vs 24 ± 5 min, p< 0.05). The Sevoflurane Group showed an Aldrete score significantly higher than the Isoflurane
(8.8 ± 0.3 vs 8.1 ± 0.4, p < 0.05). VAS values did not show statistical differences. Conclusion: The introduction of Sevoflurane,
a volatile agent with rapid pharmacokinetic properties, seems to offer an interesting application in these patients.
Obesity Surgery 01/2001; 11(5):623-626. · 3.29 Impact Factor