[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sandwich culture of hepatocytes is commonly applied for the prediction of in vivo biliary clearance (CLbil). In this paper, we present a modified procedure for the determination of in vitro CLbil in sandwich culture of rat hepatocytes, which allows the estimation of the impact of uptake processes on the overall CLbil. The main point of this modification is the separation of uptake and efflux processes. Ten drugs from four biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system classes were chosen in order to demonstrate the advantages of this method: 1) the uptake is performed identically before the canaliculi are opened, thus the efflux starts at the same intracellular concentration of the drugs and the effect of Ca2+/Mg2+ depletion on the uptake is excluded; 2) exact intracellular concentrations can be measured at the start and at the end of the efflux; 3) the biliary clearance can be determined irrespective of the uptake; 4) the canalicular and the sinusoidal transport can be measured simultaneously; 5) drug-drug interactions concerning uptake and efflux transporters can be estimated independently. Depending on the degree of uptake, CLbil,app (calculated using the concentration of drugs in the medium) was significantly higher (sulfasalazine, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin, atorvastatin) or lower (pravastatin, procainamide) than CLbil,int (calculated using the intracellular concentration of drugs). When the uptake had no impact on the CLbil, the apparent and intrinsic CLbil did not differ significantly (lovastatin, rifampicin, quetiapine). Our results confirm that transporters may play a significant role in the uptake of drugs both with high and poor permeability and solubility.
Drug Metabolism Letters 01/2015; 09(999). DOI:10.2174/1872312809666150119105646
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel N-hydroxyalkyl-2-aminophenothiazines implying a tetrazole moiety at the alkyl chain have been synthesized by hydroboration-oxidation of dienes followed by Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling reaction. Also, some sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives have been prepared by selective oxidations. MDR inhibition studies on rat hepatocyte cell culture revealed that some derivatives exhibit marked biological efficacy exceeding that of the standard verapamil (e.g., 3h, 4h, 16). Selected derivatives were subjected to chemical resolution to provide both enantiomers which were shown of similar activity on P-gp interaction measurements. The new compounds exhibited no toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four novel (1–4) and one known (5) diterpene polyesters with the jatrophane skeleton were isolated from a methanol extract of the aerial parts of the East Asian weed Euphorbia mongolica Prokh. The isolated compounds were characterized structurally and evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) reversing activity on human MDR gene-transfected L5178 mouse lymphoma cells; all these compounds were found to modulate the intracellular drug accumulation. The results highlighted some aspects of the structural requirements of jatrophane diterpenes as MDR modulators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters play important roles in balancing excitatory and inhibitory signals in the brain. Increasing evidence suggest that they may act concertedly to regulate extracellular levels of the neurotransmitters.
Here we present evidence that glutamate uptake-induced release of GABA from astrocytes has a direct impact on the excitability of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. We demonstrate that GABA, synthesized from the polyamine putrescine, is released from astrocytes by the reverse action of glial GABA transporter (GAT) subtypes GAT-2 or GAT-3. GABA release can be prevented by blocking glutamate uptake with the non-transportable inhibitor DHK, confirming that it is the glutamate transporter activity that triggers the reversal of GABA transporters, conceivably by elevating the intracellular Na+ concentration in astrocytes. The released GABA significantly contributes to the tonic inhibition of neurons in a network activity-dependent manner. Blockade of the Glu/GABA exchange mechanism increases the duration of seizure-like events in the low-[Mg2+] in vitro model of epilepsy. Under in vivo conditions the increased GABA release modulates the power of gamma range oscillation in the CA1 region, suggesting that the Glu/GABA exchange mechanism is also functioning in the intact hippocampus under physiological conditions.
The results suggest the existence of a novel molecular mechanism by which astrocytes transform glutamatergic excitation into GABAergic inhibition providing an adjustable, in situ negative feedback on the excitability of neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple chromatographic separations of the CHCl3-soluble extract of the roots of Echinacea purpurea led to the isolation of 19 compounds. Four natural products, three alkamides and nitidanin diisovalerianate, were identified, and five further compounds were detected for the first time in this species. Additionally, 10 known E. purpurea metabolites were isolated. The structures were determined by mass spectrometry and advanced 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The bioactivity of the isolated compounds was studied in [35S]GTPγS-binding experiments performed on rat brain membrane preparations. Both partial and inverse agonist compounds for cannabinoid (CB1) receptors were identified among the metabolites, characterized by weak to moderate interactions with the G-protein signaling mechanisms. The G-protein-modulating activities of the Echinacea compounds are rather far from the full agonist effects seen with the CB1 receptor agonist reference compound arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide (ACEA). However, upon coadministration with ACEA, a number of them proved capable of inhibiting the stimulation of the pure agonist, thereby demonstrating cannabinoid receptor antagonist properties.Graphical abstractThree alkamides and nitidanin diisovalerianate were identified, together with 14 known alkamides and one sesquiterpene from the roots of Echinacea purpurea. Their interaction with G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors were examined..Highlights► Four natural products, three alkamides and one neolignan, were identified in the roots of Echinacea purpurea. ► Four further known alkamides and one sesquiterpene were detected for the first time in this species. ► Ten known E. purpurea alkamides were isolated. ► Their cannabinoid receptor activity in [35S]GTPγS-binding assay were investigated on rat brain membrane preparations. ► Both partial and inverse agonist compounds were identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemical study of whole, undried plants of Euphorbia esula led to the isolation of six new (1-6) jatrophane diterpene polyesters, named esulatins H-M, together with the known compounds 2α,3β,5α,7β,15β-pentaacetoxy-9α-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11-dien-14-one (7), salicinolide (8), and euphosalicin (9). The structures and relative configuration of 1-6 were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HRESIMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. All these compounds, together with diterpenes (10-14) isolated previously from this plant, were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against HeLa, Ishikawa, and MCF7 cells. The multidrug-resistance-reversing activities were also investigated on L5178 mouse lymphoma cells transfected with the pHa MDR1/A retrovirus DNA. Preliminary structure-activity relationship data are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reductive ring openings of 3-O-benzoyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-D-glucopyranosides with BH(3)·NMe(3)-AlCl(3) are accompanied by side reactions, such as debenzoylation and reduction of the benzoate to benzyl ether. This phenomenon was rationalized by aluminium chelate formation between the O-4 acetal and the benzoyl carbonyl group oxygens. It was also shown that these side reactions can be eliminated by using BH(3)·THF as the reducing agent.
Carbohydrate research 05/2011; 346(12):1633-7. DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2011.04.046 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Euphorbia grandicornis led to the isolation of two new tigliane diterpenes, 16-angeloyloxy-13α-isobutanoyloxy-4β,9α,20-trihydroxytiglia-1,5-diene-3,7-dione (1) and 16-angeloyloxy-13α-isobutanoyloxy-4β,9α,7β-trihydroxytiglia-1,5-dien-3-one (2). The structures and relative configuration of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, JMOD, (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC), mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. The biogenesis of 1 and 2 with respect to the unusual 5-en-7-one and 5-en-7-ol moieties is also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel potential inhibitors of the postsqualene portion of cholesterol synthesis were screened in HepG2 cells. 2-(4-Phenethylpiperazin-1-yl)-1-(pyridine-3-yl)ethanol (LK-980) was identified as a prospective compound and was characterized further in cultures of human primary hepatocytes from seven donors. In vitro kinetic measurements show that the half-life of LK-980 is at least 4.3 h. LK-980 does not induce CYP3A4 mRNA nor enzyme activity. Target prediction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, allowing simultaneous separation and quantification of nine late cholesterol intermediates. Experiments indicated that human sterol Δ(7)-reductase (DHCR7) is the major target of LK-980 (34-fold increase of 7-dehydrocholesterol), whereas human sterol Δ(14)-reductase (DHCR14), human sterol Δ(24)-reductase (DHCR24), and human sterol C5-desaturase (SC5DL) represent minor targets. In the absence of purified enzymes, we used the mathematical model of cholesterol synthesis to evaluate whether indeed more than a single enzyme is inhibited. In silico inhibition of only DHCR7 modifies the flux of cholesterol intermediates, resulting in a sterol profile that does not support experimental data. Partial inhibition of the DHCR14, DHCR24, and SC5DL steps, in addition to DHCR7, supports the experimental sterol profile. In conclusion, we provide experimental and computational evidence that LK-980, a novel inhibitor from the late portion of cholesterol synthesis, inhibits primarily DHCR7 and to a lesser extent three other enzymes from this pathway.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 10/2010; 39(1):39-46. DOI:10.1124/dmd.110.035840 · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The widely prescribed lipid-lowering statins are considered to be relatively safe drugs. However, the risk of severe myopathy and drug interactions as a consequence of statin therapy provides a challenge for development of novel cholesterol-lowering agents, targeting enzymes other than HMG-CoA reductase. The novel pyridylethanol-(phenylethyl)amine derivative, (2-((3,4-dichlorophenethyl)(propyl)-amino)-1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethanol (LK-935), blocking lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase, was demonstrated to efficiently reduce cholesterol biosynthesis. The drug interaction potential of LK-935 was investigated and compared with that of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in primary human hepatocytes. Clear evidence was provided for the induction of CYP3A4 by LK-935. LK-935 was proved to be a potent human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) activator as a prerequisite for the transcriptional activation of CYP3A4 gene; however, the rapid metabolism of LK-935 in primary hepatocytes prevented maximal CYP3A4 induction. Therefore, the induction of CYP3A4 by LK-935 may be prone to mild or negligible drug interactions. However, because CYP3A4 and also CYP2C9 play a significant role in LK-935 metabolism, the inhibition of these cytochromes P450 by coadministered drugs may lead to some increase in the LK-935 concentration required for the potent induction of CYP3A4. Rosuvastatin was found to increase human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR)-mediated transcription of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2B6 genes, predicting the consequent potential for drug interactions with several coadministered drugs. Activation of hCAR and hPXR by atorvastatin and the subsequent induction of not only CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 but also of CYP2C9 present an additional target by which atorvastatin, a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, can modify the kinetics of numerous drugs.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 11/2008; 37(2):375-85. DOI:10.1124/dmd.108.023887 · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Succinate (SUC), a citrate (CIT) cycle intermediate, and carbenoxolone (CBX), a gap junction inhibitor, were shown to displace [3H]gamma-hydroxybutyrate ([3H]GHB), which is specifically bound to sites present in synaptic membrane subcellular fractions of the rat forebrain and the human nucleus accumbens. Elaboration on previous work revealed that acidic pH-induced specific binding of [3H]SUC occurs, and it has been shown to have a biphasic displacement profile distinguishing high-affinity (K(i,SUC) = 9.1 +/- 1.7 microM) and low-affinity (K(i,SUC) = 15 +/- 7 mM) binding. Both high- and low- affinity sites were characterized by the binding of GHB (K(i,GHB) = 3.9 +/- 0.5 microM and K(i,GHB) = 5.0 +/- 2.0 mM) and lactate (LAC; K(i,LAC) = 3.9 +/- 0.5 microM and K(i,LAC) = 7.7 +/- 0.9 mM). Ligands, including the hemiester ethyl-hemi-SUC, and the gap junction inhibitors flufenamate, CBX, and the GHB binding site-selective NCS-382 interacted with the high-affinity site (in microM: K(i,EHS) = 17 +/- 5, K(i,FFA) = 24 +/- 13, K(i,CBX) = 28 +/- 9, K(i,NCS-382) = 0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). Binding of the Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-specific alpha-cyano-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHC), and CIT characterized the low-affinity SUC binding site (in mM: K(i,ouabain) = 0.13 +/- 0.05, K(i,CHC) = 0.32 +/- 0.07, K(i,CIT) = 0.79 +/- 0.20). All tested compounds inhibited [3H]SUC binding in the human nucleus accumbens and had K(i) values similar to those observed in the rat forebrain. The binding process can clearly be recognized as different from synaptic and mitochondrial uptake or astrocytic release of SUC, GHB, and/or CIT by its unique GHB selectivity. The transient decrease of extracellular SUC observed during epileptiform activity suggested that the function of the synaptic target recognizing protonated succinate monocarboxylate may vary under different (patho)physiological conditions. Furthermore, we put forward a hypothesis on the synaptic activity-regulated signaling between astrocytes and neurons via SUC protonation.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 05/2008; 86(7):1566-76. DOI:10.1002/jnr.21608 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From the petroleum ether extract of the rhizomes of Tamus communis, the 7-hydroxy-2,3,4,8-tetramethoxyphenanthrene (1) was isolated, together with the known 2,3,4-trimethoxy-7,8-methylenedioxyphenanthrene (2), 3-hydroxy-2,4,-dimethoxy-7,8-methylenedioxyphenanthrene (3), 2-hydroxy-3,5,7-trimethoxyphenanthrene (4) and 2-hydroxy-3,5,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (5), through cytotoxic assay guidance. The structures were determined by means of HREIMS, (1)H NMR, JMOD and NOESY experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were tested on cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells, with the MTT assay. The results demonstrated that, with the exception of 2, all these compounds displayed pronounced cytotoxic activity; especially 1 and 3 exhibited significant cell growth inhibitory effects, with IC(50)=8.52+/-0.70 and 3.64+/-0.12 microM, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to cholestasis or adverse drug effects, the excretion of bilirubin conjugates can decrease; therefore, the level of bilirubin (B) and bilirubin glucuronides (BGs) increases in the serum with the concomitant shift of bilirubin diversus monoglucuronide (BDG/BMG) equilibrium. The aim of this study was to utilize the collagen-sandwich culture of hepatocytes as an in vitro model for studying B conjugation and canalicular versus sinusoidal disposition of BGs. Canalicular and sinusoidal efflux of BMG and BDG obtained in sandwich-cultured rat primary hepatocytes was compared with that measured in human hepatocyte cultures. The BMG and BDG were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. The biliary excretion index (BEI) was estimated by measuring disposition of BGs into standard and Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-free medium. Significantly more BGs were excreted into the canalicular networks than into the medium in 96-h sandwich culture of both human and rat hepatocytes (BEI, 62.5 and 80.6, respectively). The BDG/BMG ratio in the medium versus that in the canalicular networks was 0.55/1.48, which is similar to the serum/bile values (0.6/1.5) observed in vivo by Mesa et al. [Mesa VA, De Vos R, and Fevery J (1997) J Hepatol 27:912-916]. In contrast, the BEI for p-nitrophenol glucuronide was 5.2. The low BEI value is in agreement with empirical observations, which suggest that molecules with low molecular weight are preferably excreted by the kidney. In conclusion, sandwich-cultured primary hepatocytes provide a useful in vitro method to differentiate between sinusoidal and canalicular disposition of BGs. Since the normal BDG/BMG ratio changes in hyperbilirubinemia, this model could be used to predict drug effects leading to hyperbilirubinemia.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition 10/2005; 33(9):1355-60. DOI:10.1124/dmd.105.004481 · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential enzyme dUTPase is responsible for preventive DNA repair via exclusion of uracil. Lack or inhibition of the enzyme induces thymine-less cell death in cells performing active DNA synthesis, serving therefore as an important chemotherapeutic target. In the present work, employing differential circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that D. mel. dUTPase, a recently described eukaryotic model, has a similar affinity of binding towards alpha,beta-imino-dUTP as compared to the prokaryotic E. coli enzyme. However, in contrast to the prokaryotic dUTPase, the nucleotide exerts significant protection against tryptic digestion at a specific tryptic site 20 A far from the active site in the fly enzyme. This result indicates that binding of the nucleotide in the active site induces an allosteric conformational change within the central threefold channel of the homotrimer exclusively in the eukaryotic enzyme. Nucleotide binding induced allosterism in the D. mel. dUTPase, but not in the E. coli enzyme, might be associated with the altered hydropathy of subunit interfaces in these two proteins.