Seetharaman Shanmuganathan

Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India

Are you Seetharaman Shanmuganathan?

Claim your profile

Publications (7)7.75 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During skin repair, leukocyte infiltration is the principal inflammatory response which is instrumental in triggering growth factor and cytokine signals that orchestrate together to recruit cells necessary for healing. In severe wounds like burn, when acute inflammation becomes chronic, intervention is required to control inflammation so as to hasten the process of healing. Heparin, a known anticoagulant also possesses anti-inflammatory activity by its ability to interfere with the adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. Desulfated heparins (DSH) have subdued anticoagulant activity while possessing increased anti-inflammatory activity. Among which 2,3 DSH is found to have marked potency as an anti-inflammatory agent and has been utilized for this study. In this investigation, a controlled delivery system was designed by incorporating 2,3 DSH in microspheres and embedding in collagen matrix which could serve as a wound dressing in burns. In vivo evaluation of healing process was ascertained in rat burn wound model by qualitative and quantitative estimation of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and granulation tissue and collagen turnover was also assessed as healing progressed. The results of this study suggests that 2,3 DSH could be delivered in a controlled manner to regulate inflammatory events to hasten healing of burn wounds.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2011; 97(2):215-23. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Control of inflammation using appropriate anti-inflammatory agent prevents wound from becoming chronic. Heparin is a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharide molecules with a mean molecular weight between 12-30 kDa containing 200-300 disaccharide units of glycosaminoglycan chains. Chemical modifications leading to generation of a unique pentasaccharide sequence effectively reduces its anticoagualant activity, while retaining its anti-inflammmatory property. In this study, Standard heparin was partially desulfated to 2, 3 desulfated heparin (2, 3 DSH) and its anti-inflammatory property was determined by assessing its ability to prevent static adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium and clotting assay. The effectiveness of 2, 3 DSH to down regulate E-selectin and key proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6) was assessed by western blot and immunocytochemistry. These results were compared with commercially available 2-Desulfated Heparin (2DSH) and standard heparin (SH). Finally, a controlled delivery system of 2, 3 DSH was designed using chitosan microspheres and collagen as scaffold. Optimal loading of 2, 3 DSH was achieved and the release kinetics were tuned to follow a controlled release pattern. The steady state concentration of 2, 3 DSH was found to be optimal to elicit anti-inflammatory property and could achieve inhibition of E-selectin expression while unaffecting the normal clotting cascade.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 10/2010; 95(1):118-28. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel collagen-based dressing consisting of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic-acid-modified gelatin microspheres loaded with doxycycline has previously been reported to address both infection and matrix degradation. In the present study the potential benefits of the dressing were investigated in an excisional wound model in rats challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A full-thick excisional wound (1.5 x 1.5 cm) was created on the dorsum of the rats and infection induced by injecting 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) of P. aeruginosa. The healing pattern was assessed from wound reduction, matrix metalloprotease (MMP) levels, CFU reduction and histological and biochemical analysis. The treated group exhibited complete healing by day 15, compared with day 24 in the control group. Early subsidence of infection (99.9% by day 9) resulted in faster epidermal resurfacing and fibroplasias, whereas the microbial load exceeded 10(3) CFU even on day 15 in the control group and caused severe inflammation. Biochemical analysis showed that the expression of both collagen and hexosamine was significantly increased in the treated group. Gelatin zymography revealed prolonged expression of MMPs 2, 8 and 9 in the control group compared with the treated group. The study indicates that the developed dressing attenuated both infection and metalloprotease levels, and may therefore have potential application in wound healing.
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 12/2009; 61(12):1617-23.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An attempt was made to develop a new therapeutic delivery system which would play a dual role of attenuating MMP activity in the wounds and also prevent infection by controlled delivery of antimicrobials. A catechol type MMP inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) was conjugated to gelatin microspheres using EDC/NHS as coupling agents. The potential of the modified gelatin microspheres (DHB-MS) to attenuate the proteases such as MMP 2 and MMP 9 in the diabetic wound tissues was investigated by gelatin zymography. Further the modified microspheres were loaded with doxycycline and impregnated in a reconstituted collagen scaffold as novel wound dressing. The in vitro release behavior of doxycycline from both DHB-MS and DHB-MS impregnated collagen scaffold was investigated. DHB-MS when incubated with the tissue lysate for 6h displayed the complete inhibition of the MMPs in the tissue lysate. The in vitro drug release studies from the collagen scaffold exhibited the burst release of 44%, exerted immediate chemo prophylaxis and sustained delivery for 72 h. The MTT assay and fluorescent labeling with calcein AM indicated that the DHB-MS is biocompatible to human foreskin fibroblasts. Thus the system developed provides wider scope to control the pathogens involved in infection and also the excess matrix degradation.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 11/2008; 36(2-3):235-45. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Doxycycline-loaded chitosan microspheres were developed using a novel water-in-oil emulsion technique, involving oil phase ionic gelation. Microspheres were prepared by using 6% v/v of chitosan (3% w/v in acetic acid), soya oil–n-octanol oil mixture (1:2 v/v) as continuous phase and 5% span 80 as emulsifier. Doxycycline was entrapped by equilibrium swelling method with 8.4% total entrapment. The drug-loaded spheres were spherical with smooth surface morphology. The MTT assay showed that doxycycline-loaded microspheres were able to improve the percentage cell viability in comparison to the pure drug. In vitro release studies showed that a burst release of 42% in 6 h was achieved and maintained an equilibrium concentration of 72% in 24 h. Assessment of antibacterial activity showed that doxycycline was able to exhibit a minimum microbicidal concentration (MIC) of 16.5, 17.4, 11.2 and 98.3 μg against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 15380), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 9144) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25619), respectively. Gelatin zymography studies revealed that it could inhibit MMP 2 and MMP 9 at sub-antimicrobial concentration. The present investigation provides scope for using doxycycline-loaded chitosan microspheres for healing infected wounds.
    Carbohydrate Polymers. 01/2008;
  • International Journal of Pharmaceutics - INT J PHARM. 01/2008;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Collagen has proven to be a novel biomaterial used for drug delivery, wound cover dressings or as a substrate for tissue engineering with unique biocompatibility and biodegradable properties. Bovine and porcine Type I collagen provide a readily available source of scaffold material for various biomedical applications. However these sources have some potential risk of infectious diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalo- pathy. Hence there is demand for an alternative Type I collagen from various other sources. The present study utilizes the aquatic animals particularly the shark species in which collagen Type I is a major protein in the skin and the structure has similarity to that of mammalian species. An attempt was made to use shark skin collagen as scaffold with the extract of aloe to improve the stability. These scaffolds were characterized for various physicochemical properties and biocompatibility assessment to support the growth of human dermal fi broblasts in vitro. The incorporation of aloe