William J Federspiel

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

Are you William J Federspiel?

Claim your profile

Publications (105)207.35 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prior work suggests that leukocyte trafficking is determined by local chemokine gradients between the nidus of infection and the plasma. We have recently demonstrated that therapeutic apheresis can alter immune mediator concentrations in the plasma, protect against organ injury, and improve survival. Here we aimed to determine if the removal of chemokines from the plasma by apheresis in experimental peritonitis changes chemokine gradients and subsequently enhances leukocyte localization into the infected compartment, and away from healthy tissues.
    Critical care (London, England) 07/2014; 18(4):R141. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Providing partial respiratory assistance by removing carbon dioxide (CO2) can improve clinical outcomes in patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. An intravenous respiratory assist device with a small (25 Fr) insertion diameter eliminates the complexity and potential complications associated with external blood circuitry and can be inserted by nonspecialized surgeons. The impeller percutaneous respiratory assist catheter (IPRAC) is a highly efficient CO2 removal device for percutaneous insertion to the vena cava via the right jugular or right femoral vein that utilizes an array of impellers rotating within a hollow-fiber membrane bundle to enhance gas exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of new impeller designs and impeller spacing on gas exchange in the IPRAC using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and in vitro deionized water gas exchange testing. A CFD gas exchange and flow model was developed to guide a progressive impeller design process. Six impeller blade geometries were designed and tested in vitro in an IPRAC device with 2- or 10-mm axial spacing and varying numbers of blades (2–5). The maximum CO2 removal efficiency (exchange per unit surface area) achieved was 573 ± 8 mL/min/m2 (40.1 mL/min absolute). The gas exchange rate was found to be largely independent of blade design and number of blades for the impellers tested but increased significantly (5–10%) with reduced axial spacing allowing for additional shaft impellers (23 vs. 14). CFD gas exchange predictions were within 2–13% of experimental values and accurately predicted the relative improvement with impellers at 2- versus 10-mm axial spacing. The ability of CFD simulation to accurately forecast the effects of influential design parameters suggests it can be used to identify impeller traits that profoundly affect facilitated gas exchange.
    Artificial Organs 05/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal CO2 removal from circulating blood is a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of acute respiratory failure. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase accelerates CO2 removal within gas exchange devices by locally catalyzing HCO3 (-) into gaseous CO2 within the blood. In this work, we covalently immobilized carbonic anhydrase on the surface of polypropylene hollow fiber membranes using glutaraldehyde activated chitosan tethering to amplify the density of reactive amine functional groups for enzyme immobilization. XPS and a colorimetric amine assay confirmed higher amine densities on the chitosan coated fiber compared to control fiber. Chitosan/CA coated fibers exhibited accelerated CO2 removal in scaled-down gas exchange devices in buffer and blood (115 % enhancement vs. control, 37 % enhancement vs. control, respectively). Carbonic anhydrase immobilized directly on hollow fiber membranes without chitosan tethering resulted in no enhancement in CO2 removal. Additionally, fibers coated with chitosan/carbonic anhydrase demonstrated reduced platelet adhesion when exposed to blood compared to control and heparin coated fibers.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 07/2013; · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Promising preclinical results have been obtained with blood purification therapies as adjuvant treatment for sepsis. However, the mechanisms by which these therapies exert beneficial effects remain unclear. Some investigators have suggested that removal of activated leukocytes from the circulation might help ameliorate remote organ injury. We designed an extracorporeal hemoadsorption device capable of capturing both cytokines and leukocytes in order to test the hypothesis that leukocyte capture would alter circulating cytokine profiles and influence immunological cell-cell interactions in whole blood taken from patients with sepsis. METHODS: We performed a series of ex vivo studies in 21 patients with septic shock and 12 healthy volunteers. Blood circulated for four hours in closed loops with four specially designed miniaturized extracorporeal blood purification devices including two different hemoadsorption devices and a hemofilter in order to characterize leukocyte capture and to assess the effects of leukocyte removal on inflammation and immune function. RESULTS: Hemoadsorption was selective for removal of activated neutrophils and monocytes. Capture of these cells led to local release of certain cytokines especially IL-8 and resulted in complex cell-cell interactions involved in cell-mediated immunity. Inhibition of cell adherence reversed the cytokine release and the effects on lymphocyte function. CONCLUSIONS: Monocyte and neutrophil capture using a sorbent polymer results in upregulation of IL-8 and modulation of cell-mediated immunity. Further studies are needed to better understand these cellular interactions in order to help design better blood purification therapies.
    Critical care (London, England) 03/2013; 17(2):R59. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Laura W Lund, William J Federspiel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For patients experiencing acute respiratory failure due to a severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has been shown to significantly reduce mortality and hospital length of stay compared to respiratory support with invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite continued improvements in the administration of noninvasive ventilation (NIV), refractory hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis continue to prevent its successful use in many patients. Recent advances in extracorporeal gas exchange technology have led to the development of systems designed to be safer and simpler by focusing on the clinical benefits of partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R), as opposed to full cardiopulmonary support. While the use of ECCO2R has been studied in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), its use for acute hypercapnic respiratory during COPD exacerbations has not been evaluated until recently. This review will focus on literature published over the last year on the use of ECCO2R for removing extra CO2 in patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of COPD.
    Current respiratory care reports. 01/2013; 2:131-138.
  • Source
    Matthew E Cove, Graeme Maclaren, William J Federspiel, John A Kellum
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has a substantial mortality rate and annually affects more than 140,000 people in the USA alone. Standard management includes lung protective ventilation but this impairs carbon dioxide clearance and may lead to right heart dysfunction or increased intracranial pressure. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal has the potential to optimize lung protective ventilation by uncoupling oxygenation and carbon dioxide clearance. The aim of this article is to review the carbon dioxide removal strategies that are likely to be widely available in the near future. Relevant published literature was identified using PubMed and Medline searches. Queries were performed by using the search terms ECCOR, AVCO2R, VVCO2R, respiratory dialysis, and by combining carbon dioxide removal and ARDS. The only search limitation imposed was English language. Additional articles were identified from reference lists in the studies that were reviewed. Several novel strategies to achieve carbon dioxide removal were identified, some of which are already commercially available whereas others are in advanced stages of development.
    Critical care (London, England) 09/2012; 16(5):232. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Azadeh Alikhani, William J Federspiel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anti-A/B antibody removal from blood in the peritransplantation period facilitates ABO-incompatible transplantation and significantly increases the donor pool. We have been developing an anti-A/B immunoadsorption device (BSAF), compatible with whole blood perfusion. The BSAF is based on integrated microfiltration hollow fibers with antibody capturing beads uniformly distributed within the fiber interstitial space. In this study we fabricated BSAF prototypes, appropriately scaled down from a conceptual clinical scale device. We then, for the first time, measured the time course of anti-A capture from blood samples recirculating through the scaled down BSAF devices. We observed a significant reduction in IgM (96% ± 5%, n = 5, p < 0.001), and IgG (81% ± 18%, n = 5, p < 0.05) anti-A antibody titers within 2 h. We did not observe a significant change between the initial and final values of hematocrit, total plasma protein concentration, plasma free hemoglobin concentration, and anti-B antibody titer over five experiments. In conclusion we showed that the BSAF modules selectively removed anti-A antibodies from blood in a simple one step process, without requiring a separate plasmapheresis unit. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2012.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2012; 100(8):2114-21. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety and performance of a unique extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal system (Hemolung, ALung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA) which incorporates active mixing to improve gas exchange efficiency, reduce exposure of blood to the circuit, and provide partial respiratory support at dialysis-like settings. An animal study was conducted using eight domestic crossbred sheep, 6-18 months of age and 49-115 kg in weight. The sheep were sedated and intubated, and a 15.5-Fr dual lumen catheter was inserted into the right jugular vein. The catheter was connected to the extracorporeal circuit primed with heparinized saline, and flow immediately initiated. The animals were then awakened and encouraged to stand. The animals were supported in a stanchion and monitored around the clock. Anticoagulation was maintained with heparin to achieve an aPTT of 46-70 s. Measurements included blood flow rate through the device, carbon dioxide exchange rate, pump speed and sweep gas flow rate. Safety and biocompatibility measurements included but were not limited to plasma-free hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen. The Hemolung removed clinically significant amounts of carbon dioxide, more than 50 ml/min, at low blood flows of 350-450 ml/min, with minimal adverse effects. The results of 8-day trials in awake and standing sheep supported by the Hemolung demonstrated that this device can consistently achieve clinically relevant levels of carbon dioxide removal without failure and without significant risk of adverse reactions.
    European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 08/2012; 38(10):1705-11. · 5.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Improper compartmentalization of the inflammatory response leads to systemic inflammation in sepsis. Hemoadsorption (HA) is an emerging approach to modulate sepsis-induced inflammation. We sought to define the effects of HA on inflammatory compartmentalization in E. coli-induced fibrin peritonitis in rats. HYPOTHESIS: HA both reprograms and re-compartmentalizes inflammation in sepsis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to E. coli peritonitis and after 24 h were randomized to HA or sham treatment (sepsis alone). Venous blood samples collected at 0, 1, 3, and 6 h (i.e. 24-30 h of total experimental sepsis), and peritoneal samples collected at 0 and 6 h, were assayed for 14 cytokines along with NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Bacterial counts were assessed in the peritoneal fluid at 0 and 6 h. RESULTS: Plasma TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL-1, and CCL2 were significantly reduced in HA vs. sham. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggested that inflammation in sham was driven by IL-6 and TNF-α, while HA-associated inflammation was driven primarily by TNF-α, CXCL-1, IL-10 and CCL2. While peritoneal bacterial counts, plasma AST levels and peritoneal IL-5, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-γ, and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) were significantly lower, both CXCL-1, CCL2 as well as the peritoneal:plasma ratios of TNF-α, CXCL-1, and CCL2 were significantly higher in HA vs. sham, suggesting that HA-induced inflammatory re-compartmentalization leads to the different inflammatory drivers discerned in part by PCA. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the utility of combined in vivo/in silico methods, and suggests that HA exerts differential effects on mediator gradients between local and systemic compartments that ultimately benefit the host.
    Molecular Medicine 06/2012; · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current artificial lungs and respiratory assist devices designed for carbon dioxide removal (CO(2)R) are limited in their efficiency due to the relatively small partial pressure difference across gas exchange membranes. To offset this underlying diffusional challenge, bioactive hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) increase the carbon dioxide diffusional gradient through the immobilized enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which converts bicarbonate to CO(2) directly at the HFM surface. In this study, we tested the impact of CA-immobilization on HFM CO(2) removal efficiency and thromboresistance in blood. Fiber surface modification with radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) introduced hydroxyl groups, which were activated by 1M CNBr while 1.5M TEA was added drop wise over the activation time course, then incubation with a CA solution covalently linked the enzyme to the surface. The bioactive HFMs were then potted in a model gas exchange device (0.0084 m(2)) and tested in a recirculation loop with a CO(2) inlet of 50mmHg under steady blood flow. Using an esterase activity assay, CNBr chemistry with TEA resulted in 0.99U of enzyme activity, a 3.3 fold increase in immobilized CA activity compared to our previous method. These bioactive HFMs demonstrated 108 ml/min/m(2) CO(2) removal rate, marking a 36% increase compared to unmodified HFMs (p < 0.001). Thromboresistance of CA-modified HFMs was assessed in terms of adherent platelets on surfaces by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Results indicated HFMs with CA modification had 95% less platelet deposition compared to unmodified HFM (p < 0.01). Overall these findings revealed increased CO(2) removal can be realized through bioactive HFMs, enabling a next generation of more efficient CO(2) removal intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices.
    Journal of Membrane Science 06/2012; 404-404:25-31. · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Heather E Pacella, Heidi J Eash, William J Federspiel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many industrial and biomedical devices (e.g. blood oxygenators and artificial lungs) use bundles of hollow fiber membranes for separation processes. Analyses of flow and mass transport within the shell-side of the fiber bundles most often model the bundle for simplicity as a packed bed or porous media, using a Darcy permeability coefficient estimated from the Blake-Kozeny equation to account for viscous drag from the fibers. In this study, we developed a simple method for measuring the Darcy permeability of hollow fiber membrane bundles and evaluated how well the Blake-Kozeny (BK) equation predicted the Darcy permeability for these bundles. Fiber bundles were fabricated from commercially available Celgard® ×30-240 fiber fabric (300 μm outer diameter fibers @ 35 and 54 fibers/inch) and from a fiber fabric with 193 μm fibers (61 fibers/inch). The fiber bundles were mounted to the bottom of an acrylic tube and Darcy permeability was determined by measuring the elapsed time for a column of glycerol solution to flow through a fiber bundle. The ratio of the measured Darcy permeability to that predicted from the BK equation varied from 1.09 to 0.56. A comprehensive literature review suggested a modified BK equation with the "constant" correlated to porosity. This modification improved the predictions of the BK equation, with the ratio of measured to predicted permeability varying from 1.13 to 0.84.
    Journal of Membrane Science 10/2011; 382(1-2):238-242. · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of extracorporeal blood purification on clinical outcomes in sepsis is assumed to be related to modulation of plasma cytokine concentrations. To test this hypothesis directly, we treated rats that had a cecal ligation followed by puncture (a standard model of sepsis) with a modest dose of extracorporeal blood purification that did not result in acute changes in a panel of common cytokines associated with inflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10). Pre- and immediate post-treatment levels of these cytokines were unchanged compared to the sham therapy of extracorporeal circulation without blood purifying sorbent. The overall survival to 7 days, however, was significantly better in animals that received extracorporeal blood purification compared to those with a sham procedure. This panel of common plasma cytokines along with alanine aminotransferase and creatinine was significantly lower 72 h following extracorporeal blood purification compared to sham-treated rats. Thus, the effects of this procedure on organ function and survival do not appear to be due solely to immediate changes in the usual measured circulating cytokines. These results may have important implications for the design and conduct of future trials in sepsis including defining alternative targets for extracorporeal blood purification and other therapies.
    Kidney International 09/2011; 81(4):363-9. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal blood purification is a promising therapeutic modality for sepsis, a potentially fatal, dysfunctional immunologic state caused by infection. Removal of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines from the blood may help attenuate hyper-inflammatory signaling during sepsis and improve patient outcomes. We are developing a hemoadsorption device to remove cytokines from the circulating blood using biocompatible, porous sorbent beads. In this work, we investigated whether competitive adsorption of serum solutes affects cytokine removal dynamics within the hemoadsorption beads. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to quantify intraparticle adsorption profiles of fluorescently labeled IL-6 in horse serum, and results were compared to predictions of a two component competitive adsorption model. Supraphysiologic IL-6 concentrations were necessary to obtain adequate CLSM signal, therefore unknown model parameters were fit to CLSM data at high IL-6 concentrations, and the fitted model was used to simulate cytokine adsorption behavior at physiologically relevant levels which were below the microscopy detection threshold. CLSM intraparticle IL-6 adsorption profiles agreed with predictions of the competitive adsorption model, indicating displacement of cytokine by high affinity serum solutes. However, competitive adsorption effects were predicted using the model to be negligible at physiologic cytokine concentrations associated with hemoadsorption therapy.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2011; 1218(44):8013-20. · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, characterized by overexpression of cytokines in the circulating blood. Removal of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators from the blood may help attenuate systemic inflammation during sepsis and improve patient outcomes. In this work, we examined the dynamics of TNF capture within porous, polymeric sorbent beads used in a cytokine adsorption device. We sought to quantify how perturbation of TNF oligomeric structure accelerates TNF removal within the device. TNF was incubated with 10% DMSO for 24 h, which promoted complete monomerization of trimeric TNF, and accelerated TNF capture within the sorbent device compared with native TNF; removal halftime = 13.3 ± 1.5 min versus 112.8 ± 13.3 min, respectively. Intramolecular crosslinking stabilized the trimeric TNF structure and prevented DMSO monomerization. Results demonstrate that TNF is an unstable oligomeric molecule that can be dissociated into its smaller monomeric constituents to facilitate faster capture by hemoadsorption beads. Strategies to promote localized TNF deoligomerization at the sorbent surface may significantly accelerate TNF capture rates from the circulating blood using hemoadsorption as a treatment for sepsis. This concept could be extended to improve removal of other oligomeric molecules using size exclusion filtration materials for a variety of disease states.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 07/2011; 98(1):47-53. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation is injurious to the lung. Use of lung-protective strategies may complicate patient management, motivating a search for better lung-replacement approaches. We investigated the ability of a novel extracorporeal venovenous CO2 removal device to reduce minute ventilation while maintaining normocarbia. Prospective animal study. Government laboratory animal intensive care unit. Seven sedated swine. Tracheostomy, volume-controlled mechanical ventilation, and 72 hrs of round-the-clock intensive care unit care. A 15-F dual-lumen catheter was inserted in the external jugular vein and connected to the Hemolung, an extracorporeal pump-driven venovenous CO2 removal device. Minute ventilation was reduced, and normocarbia (Paco2 35-45 mm Hg) maintained. Heparinization was maintained at an activated clotting time of 150-180 secs. Minute ventilation (L/min), CO2 removal by Hemolung (mL/min), Hemolung blood flow, O2 consumption (mL/min), CO2 production by the lung (mL/min), Paco2, and plasma-free hemoglobin (g/dL) were measured at baseline (where applicable), 2 hrs after device insertion, and every 6 hrs thereafter. Minute ventilation was reduced from 5.6 L/min at baseline to 2.6 L/min 2 hrs after device insertion and was maintained at 3 L/min until the end of the study. CO2 removal by Hemolung remained steady over 72 hrs, averaging 72 ± 1.2 mL/min at blood flows of 447 ± 5 mL/min. After insertion, O2 consumption did not change; CO2 production by the lung decreased by 50% and stayed at that level (p < .001). As the arterial PCO2 rose or fell, so did CO2 removal by Hemolung. Plasma-free hemoglobin did not change. Venovenous CO2 removal enabled a 50% reduction in minute ventilation while maintaining normocarbia and may be an effective lung-protective adjunct to mechanical ventilation.
    Critical care medicine 06/2011; 39(6):1382-7. · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • Azadeh Alikhani, William J Federspiel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anti-A/B antibody removal from blood reduces the hyperacute rejection risk following ABO-incompatible transplantation. We are developing an integrated bead and fiber module (BSAF) that selectively removes anti-A from blood. In BSAF blood flows through the inner lumen of microfiltration fibers. Starling flow carries plasma from the inner fiber lumen to the beads in the shell compartment where antibodies bind to covalently attached antigens on the beads. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to guide the choice of key design and operational parameters for a clinical BSAF device. The model demonstrated that for a given flow rate and reservoir volume, antibody removal rate was dependent on the magnitude of a lumped parameter, k (L) m (B)/Q (s), that characterizes the ratio of antibody uptake rate by the beads to the Starling flow rate in the device. The highest antibody removal rate was predicted for the perfusion limited regime, when k (L) m (B)/Q (s) → 10; Once this maximum limit was obtained, any further increase in the antibody removal rate was only possible by increasing the flow rate. Key model predictions were validated in a series of experiments. The model was then used to conceptually design a BSAF capable of a clinically relevant rate of anti-A removal.
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 03/2011; 39(3):953-63. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a harmful hyper-inflammatory state characterized by overproduction of cytokines. Removal of these cytokines using an extracorporeal device is a potential therapy for sepsis. We are developing a cytokine adsorption device (CAD) filled with porous polymer beads which efficiently depletes middle-molecular weight cytokines from a circulating solution. However, removal of one of our targeted cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), has been significantly lower than other smaller cytokines. We addressed this issue by incorporating anti-TNF antibodies on the outer surface of the beads. We demonstrated that covalent immobilization of anti-TNF increases overall TNF capture from 55% (using unmodified beads) to 69%. Passive adsorption increases TNF capture to over 99%. Beads containing adsorbed anti-TNF showed no significant loss in their ability to remove smaller cytokines, as tested using interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). We also detail a novel method for quantifying surface-bound ligand on a solid substrate. This assay enabled us to rapidly test several methods of antibody immobilization and their appropriate controls using dramatically fewer resources. These new adsorbed anti-TNF beads provide an additional level of control over a device which previously was restricted to nonspecific cytokine adsorption. This combined approach will continue to be optimized as more information becomes available about which cytokines play the most important role in sepsis.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2010; 96(1):127-33. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Removal of Anti-A/B antibodies prior to ABO-incompatible transplantation can prevent hyperacute organ rejection. We are developing a specific antibody filter (SAF) device to selectively remove ABO blood group antibodies from the whole blood by utilizing immunoaffinity adsorption. The device consists of ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes with synthetic antigens specific to bind blood group antibodies immobilized on the inner lumenal walls of the fibers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antigen molecular weight and surface activation process to increase the antibody binding capacity of the fiber membrane surface. A new higher molecular weight antigen Atri-pNSA-1000 compared with Atri-pNPA-30 (A-trisaccharide (Atri) conjugated to activated polymers of Mol. wt. 1000 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively) was employed to improve accessibility of the antigen to bind antibodies. Also, a cyanogen bromide (CNBr) based surface activation method mediated by TEA in neutral pH medium was used to enhance the number of active sites for antigen binding compared to a strong basic medium of NaOH. Using a CNBr/TEA activation method and by immobilizing Atri-pNSA-1000 antigen, an antibody binding capacity (∼0.01 monoclonal anti-A IgM nmol/cm(2)) was achieved on the fiber surface. This binding capacity was sufficient to reduce monoclonal antibody titer from 1:128 to final titer below 1:4 with a surface area to volume ratio that is similar to commercial dialysis device (∼1.1 m(2) surface area for an average body blood volume of 5 L).
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2010; 95(2):475-80. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) affects nearly 150,000 patients per year in the US, and is associated with high mortality ( approximately 40%) and suboptimal options for patient care. Mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are limited to short-term use due to ventilator-induced lung injury and poor biocompatibility, respectively. In this report, we describe the development of a biohybrid lung prototype, employing a rotating endothelialized microporous hollow fiber (MHF) bundle to improve blood biocompatibility while MHF mixing could contribute to gas transfer efficiency. MHFs were surface modified with radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) and protein adsorption to promote endothelial cell (EC) attachment and growth. The MHF bundles were placed in the biohybrid lung prototype and rotated up to 1,500 revolutions per minute (rpm) using speed ramping protocols to condition ECs to remain adherent on the fibers. Oxygen transfer, thrombotic deposition, and EC p-selectin expression were evaluated as indicators of biohybrid lung functionality and biocompatibility. A fixed aliquot of blood in contact with MHF bundles rotated at either 250 or 750 rpm reached saturating pO(2) levels more quickly with increased rpm, supporting the concept that fiber rotation would positively contribute to oxygen transfer. The presence of ECs had no effect on the rate of oxygen transfer at lower fiber rpm, but did provide some resistance with increased rpm when the overall rate of mass transfer was higher due to active mixing. RFGD followed by fibronectin adsorption on MHFs facilitated near confluent EC coverage with minimal p-selectin expression under both normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Indeed, even subconfluent EC coverage on MHFs significantly reduced thrombotic deposition adding further support that endothelialization enhances, blood biocompatibility. Overall these findings demonstrate a proof-of-concept that a rotating endothelialized MHF bundle enhances gas transfer and biocompatibility, potentially producing safer, more efficient artificial lungs.
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 06/2010; 106(3):490-500. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hollow fiber membrane (HFM)-based artificial lungs can require a large blood-contacting membrane surface area to provide adequate gas exchange. However, such a large surface area presents significant challenges to hemocompatibility. One method to improve carbon dioxide (CO(2)) transfer efficiency might be to immobilize carbonic anhydrase (CA) onto the surface of conventional HFMs. By catalyzing the dehydration of bicarbonate in blood, CA has been shown to facilitate diffusion of CO(2) toward the fiber membranes. This study evaluated the impact of surface modifying a commercially available microporous HFM-based artificial lung on fiber blood biocompatibility. A commercial poly(propylene) Celgard HFM surface was coated with a siloxane, grafted with amine groups, and then attached with CA which has been shown to facilitate diffusion of CO(2) toward the fiber membranes. Results following acute ovine blood contact indicated no significant reduction in platelet deposition or activation with the siloxane coating or the siloxane coating with grafted amines relative to base HFMs. However, HFMs with attached CA showed a significant reduction in both platelet deposition and activation compared with all other fiber types. These findings, along with the improved CO(2) transfer observed in CA modified fibers, suggest that its incorporation into HFM design may potentiate the design of a smaller, more biocompatible HFM-based artificial lung.
    Artificial Organs 05/2010; 34(5):439-42. · 1.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

584 Citations
207.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
      • • Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Bioengineering
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Jichi Medical University
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
  • 2002–2012
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ENT)
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Louisville
      • Department of Surgery
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States