[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Potential new treatments for this disease include cell-replacement therapies using embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have generated ESCs from a transgenic mouse model, mouse insulin 1 promoter (MIP) green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice, in which embryonic and adult beta cells are genetically tagged with GFP. The aim of the present study is to examine the differentiation potential of MIP-GFP ESCs in the microenvironment of the kidney capsule. The ESCs grew rapidly and formed a teratoma with GFP-expressing beta-like cells present in clusters that formed a cord-like structure similar to what is seen in the embryonic pancreas. These structures also included glucagon-expressing alpha cells and amylase-expressing acinar cells. Electron microscopic analysis showed insulin-like granules in columnar epithelium with microvilli adjacent to exocrine-like granule-containing cells. The MIP-GFP ESCs should be a useful research tool to study the differentiation capacity of ESCs toward pancreatic lineages.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen-nonresponsive estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) knock-in (ENERKI) mice were generated to distinguish between ligand-induced and ligand-independent ER-alpha actions in vivo. These mice have a mutation [glycine 525 to leucine (G525L)] in the ligand-binding domain of ERalpha, which significantly reduces ERalpha interaction with and response to endogenous estrogens, whereas not affecting growth factor activation of ligand-independent pathways. ENERKI mice had hypoplastic uterine tissues and rudimentary mammary gland ductal trees. Females were infertile due to anovulation, and their ovaries contained hemorrhagic cystic follicles because of chronically elevated levels of LH. The ENERKI phenotype confirmed that ligand-induced activation of ERalpha is crucial in the female reproductive tract and mammary gland development. Growth factor treatments induced uterine epithelial proliferation in ovariectomized ENERKI females, directly demonstrating that ERalpha ligand-independent pathways were active. In addition, the synthetic ERalpha selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) were still able to activate ligand-induced G525L ERalpha pathways in vitro. PPT treatments initiated at puberty stimulated ENERKI uterine development, whereas neonatal treatments were needed to restore mammary gland ductal elongation, indicating that neonatal ligand-induced ERalpha activation may prime mammary ducts to become more responsive to estrogens in adult tissues. This is a useful model for in vivo evaluation of ligand-induced ERalpha pathways and temporal patterns of response. DES did not stimulate an ENERKI uterotrophic response. Because ERbeta may modulate ERalpha activation and have an antiproliferative function in the uterus, we hypothesize that ENERKI animals were particularly sensitive to DES-induced inhibition of ERalpha due to up-regulated uterine ERbeta levels.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The localized activation of circulating glucocorticoids in vivo by the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) plays a critical role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. However, the precise contribution of 11beta-HSD1 in the initiation of adipogenesis by inactive glucocorticoids is not fully understood. 3T3-L1 fibroblasts can be terminally differentiated to mature adipocytes in a glucocorticoid-dependent manner. Both inactive rodent dehydrocorticosterone and human cortisone were able to substitute for the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, suggesting a potential role for 11beta-HSD1 in these effects. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells caused a strong increase in 11beta-HSD1 protein levels, which occurred late in the differentiation protocol. Reduction of 11beta-HSD1 activity in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, achieved by pharmacological inhibition or adenovirally mediated delivery of short hairpin RNA constructs, specifically blocked the ability of inactive glucocorticoids to drive 3T3-L1 differentiation. However, even modest increases in exogenous 11beta-HSD1 expression in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, to levels comparable with endogenous 11beta-HSD1 in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, were sufficient to block adipogenesis. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that overexpressed 11beta-HSD1 was catalyzing the inactivating dehydrogenase reaction, because the ability of both active and inactive glucocorticoids to activate the glucocorticoid receptor were largely suppressed. These results suggest that the temporal regulation of 11beta-HSD1 expression is tightly controlled in 3T3-L1 cells, so as to mediate the initiation of differentiation by inactive glucocorticoids and also to prevent the inhibitory activity of prematurely expressed 11beta-HSD1 during adipogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2007; 282(15):11038-46. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipocyte differentiation comprises altered gene expression and increased triglyceride storage. To investigate the interdependency of these two events, 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated in the presence of glucose or pyruvate. All adipocytic proteins examined were similarly increased between the two conditions. In contrast, 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiated with glucose exhibited significant lipid accumulation, which was largely suppressed in the presence of pyruvate. Subsequent addition of glucose to the latter cells restored lipid accumulation and acute rates of insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. These data indicate that extracellular energy is required for induction of adipocytic proteins, while only glucose sustained the parallel increase in triglyceride storage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a central regulator of adipogenesis and recruits coactivator proteins in response to ligand. However, the role of another class of nuclear cofactors, the nuclear receptor corepressors, in modulating PPARgamma transcriptional activity is less clear. Such corepressors include the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and the silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT). Our data suggest that PPARgamma recruits SMRT and NCoR in the absence of ligand and that these corepressors are capable of down-regulating PPARgamma-mediated transcriptional activity. The addition of the PPARgamma ligand pioglitazone results in dissociation of the PPARgamma-corepressor complex. To define the role of SMRT and NCoR in PPARgamma action, 3T3-L1 cells deficient in SMRT or NCoR were generated by RNA interference. When these cells are exposed to differentiation media, they exhibit increased expression of adipocyte-specific genes and increased production of lipid droplets, as compared with control cells. These data suggest that the nuclear receptor corepressors decrease PPARgamma transcriptional activity and repress the adipogenic program in 3T3-L1 cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(14):13600-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) interacts with retinoid X receptor (RXR) on PPAR response elements (PPREs) to regulate transcription of PPAR-responsive genes. To investigate the binding of PPARgamma and RXR to PPREs, three mutations were constructed in the DNA-binding domains of PPARgamma; two of the mutants maintained the structure of zinc finger I (PPARgamma-GS and PPARgamma-AA), and a third mutation disrupted the protein structure of zinc finger I (PPARgamma-CS). Results indicated that the mutations of PPARgamma that maintained intact zinc fingers were capable of binding to a variety of PPREs in the presence of RXR and could activate transcription on several PPREs. In parallel, a mutation was created in the DNA-binding domain of RXRalpha that maintained the structure of the zinc fingers (RXR-GS) but did not bind DNA and was transcriptionally inactive. Examination of the 3' half-site of several PPREs revealed that variations from the consensus sequence reduced or abolished transcriptional activity, but conversion to consensus improved transcriptional activity with PPARgamma-GS and PPARgamma-AA. Examination of the 5' half-site indicated that the upstream three nucleotides were more important for transcriptional activity than the downstream three nucleotides. Our data demonstrated that stringent binding of RXR to the 3' half-site of a PPRE is more influential on the binding of the PPARgamma/RXR heterodimer than the ability of PPARgamma to bind DNA. Thus, unlike RXR, PPARgamma exhibits promiscuity in binding on a PPRE, suggesting that the definition of a PPRE for PPARgamma may need to be expanded.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(5):3529-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential for maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations and is regulated by opposing stimulatory (cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP) and inhibitory (insulin) signaling pathways. The cAMP signaling pathway leads to phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, resulting in recruitment of the coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 and subsequent activation of gluconeogenesis. Insulin signaling leads to phosphorylation of CBP at serine 436, a residue near its CREB-interacting domain, but it is unknown whether this event modulates cAMP signaling. Here, we show in vitro and in 'knock-in' mice that a mutant CBP (S436A) is aberrantly recruited to CREB protein, resulting in inappropriate activation of gluconeogenesis in the fed state and glucose intolerance resulting from increased hepatic glucose production. We propose that insulin signaling may directly regulate many cAMP signaling pathways at the transcriptional level by controlling CBP recruitment.
Nature Medicine 07/2004; 10(6):633-7. · 22.86 Impact Factor