Wataru Kakuda

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (59)114.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a six-day protocol of in-hospital repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation combined with intensive swallowing rehabilitation (rPMS-ISR) for poststroke dysphagia. The subjects were eight patients with dysphagia caused by bilateral cerebral infarction (age: 62-70; time from onset of stroke: 27-39 months). rPMS was applied to the suprahyoid muscles, at strength set at 90% of the minimal intensity that elicited pain with a parabolic coil. One train of stimuli comprised 20 Hz for 3 sec followed by 27-sec rest. A single session included delivery of repetitive 20 trains of stimuli over 10 min, followed by 20 min of swallowing rehabilitation. Each patient received this combination treatment twice daily, morning and afternoon, over six consecutive days. Swallowing function was evaluated before and after intervention. rPMS-ISR induced significant improvement in swallowing ability, laryngeal elevation delay time, penetration aspiration scale, and swallowing quality of life (p < 0.01), but had no significant effect on the functional oral intake scale. The six-day in-hospital RPMS-ISR protocol seems safe and feasible for poststroke patients with dysphagia. The combination protocol improved swallowing function. Further larger studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.
    Neuromodulation 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/ner.12308 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0122688. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122688 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early rehabilitation for acute stroke patients is widely recommended. We tested the hypothesis that clinical outcome of stroke patients who receive early rehabilitation managed by board-certificated physiatrists (BCP) is generally better than that provided by other medical specialties. Data of stroke patients who underwent early rehabilitation in 19 acute hospitals between January 2005 and December 2013 were collected from the Japan Rehabilitation Database and analyzed retrospectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis using generalized estimating equations method was performed to assess the association between Functional Independence Measure (FIM) effectiveness and management provided by BCP in early rehabilitation. In addition, multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed to assess the impact of management provided by BCP in acute phase on discharge destination. After setting the inclusion criteria, data of 3838 stroke patients were eligible for analysis. BCP provided early rehabilitation in 814 patients (21.2%). Both the duration of daily exercise time and the frequency of regular conferencing were significantly higher for patients managed by BCP than by other specialties. Although the mortality rate was not different, multivariate regression analysis showed that FIM effectiveness correlated significantly and positively with the management provided by BCP (coefficient, .35; 95% confidence interval [CI], .012-.059; P < .005). In addition, multivariate logistic analysis identified clinical management by BCP as a significant determinant of home discharge (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.44; P < .005). Our retrospective cohort study demonstrated that clinical management provided by BCP in early rehabilitation can lead to functional recovery of acute stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 03/2015; 24(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.12.026 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether local injection of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) into the spastic muscles has any added benefits to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTMS)/occupational therapy (OT) in patients with spastic upper limb hemiparesis. Methods: The study subjects of 80 post-stroke patients with spastic upper limb hemiparesis (age: 60.2 ± 13.0 years, time after stroke: 55.3 ± 43.0 months), were divided into the BoNT-A plus RTMS/OT group and RTMS/OT group. BoNT-A was injected into the spastic muscles (total dose: 240 units) before RTMS/OT. The latter included 12 sessions of 40 min RTMS over the non-lesional hemisphere and 240-min intensive OT daily over 15 days. Spasticity was evaluated by the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and the motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated serially with Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Tests. Results: Both groups showed significant improvements in spasticity and motor function. The addition of BoNT-A resulted in better improvement in FMA score and MAS of finger flexor muscles (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The triple-element protocol of local injection of BoNT-A into spastic finger muscles, RTMS and intensive OT, is a promising therapeutic program for post-stroke spastic upper limb hemiparesis, although its significance should be confirmed in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    European Neurology 10/2014; 72(5-6):290-298. DOI:10.1159/000365005 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of testosterone on functional recovery in stroke patients have not previously been studied. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of pre-rehabilitation serum testosterone levels on functional recovery in male stroke patients. In total, 111 male stroke patients admitted to our department were enrolled in the study (age: 74 ± 10 years, days from stroke onset: 36 ± 14 days). Serum concentration of free testosterone (Free-T) was measured upon admission. Patients were also evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at admission and discharge. The main outcome variable was FIM at discharge. Correlations between Free-T and FIM were evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients. We performed multivariate linear regression analysis to assess the effects of testosterone on functional outcome with adjustment for patient background variables. In addition, we added a subgroup analysis based on age. The average Free-T serum concentration was 4.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation between Free-T and discharge FIM. The multivariate linear regression model showed that Free-T concentration was significantly associated with FIM at discharge (β = 0.09; P = 0.01). In the subgroup analysis, Free-T had significant association with discharge FIM only in patients under 76 years old (β = 0.24; P < 0.001). Our data suggest that serum Free-T levels have a positive effect for discharge FIM in male stroke patients.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 09/2014; 54(10). DOI:10.2176/nmc.oa.2014-0078 · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    Nobuyuki Sasaki, Wataru Kakuda, Masahiro Abo
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: High- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS and LF-rTMS) has been shown to be beneficial for upper limb hemiparesis in patients with acute stroke. However, no study has examined the usefulness of bilateral application of HF- and LF-rTMS (BL-rTMS). Methods: Fifty-eight hemiparetic patients with acute stroke were randomly assigned into two groups: HF-rTMS group and BL-rTMS group. All patients were scheduled to receive five sessions of either HF-rTMS over the lesional hemisphere or BL-rTMS over both hemispheres for 5 days. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated using the Brunnstrom Recovery Stage (BRS) for upper-limb and hand-fingers, grip strength and tapping frequency, before the first session and after the last session of rTMS. Results: Improvement of BRS for the upper limb and hand/finger was significantly greater in the BL-rTMS group than the HF-rTMS group (p < 0.01). Improvement in grip strength and tapping frequency was also greater in the BL-rTMS group, although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The proposed BL-rTMS is safe and feasible and showed a greater improvement of BRS of the affected upper limb compared to HF-rTMS. This novel rTMS approach may be a useful intervention for hemiparetic patients with acute stroke.
    Brain Injury 08/2014; 28(13-14):1-5. DOI:10.3109/02699052.2014.947626 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Ten patients with history of stroke and upper limb hemiparesis (age 62.0 ± 11.1 years, time since stroke 95.7 ± 70.2 months, mean ± SD) were studied. Each patient received 13 sessions, each comprising 160 s of cTBS applied to the skull on the area of the non-lesional hemisphere (using a 70-mm figure-8 coil, three pulse bursts at 50 Hz, repeated every 200 ms, i.e., 5 Hz, with total stimulation of 2,400 pulses), followed by intensive OT (comprising 120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training) during 15-day hospitalization. The motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) on the days of admission and discharge. All patients completed the 15-day protocol without any adverse effects. Treatment significantly increased the FMA score (from 46.6 ± 8.7 to 51.6 ± 8.2 points, p < 0.01) and shortened the log performance time of WMFT (from 2.5 ± 1.1 to 2.2 ± 1.2 s, p < 0.01). The 15-day protocol of cTBS combined with intensive OT is a safe and potentially useful therapeutic modality for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.
    04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13760-014-0294-y
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    Ryo Momosaki, Masahiro Abo, Wataru Kakuda
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the safety and feasibility of a 6-day protocol of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive swallowing rehabilitation for chronic poststroke dysphagia. In-hospital treatment was provided to 4 poststroke patients (age at treatment: 56-80 years; interval between onset of stroke and treatment: 24-37 months) with dysphagia. Over 6 consecutive days, each patient received 10 sessions of rTMS at 3 Hz applied to the pharyngeal motor cortex bilaterally, followed by 20 min of intensive swallowing rehabilitation exercise. The swallowing function was evaluated by the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS), Modified Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MMASA), Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), laryngeal elevation delay time (LEDT) and Repetitive Saliva-Swallowing Test (RSST) on admission and at discharge. All patients completed the 6-day treatment protocol and none showed any adverse reactions throughout the treatment. The combination treatment improved laryngeal elevation delay time in all patients. Our proposed protocol of rTMS plus swallowing rehabilitation exercise seems to be safe and feasible for chronic stroke dysphagia, although its efficacy needs to be confirmed in a large number of patients.
    Case Reports in Neurology 03/2014; 6(1):60-7. DOI:10.1159/000360936
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: The combination protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) improves motor function of the paretic upper limb in poststroke patients. However, the effect of RTMS/OT on motor neuron excitability remains to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 15-day application of RTMS/OT on motor neuron excitability in such patients using neurophysiological studies including F-wave parameter measurements. Subjects and Methods: Ten post-stroke patients with spastic upper limb hemiparesis were studied (mean age: 57.4±8.1 years, ±SD). Patients were hospitalized for 15 days to receive RTMS/OT. One session of 40-min low-frequency RTMS and two sessions of 120-min intensive OT were provided daily. Neurophysiological studies including F-wave parameters measurements were performed on the days of admission/discharge. Motor function and spasticity of the affected upper limb were evaluated on the same time points. Results: RTMS/OT significantly improved motor function of the affected upper limb. RTMS/OT decreased the modified Ashworth scale in the affected upper limb (p<0.05), but did not change F-wave frequency in either upper limb. However, both F-mean/M ratio and F-max/M ratio significantly decreased in the affected upper limb (all p<0.05). Conclusions: The 15-day protocol of LF-RTMS/OT produced significant reduction of motor neuron excitability. RTMS/OT can potentially produce significant reduction in upper limb spasticity in the affected upper limb, although this finding should be confirmed in a larger number of patients.
    The International journal of neuroscience 02/2014; 125(1). DOI:10.3109/00207454.2014.897706 · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • 01/2014; 51(8-9):555-564. DOI:10.2490/jjrmc.51.555
  • Nobuyuki Sasaki, Wataru Kakuda, Masahiro Abo
    01/2014; 51(6):378-382. DOI:10.2490/jjrmc.51.378
  • 01/2014; 51(1):38-46. DOI:10.2490/jjrmc.51.38
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the usefulness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for poststroke dysphagia has been reported. However, there is no report that describes the effectiveness of functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) for dysphagia. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effectiveness of FMS for poststroke dysphagia. Twenty poststroke dysphagic patients (age at treatment: 51-80 years; interval between onset of stroke and treatment: 6 to 36 months) were randomly assigned to a real group or a sham group. In the real group, FMS of 30 Hz was applied for suprahyoid muscles in a 20-sec train using a parabolic coil for 10 min (total 1200 pulses). In the sham group, sham stimulation was applied for 10 min at the same site. Swallowing function was evaluated by the timed water swallow test, interswallow interval (ISI), swallowing volume velocity (speed), and volume per swallow (capacity) were measured before and after stimulation. All patients completed the stimulation and none showed any adverse reactions throughout the stimulation. The improvement of speed and capacity of swallowing after stimulation was significantly larger in the real group compared with the sham group (all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference in the ISI was found between the groups. FMS using a parabolic coil can potentially improve swallowing function in poststroke dysphagic patients.
    Neuromodulation 12/2013; DOI:10.1111/ner.12137 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the Neurological Sciences 10/2013; 333:e574. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2013.07.2007 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the Neurological Sciences 10/2013; 333:e560. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2013.07.1962 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many poststroke patients suffer functional motor limitation of the affected upper limb, which is associated with diminished health-related quality of life. The aim of this study is to conduct a randomized, multicenter, comparative study of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with intensive occupational therapy, NEURO (NovEl intervention Using Repetitive TMS and intensive Occupational therapy) versus constraint-induced movement therapy in poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. In this randomized controlled study of NEURO and constraint-induced movement therapy, 66 poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were randomly assigned at 2:1 ratio to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation plus occupational therapy (NEURO group) or constraint-induced movement therapy (constraint-induced movement therapy group) for 15 days. Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test and Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test were used for assessment. No differences in patients' characteristics were found between the two groups at baseline. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment score was significantly higher in both groups after the 15-day treatment compared with the baseline. Changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment scores and Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test were significantly higher in the NEURO group than in the constraint-induced movement therapy group, whereas the decrease in the Wolf Motor Function Test log performance time was comparable between the two groups (changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, NEURO: 5·39 ± 4·28, constraint-induced movement therapy: 3·09 ± 4·50 points; mean ± standard error of the mean; P < 0·05) (changes in Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test, NEURO: 3·98 ± 2·99, constraint-induced movement therapy: 2·09 ± 2·96 points; P < 0·05). The results of the 15-day rehabilitative protocol showed the superiority of NEURO relative to constraint-induced movement therapy; NEURO improved the motion of the whole upper limb and resulted in functional improvement in activities of daily living.
    International Journal of Stroke 09/2013; 9(5). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12100 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: A double cone coil enables delivery of magnetic stimulation to leg motor areas and modulates neural activities of the areas. It is expected that combined application of facilitatory rTMS with the coil and physical therapy would improve walking function after stroke. The purpose of this study is to clarify the clinical effect of an in-patient protocol featuring rTMS with a double cone coil and mobility training for gait disturbance after stroke. Subjects and methods: Nineteen post-stroke hemiparetic patients with gait disturbance were studied (aged 56.2 ± 11.9 years). During the 13-day hospitalization, each patient received 20 sessions of high-frequency rTMS and mobility training featuring treadmill training. In one rTMS session, 2000 pulses of 10-Hz rTMS were delivered over bilateral leg motor areas using the double cone coil. Walking velocity, Physiological Cost Index (PCI) and Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) were evaluated on the day of admission and discharge. Results: The protocol was completed without any adverse effects in all patients. The combination treatment significantly increased walking velocity (p < 0.05) and decreased PCI (p < 0.05), decreased the performance time for TUG (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The protocol featuring high-frequency rTMS and mobility training is safe and feasible and can improve walking function after stroke.
    Brain Injury 08/2013; 27(9):1080-6. DOI:10.3109/02699052.2013.794973 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have explored the refinement of asymmetry in regional cerebral blood flow in relation to behavioral improvement after treatment. The purpose of this retrospective pilot study was to identify cerebral cortical regions with improved perfusion that correlated with improvement of upper limb motor function after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The study subjects were 33 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis who underwent rTMS combined with intensive occupational therapy (mean±SD age: 64.9±11.2years; time since onset of stroke: 57.3±45.9months). Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) were applied before and after treatment to evaluate motor function in the affected upper limb. Regional brain perfusion was measured by single-photon emission computed tomography, and the percentages of asymmetry values (asymmetry index [AI]) for 52 bilateral regions of interest were calculated. The change in AI was calculated as the post-intervention minus pre-intervention values. Changes in AI in the superior and middle frontal areas correlated significantly and negatively with changes in FMA score (superior: r=-0.406, P=0.03, R(2)=0.251; middle: r=-0.437, P<0.001, R(2)=0.306), but not with changes in WMFT log performance time. Changes in AI less than zero reflect improved perfusion, suggesting that upper limb motor function improvement in post-stroke patients reflects evolution of brain perfusion in the superior and middle frontal areas.
    Journal of Neuroradiology 07/2013; 41(3). DOI:10.1016/j.neurad.2013.06.006 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of the combination of bihemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis in poststroke patients. The study participants were eight poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (age at intervention: 62.8 +/- 4.9 years, time after stroke: 84.3 +/- 87.2 months, mean +/- SD). During 15 days of hospitalization, each patient received 10 sessions of 40-min bihemispheric rTMS and 240-min intensive OT (120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training). One session of bihemispheric rTMS comprised the application of both 1 and 10 Hz rTMS (2000 stimuli for each hemisphere). The Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Wolf Motor Function Test, and the Modified Ashworth Scale were administered on the day of admission and at discharge. All patients completed the treatment without any adverse effects. Motor function of the affected upper limb improved significantly, on the basis of changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test (P < 0.05, each). A significant decrease in the Modified Ashworth Scale score was noted in the elbow, wrist, and finger flexors of the affected upper limb (P < 0.05, each). The combination of bihemispheric rTMS and intensive OT was safe and feasible therapy for poststroke hemiparetic patients, and improved motor function of the hemiparetic upper limb in poststroke patients. The findings provide a new avenue for the treatment of patients with poststroke hemiparesis.
    International journal of rehabilitation research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Rehabilitationsforschung. Revue internationale de recherches de readaptation 06/2013; 36(4). DOI:10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283624907 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection with home-based functional training for passive and active motor function, over a 6-month period in post-stroke patients with upper limb spasticity. We studied 190 patients with at least 6-month history of stroke. They received injections of BoNT-A in upper limb muscles and detailed one-to-one instructions for home-based functional training. At baseline (before therapy), and at 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up, Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Wolf motor function test (WMFT) were used to assess active motor function, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) for assessment of spasticity, and the range of motion (ROM) for passive motor function. The total score for upper limb and scores of categories A and B of the FMA increased significantly at 1, 3 and 6 months, while the FMA score for category D increased significantly at 3 and 6 months, but not at 1 month. Significant decreases in the MAS scores were noted in all muscles examined at 1, 3 and 6 months, compared with baseline. The ROM for elbow joint extension significantly improved at 1, 3, and 6 months, while that for wrist joint extension increased significantly at 1 month, but not 3 or 6 months, compared with baseline. The results suggest that comprehensive improvement of motor function requires improvement of motor function in the proximal part of the upper limb and that BoNT-A followed by rehabilitation reduces spasticity and improves motor function of fingers.
    05/2013; 113(4). DOI:10.1007/s13760-013-0208-4

Publication Stats

988 Citations
114.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2015
    • The Jikei University School of Medicine
      • Department of Rehabilitation Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2012
    • Tottori Municipal Hospital
      TTJ, Tottori, Japan
  • 2007
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States