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ABSTRACT: Spindle cell sarcomas consist of tumors with different biological features, of which distant metastasis is the most ominous sign for a poor prognosis. However, metastasis is difficult to predict on the basis of current histopathological analyses. We have identified actin filament-associated protein 1-like 1 (AFAP1L1) as a candidate for a metastasis-predicting marker from the gene expression profiles of 65 spindle cell sarcomas. A multivariate analysis determined that AFAP1L1 was an independent factor for predicting the occurrence of distant metastasis (P=0.0001), which was further confirmed in another set of 41 tumors by a quantitative mRNA expression analysis. Immunohistochemical staining using paraffin-embedded tumor tissues revealed that the metastasis-free rate was significantly better in tumors negative for AFAP1L1 (P=0.0093 by log-rank test). Knocking down the AFAP1L1 gene in sarcoma cells resulted in inhibition of the cell invasion, and forced expression of AFAP1L1 in immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell invasiveness with high activity levels of matrix metallopeptidase. Furthermore, tumor growth in vivo was accelerated in AFAP1L1-transduced sarcoma cell lines. These results suggest that AFAP1L1 has a role in the progression of spindle cell sarcomas and is a prognostic biomarker.
Oncogene 04/2011; 30(38):4015-25. · 7.36 Impact Factor
Urology 01/2009; 74(4). · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signal through prostaglandin E receptor 2 (EP2) receptors on the repair of injured articular cartilage was investigated using a selective agonist for EP2.
Chondral and osteochondral defects were prepared on the rabbit femoral concave in both knee joints, and gelatin containing polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres conjugated with or without the EP2 agonist was placed nearby. Animals were sacrificed at 4 or 12 weeks post-operation, and regenerated cartilage tissues and subchondral structure remodeling were evaluated by histological scoring. The quality of regenerated tissues was also evaluated by the immunohistochemical staining of EP2, type II collagen, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). As an evaluation of side effects, the inflammatory reaction of the synovial membrane was analyzed based on histology and the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase3 (MMP3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Also, the activity of MMP3 and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein in joint fluid were measured.
In both models, the EP2 agonist enhanced the regeneration of the type II collagen-positive tissues containing EP2- and PCNA-positive chondrocytes, and the histological scale of regenerated tissue and subchondral bone was better than that of on the control side, particularly at 12 weeks post-operation. No inflammatory reaction in the synovial membrane was observed, and no induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines was found in joint fluid.
Selective stimulation of the PGE2 signal through EP2 receptors by a specific agonist promoted regeneration of cartilage tissues with a physiological osteochondral boundary, suggesting the potential usefulness of this small molecule for the treatment of injured articular cartilages.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 11/2008; 17(4):529-38. · 4.26 Impact Factor