[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Genetic variation within different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci contributes to the susceptibility to IPF. The effect of 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to IPF is unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the association between HSP70 polymorphisms and IPF susceptibility in the Mexican population.
Four HSP70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated using real time PCR assays in 168 IPF patients and 205 controls: +2763 C>T of HSPA1L (rs2075800), +2437 of HSP HSPA1L A>G (rs2227956), +190 of HSPA1A G>C (rs1043618) and +1267 of HSPA1B G>A (rs1061581).
The analysis of the recessive model revealed a significant decrease in the frequency of the genotype HSPA1B AA (rs1061581) in IPF patients (OR = 0.27, 95 % CI = 0.13-0.57, Pc = 0.0003) when compared to controls. Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis in a codominant model the HSPA1B (rs1061581) GA and AA genotypes were associated with a lower risk of IPF compared with GG (OR = 0.22, 95 % CI = 0.07-0.65; p = 0.006 and OR = 0.17, 95 % CI = 0.07-0.41; p = <0.001). Similarly, HSPA1L (rs2227956) AG genotype (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI = 0.12-0.99; p = 0.04) and the dominant model AG + GG genotypes were also associated with a lower risk of IPF (OR = 0.24, 95 % CI = 0.08-0.67; p = 0.007). In contrast, the HSPA1L (rs2075800) TT genotype was associated with susceptibility to IPF (OR = 2.52, 95 % CI = 1.32-4.81; p = 0.005).
Our findings indicate that HSPA1B (rs1061581), HSPA1L (rs2227956) and HSPA1 (rs1043618) polymorphisms are associated with a decreased risk of IPF.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 10/2015; 15(1):129. DOI:10.1186/s12890-015-0127-7 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of two angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) (Enalapril and Captopril), an angiotensin-II receptor inhibitor (Losartan) and a renin inhibitor (Aliskiren) on renin, TGF-β1 and collagen expressions in human lung fibroblast cultures through real-time PCR and ELISA.
Normal commercial fibroblasts (CCD25) were exposed to 10(-6) M of enalapril, captopril, losartan, or aliskiren for 6 h. Subsequently, media were recovered and proteins were concentrated; RNA was extracted from the cells. Real time-PCR and ELISA were performed.
ACEi and losartan-stimulated fibroblasts showed an increase in the expression of TGF-β1, Collagen-Iα1 (Col-Iα1), and renin (except losartan) vs PolR2A (p < 0.05), and upregulation of TGF-β1 protein (p < 0.01), except with aliskiren.
Results show that ACEis and losartan could play a profibrosing role by inducing the overexpression of molecules such TGF-β1 and Collagen.
Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 02/2015; 193(2). DOI:10.1007/s00408-015-9688-8 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) represents a lung inflammation provoked by exposure to a variety of antigens. Chronic HP may evolve to lung fibrosis. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes migrate to injured tissues and contribute to fibrogenesis but its role in HP is unknown. Objective: To asses the possible participation of fibrocytes in chronic HP. Methods: CD45+/CXCR4+/Col-I+ circulating fibrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the presence of fibrocytes in HP and normal lungs by confocal microscopy. The concentration of CXCL12 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids was quantified by ELISA. The effect of fibrocytes on lung fibroblasts and T-lymphocytes was examined in cocultures. Results: The percentage of circulating fibrocytes was significantly increased in HP patients compared with healthy individuals (5.3%±3.4% versus 0.8%±0.7%, p=0.00004). Numerous fibrocytes were found infiltrating the HP lungs near fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Plasma CXCL12 concentration was significantly increased in HP patients (2303.3±813.7pg/ml versus 1385.6±318.5 pg/ml; p=0.00003), and similar results were found in BAL fluids. The chemokine was primarily expressed by epithelial cells. In co-cultures, fibrocytes induced on lung fibroblasts a significant increase in the expression of α-1 type-I-collagen, MMP-1 and PDGFβ. Likewise, fibrocytes induced the up-regulation of CCL2 in HP lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that high levels of fibrocytes are present in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic HP, and that these cells infiltrate the HP lungs. Fibrocytes may participate in the pathogenesis of HP amplifying the inflammatory and fibrotic response by paracrine signaling inducing the secretion of a variety of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2014; 191(4). DOI:10.1164/rccm.201407-1334OC · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an aging-related lung disorder characterized by expansion of the myofibroblast population and aberrant lung remodeling. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid pro-hormone, decreases with age but an exaggerated decline has been associated with chronic-degenerative diseases.We quantified the plasma levels of DHEA and its sulfated form (DHEA-S) in 137 IPF patients and 58 controls and examined the effects of DHEA on human lung fibroblasts.Plasmatic DHEA/DHEA-S were significantly decreased in male IPF patients, (DHEA, median (max-min): 4.4 (0.2-29.2) versus 6.7 (2.1-15.2) ng·mL(-1); p<0.01; DHEA-S, median: 47 (15.0-211) versus 85.2 (37.6-247.0) μg·dl(-1); p<0.001), while in females only DHEA-S was significantly decreased (median: 32.6 (15.0-303.0) versus 68.3 (16.4-171); p<0.001). DHEA caused a decrease of fibroblast proliferation and a ∼2-fold increase of fibroblast apoptosis, likely through the intrinsic pathway with activation of caspase-9. This effect was accompanied by upregulation of several pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor CDNK1A) and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins such as c-IAP1/c-IAP2. DHEA also caused a significant decrease of TGF-β1-induced collagen production and fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation, and inhibited PDGF-induced fibroblast migration.These findings demonstrate a disproportionate decrease of DHEA/DHEA-S in IPF patients and indicate that this molecule has multiple antifibrotic properties.
European Respiratory Journal 11/2012; 42(5). DOI:10.1183/09031936.00027412 · 7.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by epithelial phenotypic changes and fibroblast activation. Based on the temporal heterogeneity of IPF, we hypothesized that hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells regulate the fibrotic response. Objectives: To identify novel mediators of fibrosis comparing the transcriptional signature of hyperplastic epithelial cells and conserved epithelial cells in the same lung. Methods: Laser capture microscope and microarrays analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes in IPF lungs. Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was evaluated in Mmp19-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice. The role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-19 was additionally studied by transfecting the human MMP19 in alveolar epithelial cells. Measurements and Main Results: Laser capture microscope followed by microarray analysis revealed a novel mediator, MMP-19, in hyperplastic epithelial cells adjacent to fibrotic regions. Mmp19(-/-) mice showed a significantly increased lung fibrotic response to bleomycin compared with WT mice. A549 epithelial cells transfected with human MMP19 stimulated wound healing and cell migration, whereas silencing MMP19 had the opposite effect. Gene expression microarray of transfected A549 cells showed that PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) was one of the highly induced genes. PTGS2 was overexpressed in IPF lungs and colocalized with MMP-19 in hyperplastic epithelial cells. In WT mice, PTGS2 was significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissues after bleomycin-induced fibrosis, but not in Mmp19(-/-) mice. Inhibition of Mmp-19 by siRNA resulted in inhibition of Ptgs2 at mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions: Up-regulation of MMP19 induced by lung injury may play a protective role in the development of fibrosis through the induction of PTGS2.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2012; 186(8):752-62. DOI:10.1164/rccm.201202-0302OC · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrocytes are progenitor cells characterized by the simultaneous expression of mesenchymal, monocyte, and hematopoietic stem cell markers. We previously documented their presence in lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the mechanisms involved in their migration, subsequent homing, and local role remain unclear. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) facilitate cell migration and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.
To evaluate the expression and role of matrix metalloproteinases in human fibrocytes.
Fibrocytes were purified from CD14(+) monocytes and cultured for 8 days; purity of fibrocyte cultures was 95% or greater as determined by flow cytometry. Conditioned media and total RNA were collected and the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-8, and MMP-9 was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein synthesis was examined using a Multiplex assay, Western blot, fluorescent immunocytochemistry, and confocal microscopy. MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities were evaluated by gelatin zymography. Migration was assessed using collagen I-coated Boyden chambers. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α and platelet-derived growth factor-B were used as chemoattractant with or without a specific MMP-8 inhibitor.
Fibrocytes showed gene and protein expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-7. MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities were also demonstrated by gelatin zymography. Likewise, we found colocalization of MMP-8 and MMP-7 with type I collagen in fibrocytes. Fibrocyte migration toward platelet-derived growth factor-B or Stromal cell-derived factor-1α in collagen I-coated Boyden chambers was significantly reduced by a specific MMP-8 inhibitor.
Our findings reveal that fibrocytes express a variety of MMPs and that MMP-8 actively participates in the process of fibrocyte migration.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 11/2010; 182(9):1144-52. DOI:10.1164/rccm.201001-0028OC · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal lung disorder of unknown etiology. IPF is likely the result of complex interrelationships between environmental and host factors, although the genetic risk factors are presently uncertain. Because we have found that some MHC polymorphisms confer susceptibility to IPF, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the role of the MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in the risk of developing the disease. MICA molecular typing was done by reference strand mediated conformation analysis in a cohort of 80 IPF patients and 201 controls. In addition, the lung cellular source of the protein was examined by immunohistochemistry, the expression of the MICA receptor NKG2D in lung cells by flow cytometry and soluble MICA by ELISA. A significant increase of MICA*001 was observed in the IPF cohort (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.04-8.25; pC = 0.03). Likewise, the frequency of the MICA*001/*00201 genotype was significantly increased in patients with IPF compared with the healthy controls (OR = 4.72, 95% CI = 1.15-22.51; pC = 0.01). Strong immunoreactive MICA staining was localized in alveolar epithelial cells and fibroblasts from IPF lungs while control lungs were negative. Soluble MICA was detected in 35% of IPF patients compared with 12% of control subjects (P = 0.0007). The expression of NKG2D was significantly decreased in gammadelta T cells and natural killer cells obtained from IPF lungs. These findings indicate that MICA polymorphisms and abnormal expression of the MICA receptor NKG2D might contribute to IPF susceptibility.
Human Genetics 05/2009; 125(5-6):639-48. DOI:10.1007/s00439-009-0666-1 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elastolysis, collagenolysis and gelatinolysis are essential in the pathogenesis of tobacco smoke-induced emphysema; however, these activities have been scantily studied in emphysema secondary to woodsmoke. The aim of this study was to analyze elastolysis, collagenolysis and gelatinolysis, MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression, and apoptosis in guinea pigs exposed to smoke produced by 60 g/day of pine wood, 5 days/week, from 1 to 7 months. Histological analysis after 4 to 7 months in smoke exposed guinea pigs showed alveolar mononuclear phagocyte and lymphocytic peribronchiolar inflammation, epithelial and smooth muscle hyperplasia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Mild to moderate emphysematous lesions were observed in woodsmoke-exposed animals at 4 to 7 months by increase of mean linear intercepts. A higher percentage of whole blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and elastolytic activity in bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages and lung tissue homogenates was observed at all times. Collagenolysis was increased after 4 to 7 months in woodsmoke-exposed animals, although collagen concentration did not change. Zymography revealed increase in lysis bands of the active MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 4 and 7 months in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue homogenate. Positive immunostaining for MMP-1 and MMP-9 was observed in epithelial cells and macrophages in wood exposed animals at 4 to 7 months. Real-time PCR showed MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression at 3 to 7 months in exposed animals. Furthermore, apoptosis was increased at all times in bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages and lung tissue from exposed animals. Results support a role of metalloproteinases and apoptosis in emphysema secondary to woodsmoke exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I collagen synthesis and degradation are important events during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) granuloma or cavity formation, and fibroblasts are cells involved in these processes.
We examined the MTb effects on fibroblast collagen metabolism to understand the virulence factors involved in tuberculosis pathogenesis.
Human lung fibroblasts were incubated with culture medium or sonicated MTb H37Ra (avirulent) or H37Rv (virulent) strains. The effects on collagen synthesis, fibroblast proliferation and collagenase activity were examined. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR amplification. Protein expression was explored by Western blot technique.
Collagen synthesis and fibroblast proliferation were significantly increased by H37Ra medium. In contrast, cells incubated with H37Rv medium showed an increase in collagenase activity. MMPs quantitative real-time PCR amplification revealed an increase on MMP-13 mRNA levels in fibroblasts cultured with H37Rv medium, with little effect observed on MMP-1 expression. Western blot assay demonstrated that H37Rv medium stimulated MMP-1 and MMP-13 proenzyme synthesis. This medium had a large effect on MMP-1 activation. TIMP-1 transcription was increased in cells incubated with medium and sonicated from H37Ra, although the highest TIMP-1 protein expression was found in fibroblasts cultured with sonicated H37Rv.
These results suggest that MTb had direct effects on fibroblast collagen turnover, with differences in collagen synthesis and degradation depending on the strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive fibrotic lung disorder of unknown etiology and unclear pathogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is strongly upregulated and may contribute to the abnormal remodeling that characterizes the disease. We conducted a case-control study of 130 IPF patients and 305 healthy controls to investigate associations between two polymorphisms of the MMP-1 gene promoter and IPF risk. First, using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis we studied the 2G polymorphism at -1,607, shown previously to generate the core of an AP-1 binding site and correlate with high transcriptional activity and risk for IPF. The frequency of the 2G/2G genotype was higher in IPF than in controls (63 vs. 49%; P < 0.008; OR = 1.7; CI 1.15-2.79). Next, we studied a T/G SNP at position -755, which we identified by sequencing the MMP-1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay performed on IPF fibroblasts with either -755 genotype revealed an AP-1 binding site for TT(-755) and GT(-755) genotypes. The frequency of this SNP revealed no significant differences between IPF and healthy controls. However, when the study individuals were stratified by their smoking status, a significant increase in the T/T genotype frequency was observed in smoking cases compared with smoking controls (45 vs. 26%; P = 0.03; OR = 2.3; CI 1.15-4.97). These findings indicate that polymorphisms of the MMP-1 promoter may confer increased risk for IPF and reveal a putative gene-environment interaction between the -755 MMP-1 polymorphism and smoking in this disease.
Human Genetics 10/2008; 124(5):465-72. DOI:10.1007/s00439-008-0571-z · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast/myofibroblast expansion is critical in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. To date, most research has focused on profibrotic mediators, whereas studies on antifibrotic factors are scanty. In this study, we explored the effects of acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) and FGF-1 plus heparin (FGF-1+H) on fibroblast growth rate, apoptosis, and myofibroblast differentiation. Heparin was used because it participates in FGF-1 signaling. Growth rate was evaluated by WST-1 colorimetric assay, DNA synthesis by [ 3H]thymidine incorporation, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and cleaved caspase 3. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was examined by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and immunoblotting. Despite the induction of DNA synthesis, FGF-1+H significantly reduced fibroblast growth rate. This correlated with a significant increase in apoptosis, evaluated by TUNEL (41.6 ± 1.4% vs. 12.5 ± 0.6% from controls; P < 0.01) and cleaved caspase 3 (295 ± 32 vs. 200 ± 19 ng/10 6 cells from controls; P < 0.05). Double immunostaining (α-SMA-TUNEL) revealed that the levels of induced apoptosis were similar in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. FGF-1+H inhibited the effect of TGF-β1 on myofibroblast differentiation. α-SMA-positive cells were reduced by immunocytochemistry from 44.5 ± 6.5% to 10.9 ± 1.9% and by flow cytometry from 30.6 ± 2.5% to 7.7 ± 0.6% (P < 0.01). Also, FGF-1+H significantly inhibited the TGF-β1 induction of α-SMA quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot. This decrease was associated with a 35% reduction in TGF-β1-induced collagen gel contraction. The effect of FGF-1+H was mediated by a significant decrease of TGF-β1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation. FGF-1 alone exhibited similar but lower effects. These findings suggest that FGF-1 can have an antifibrogenic role, inducing apoptosis of fibroblasts and inhibiting myofibroblast differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disorder characterized by fibroproliferation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung.
Using oligonucleotide arrays, we identified osteopontin as one of the genes that significantly distinguishes IPF from normal lungs. Osteopontin was localized to alveolar epithelial cells in IPF lungs and was also significantly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage from IPF patients. To study the fibrosis-relevant effects of osteopontin we stimulated primary human lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with recombinant osteopontin. Osteopontin induced a significant increase of migration and proliferation in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Epithelial growth was inhibited by the pentapeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) and antibody to CD44, while fibroproliferation was inhibited by GRGDS and antibody to alphavbeta3 integrin. Fibroblast and epithelial cell migration were inhibited by GRGDS, anti-CD44, and anti-alphavbeta3. In fibroblasts, osteopontin up-regulated tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 and type I collagen, and down-regulated matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) expression, while in A549 cells it caused up-regulation of MMP-7. In human IPF lungs, osteopontin colocalized with MMP-7 in alveolar epithelial cells, and application of weakest link statistical models to microarray data suggested a significant interaction between osteopontin and MMP-7.
Our results provide a potential mechanism by which osteopontin secreted from the alveolar epithelium may exert a profibrotic effect in IPF lungs and highlight osteopontin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this incurable disease.
PLoS Medicine 10/2005; 2(9):e251. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020251 · 14.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a cytokine overexpressed in hypoxic and malignant pathologies. VEGF induces vascular hyperplasia, new bone formation, and edema. These histological abnormalities characterize hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. We describe a case of pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy with high circulating VEGF levels. Removal of the lung tumor led to a dramatic disappearance of the skeletal abnormalities and to reduction of circulating VEGF levels. Histochemical studies of the excised tumor confirmed abnormal VEGF production.
The Journal of Rheumatology 04/2004; 31(3):614-6. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wood smoke (WS) exposure causes COPD with respiratory alterations that are similar to those described for COPD associated with tobacco smoke (TS). The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of WS on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and expression.
BAL fluid and macrophages were obtained from patients exposed to WS and TS, and from control subjects. Macrophage elastolytic activity was assayed by radiolabeled elastin degradation. Gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography in BAL fluid samples. MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-12 expression were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in macrophages from each group.
Macrophage elastolytic activity was increased significantly in WS and TS cells in comparison to control subjects with no differences between WS and TS samples. MMP-2 was identified in all groups as a 72-Kd band (proMMP-2), with the highest activity in the WS samples. MMP-9 was present in its latent and active forms with the highest gelatinolytic activity in the WS group. MMP-2 expression was increased in both groups as well as MMP-12 compared with the control. Two of three subjects studied in each COPD group had a significant increase in MMP-9 expression.
These findings demonstrate that WS increases MMP activity and expression that might produce lung damage similar to that observed in COPD associated with TS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the sequential expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and growth factors as well as the presence of apoptosis in a model of pulmonary fibrosis induced in rats with paraquat and hyperoxia. Animals showing neither clinical nor morphological changes with this double aggression were classified as "resistant". Rats were killed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 wk, and lungs were used for collagen content, gene expression by real-time PCR, gelatinolytic activity by zymography, apoptosis by in situ DNA fragmentation, and protein localization by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed a significant decrease of collagenases MMP-8 and MMP-13, with an increase of TIMP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta. Immunoreactive TIMP-1 was increased in experimental rats and primarily localized in alveolar macrophages. Expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNAs was not affected, but lung zymography revealed an increase in progelatinase B, progelatinase A, and its active form. Epithelial apoptosis was evident from the first week, whereas at later periods, interstitial cell apoptosis was also noticed. Resistant animals behave as controls. These findings suggest that an imbalance between collagenases and TIMPs, excessive gelatinolytic activity, and epithelial apoptosis participate in the fibrotic response in this experimental model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate repair mechanisms in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, we used mice deficient in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-/-), a key enzyme in glutathione (GSH) and cysteine metabolism. Seventy-two hours after bleomycin (0.03 U/g), GGT-/- mice displayed a different inflammatory response to wild-type mice as judged by a near absence of neutrophils in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage and a less pronounced rise in matrix metalloproteinase-9. Inflammation in GGT-/- mice consisted mainly of lymphocytes and macrophages. At 1 month, lungs from bleomycin-treated GGT-/- mice exhibited minimal areas of fibrosis compared with wild-type mice(light microscopy fibrosis index: 510 +/- 756 versus 1975 +/- 817, p < 0.01). Lung collagen content revealed a significant increase in bleomycin-treated wild-type (15.1 +/- 3.8 versus 8.5 +/- 0.7 microg hydroxy(OH)-proline/mg dry weight, p < 0.01) but not in GGT-/- (10.4 +/- 1.7 versus 8.8 +/- 0.8). Control lungs from GGT-/- showed a significant reduction of cysteine (0.03 +/- 0.005 versus 0.055 +/- 0.001, p < 0.02) and GSH levels (1.24 +/- 0.055 versus 1.79 +/- 0.065, p < 0.002). These values decreased after 72 hours of bleomycin in both GGT-/- and wild-type but reached their respective control values after 1 month. Supplementation with N-acetyl cysteine partially ameliorated the effects of GGT deficiency. These findings suggest that increased neutrophils and matrix metalloproteinase-9 during the early inflammatory response and adequate thiol reserves are key elements in the fibrotic response after bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2003; 167(6):925-32. DOI:10.1164/rccm.200209-1007OC · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine exposure to silica is associated with enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression and matrix deposition. The regulation of TNF is mediated through TNF receptor (TNFR) activation of transcription factors. In the present work we have studied the importance of the individual TNFR in silica-induced lung inflammation and matrix deposition in mice. We studied RNA expression of TNF, alpha1(I) collagen, interstitial collagenase (MMP-13), and its inhibitor (TIMP-1) in the lungs of silica-treated mice. Furthermore, we correlated MMP-13/TIMP-1 RNA abundance with activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice, and of mice deficient in one of the two types of TNFR (p55(-/-) or p75(-/-)), exposed to silica (0.2 g/kg) or saline by intratracheal instillation. Animals were killed 28 d after exposure and lung hydroxyproline (HP), TNF, alpha1(I) collagen, MMP-13, and TIMP-1 RNA abundance was measured. AP-1 and NF-kappaB activation was studied by gel-shift assays. Compared with C57BL/6 mice, p55(-/-) and p75(-/-) mice significantly (*p < 0.05) decreased lung HP accumulation in response to silica. All murine strains enhanced TNF and alpha1(I) collagen mRNA in response to silica. Enhanced (p < 0.05) MMP-13 RNA expression was also observed in all murine strains in response to silica. Enhanced (p < 0.05) TIMP-1 RNA expression was observed in C57BL/6 mice, but not in p55(-/-) or p75(-/-) mice, in response to silica. NF-kappaB activation was observed in all murine strains, whereas AP-1 activation was observed only in C57BL/6 mice after silica treatment. These data suggest that TNFR deletion modifies MMP-13/ TIMP-1 expression in favor of matrix degradation.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 01/2001; 163(1):244-52. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.163.1.2002123 · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation characterize idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We evaluated the presence of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, -2, -3, and -4; collagenase-1, -2, and -3; gelatinases A and B; and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in 12 IPF and 6 control lungs. TIMP-1 was found in interstitial macrophages and TIMP-2 in fibroblast foci. TIMP-3 revealed an intense staining mainly decorating the elastic lamina in vessels. TIMP-4 was expressed in IPF lungs by epithelial and plasma cells. TIMP-2 colocalized with Ki67 in fibroblasts, whereas TIMP-3 colocalized with p27 in inflammatory and epithelial cells. Collagenase-1 was localized in macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, collagenase-2 was localized in a few neutrophils, and collagenase-3 was not detected. MMP-9 was found in neutrophils and subepithelial myofibroblasts. Myofibroblast expression of MMP-9 was corroborated in vitro by RT-PCR. MMP-2 was noticed in myofibroblasts, some of them close to areas of basement membrane disruption, and membrane type 1 MMP was noticed in interstitial macrophages. These findings suggest that in IPF there is higher expression of TIMPs compared with collagenases, supporting the hypothesis that a nondegrading fibrillar collagen microenvironment is prevailing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subacute hyperoxia may cause basement membrane disruption and subsequent fibrosis. To test the role of extracellular matrix degradation in hyperoxic damage, we analyzed the expression of gelatinases A and B and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in rats exposed to 85% O2. Oxygen-exposed rats were studied at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, and compared with air-breathing rats. Lung mRNAs assayed by Northern and in situ hybridization showed an up-regulation of lung gelatinases A and B from the 3rd day on. Gelatinase A was localized in alveolar macrophages and in interstitial and alveolar epithelial cells. Gelatinase B mRNA and protein were localized in macrophages and bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Increased gelatinase A and B activities were demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were constitutively expressed, and only TIMP-1 displayed a moderate increase with hyperoxia. To elucidate transcriptional mechanisms for increased gelatinase B expression after hyperoxia, nuclear transcription factor-kappabeta activation was explored. Oxidative stress significantly increased the lung expression of nuclear transcription factor-kappabeta (p65) protein, and nuclear transcription factor-kappabeta activation and increased levels of gelatinases A and B were found in isolated type II alveolar cells obtained from hyperoxic rats. Conceivably, subacute hyperoxia induces excessive gelatinase activity, which may contribute to lung damage.
American Journal Of Pathology 10/1998; 153(3):833-44. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65625-8 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is characterized by cell proliferation and membrane formation on the vitreoretinal cavity of the eye. The membranes are composed of extracellular matrix, mainly collagen type I. To explore the possible mechanisms involved in PVR membrane formation, the authors analyzed the role of vitreous humor on collagen turnover.
The authors studied vitreous samples from ten patients with PVR and from five donor eyes (keratoplasty) as the control group. Human lung fibroblasts were used to study the influence of vitreous on collagen synthesis and cell proliferation. Neutralizing antibodies against transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) were used to inhibit the fibroblast collagen synthesis induced by the vitreous samples. Collagenolytic activity was analyzed in vitreous fluid using 3H-labeled collagen.
The authors found that samples obtained from patients with PVR significantly increased collagen synthesis (2979 +/- 963.26 versus 800 +/- 232 dpm of 3H-proline incorporated per milligram of vitreous-incubated protein; P < 0.00043), without affecting fibroblast replication. The collagen synthesis induced by the vitreous samples was inhibited by anti-TGF-beta 2 antibodies in both groups (0 and 481 +/- 59 dpm of 3H-proline incorporated per milligram of vitreous-incubated protein for control and PVR samples, respectively). Collagenolytic activity was considerably lower in vitreous derived from PVR samples compared with the control group (19.9 +/- 20.3 versus 234.1 +/- 19.1 micrograms of degraded collagen per milligram of vitreous-incubated protein; P < 0.0032).
These results suggest that a combined mechanism, including an increase of collagen synthesis mediated at least in part by TGF-beta 2 and a decrease of collagen degradation, may contribute to the exaggerated deposition of collagen observed in PVR membranes, and that vitreous should be considered as a part of the microenvironment that is participating actively in the pathogenesis of this vitreoretinal disorder.