[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) reduces drinking in primary care patients with unhealthy alcohol use, incorporating SBI into clinical settings has been challenging. We systematically reviewed the literature on implementation studies of alcohol SBI using a broad conceptual model of implementation, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), to identify domains addressed by programs that achieved high rates of screening and/or brief intervention (BI). Seventeen articles from 8 implementation programs were included; studies were conducted in 9 countries and represented 533,903 patients (127,304 patients screened), 2,001 providers, and 1,805 clinics. Rates of SBI varied across articles (2-93% for screening and 0.9-73.1% for BI). Implementation programs described use of 7-25 of the 39 CFIR elements. Most programs used strategies that spanned all 5 domains of the CFIR with varying emphases on particular domains and sub-domains. Comparison of SBI rates was limited by most studies' being conducted by 2 implementation programs and by different outcome measures, scopes, and durations. However, one implementation program reported a high rate of screening relative to other programs (93%) and could be distinguished by its use of strategies that related to the Inner Setting, Outer Setting, and Process of Implementation domains of the CFIR. Future studies could assess whether focusing on Inner Setting, Outer Setting, and Process of Implementation elements of the CFIR during implementation is associated with successful implementation of alcohol screening, as well as which elements may be associated with successful, sustained implementation of BI.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 06/2011; 25(2):206-14. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This secondary analysis evaluated the prevalence and stability of homelessness over one year among veterans entering substance abuse treatment and explored associations among housing status, treatment outcomes, and Veterans Affairs (VA) service utilization.
Participants in a trial of on-site primary care for veterans entering substance abuse treatment (N=622) were placed in four groups based on housing status: housed at baseline and final follow-up (41%), homeless at baseline and final follow-up (27%), housed at baseline but homeless at final follow-up (8%), and homeless at baseline but housed at final follow-up (24%). Groups were compared on treatment retention, changes in Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite scores, and VA service utilization and costs.
Treatment retention and changes in ASI alcohol composites did not differ between groups. Compared with scores in the consistently housed group, the ASI drug composites improved less over time in the consistently homeless group (p=.031) and the ASI psychiatric composites improved less in the group housed at baseline and homeless at final follow-up (p=.019). All homeless groups were more likely than the consistently housed group to have inpatient admissions and incurred higher total treatment costs. The consistently homeless group was more likely to use emergency care than the consistently housed group.
Homelessness affects substance abuse treatment outcomes and costs. Interventions are needed to reduce homelessness among veterans entering substance abuse treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of persistent pain among veterans in out-patient addiction treatment and examine associated addiction treatment outcomes and medical and psychiatric service use.
Analysis of data from a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing on-site versus referral primary care of veterans with substance dependence (n = 582), excluding opioid dependence who had at least one follow-up interview during the 12-month study period in a Veterans Affairs (VA) out-patient addiction treatment center.
Pain status was classified as persistent (pain was rated moderate to very severe at all time-points), low (pain was rated none to mild at all time-points) or intermittent (all others). Main outcome measures were addiction treatment retention, addiction severity index (ASI) alcohol and drug composite scores, VA service utilization and treatment costs.
A total of 33.2% of veterans reported persistent pain and 47.3% reported intermittent pain. All groups benefited from addiction treatment, but veterans with persistent pain were in treatment for an estimated 35.1 fewer days [95% confidence interval (CI) = -64.1, -6.1, P = 0.018], less likely to be abstinent from alcohol or drugs at 12 months [odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.30,0.89; P = 0.018], had worse ASI alcohol composite scores at 12 months (beta(adj) = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.02,0.15; P = 0.007), were more likely to be medically hospitalized (OR(adj) = 2.70; 95% CI = 1.02,7.13; P = 0.046) and had higher total service costs compared to those with low pain ($17 766 versus $13 261, P = 0.012).
Persistent pain is common among veterans in out-patient addiction treatment and is associated with poorer rates of abstinence, worse alcohol use severity and greater service utilization and costs than those with low pain.