V Gilsanz

Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (79)476.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):7, Export Date: 25 April 2013, Source: Scopus
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; 01/2003
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    ABSTRACT: Epiphyseal region is the most sensitive region to developmental changes of the skeletal system. Extraction of this area is the very first step in any computerized image analysis. In this report a fully automated analysis of a hand radiograph resulting in extraction of distal and middle regions of the II, III, and IV phalanx is presented. The processing is performed in 3 stages. First, the trend of background is removed from radiograph to obtain a binary hand mask. At this stage a labeling procedure is necessary to eliminate artifacts (markers). Then, II, III, and IV phalanges are identified in the binary image, and the phalangeal axes are drawn. Finally, the intensity profile along each phalangeal axis is analyzed, and, on its basis, distal and middle regions are located. The presented procedure is designed as a part of currently developed system for automatic bone age assessment; however, it also can be as a preprocessing step in other diseases the diagnoses of which may require a computer assistance.
    Journal of Digital Imaging 01/2002; 14(4):165-72. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses the value of the Greulich and Pyle method in determining the skeletal ages of healthy American children of European and African descent born after the year 1980. The hand and wrist radiographs of 534 children (265 boys, 269 girls; 260 European-Americans [EA], 274 African-Americans [AA]), ages 0 to 19 y, were analyzed by two experienced pediatric radiologists blinded to the chronological age of the subjects. A difference score was calculated for each subject by subtracting chronological age from the mean bone ages scores provided by the two raters. One group t-tests were performed to verify the hypothesis that the mean difference score was equal to zero. Skeletal age determinations by the two radiologists showed a high degree of agreement by intraclass correlation coefficient (r = 0.994). The range of values for differences in skeletal and chronological ages was very wide, indicating great individual variability. Comparisons between skeletal and chronological age only reached statistical significance in EA prepubertal girls, whose skeletal ages were delayed, on average, by three months (t = -2.9; p = 0.005). Mean difference between skeletal and chronological age in prepubertal children of African descent was 0.09 +/- 0.66 y, while that in children of European descent was -0.17 +/- 0.67 y; (t = 3.13; p = 0.0019). On average, the bone ages of 10% of all prepubertal AA children were 2 SD above the normative data in the Greulich and Pyle atlas, while the bone ages of 8% of all prepubertal EA children were 2 SD below. In contrast to the racial differences observed in prepubertal children, EA postpubertal males had significantly greater values for bone age than AA postpubertal males (t = 2.03; p = 0.05). In conclusion, variations in skeletal maturation in prepubertal children are greater than those reflected in the Greulich and Pyle atlas; prepubertal American children of European descent have significantly delayed skeletal maturation when compared with those of African descent; and, postpubertal EA males have significantly advanced skeletal maturation when compared with postpubertal AA males. New standards are needed to make clinical decisions that require reliable bone ages and to accurately represent a multiethnic pediatric population.
    Pediatric Research 12/2001; 50(5):624-8. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large number of children sustain fractures after relatively minor trauma and several investigators have associated these fractures to a deficient accumulation of bone during growth. This study was conducted to better characterize the skeletal phenotype associated with low-energy impact fractures of the forearm in girls. The densities of cancellous, cortical, and integral bone and the cross-sectional area were measured in the radius of 100 healthy white girls (aged 4-15 years) using computed tomography (CT); 50 girls had never fractured and 50 girls had sustained a forearm fracture within the previous month. Fractured and nonfractured groups were matched for age, height, weight, and Tanner stage of sexual development. Compared with controls, girls with fractures had, on average, 8% smaller cross-sectional area at the distal radius (1.82 +/- 0.50 cm2 vs. 1.97 +/- 0.42 cm2; p < 0.0001) but similar cancellous, integral, and cortical bone densities. Neither radial length nor the amount of fat or muscle at the midshaft of the radius differed between girls with and without fractures. Both study subjects and matched controls were overweight. Although mean height was at the 50th percentile, mean weight was at the 90th percentile for age-adjusted normal values. Girls who sustain forearm fractures after minor trauma have small cross-sectional dimensions of the radius and tend to be overweight. The smaller cross-sectional area confers a biomechanical disadvantage that, coupled with the greater body weight, increases the vulnerability to fracture after a fall.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 08/2001; 16(7):1337-42. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amount of bone that is gained during adolescence is the main contributor to peak bone mass, which, in turn, is a major determinant of osteoporosis and fracture risk in the elderly. We examined whether computed tomography measurements for the density and the volume of bone in the axial and the appendicular skeletons could be tracked through puberty in 40 healthy white children (20 girls and 20 boys). Longitudinal measurements of the cross-sectional area and cancellous bone density of the vertebral bodies and the cross-sectional and cortical bone areas of the femurs at the beginning of puberty accounted for 62-92% of the variations seen at sexual maturity; on average, 3 yr later. When baseline values for these bone traits were divided into quartiles, a linear relation across Tanner stages of sexual development was observed for each quartile in both girls and boys. The regression lines differed among quartiles for each trait, paralleled each other, and did not overlap. Thus, we are now in a position to identify those children who are genetically prone to develop low values for peak bone mass and toward whom osteoporosis prevention trials should be geared.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 11/2000; 85(10):3908-18. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    Fei Cao, H K Huang, Ewa Pietka, Vicente Gilsanz
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    ABSTRACT: Bone age assessment is a procedure frequently performed in pediatric patients to evaluate their growth disorder. A simple method commonly used in bone age assessment is atlas matching by a radiological examination of a left-hand radiograph against a small reference set of Greulich-Pyle atlas patterns of normal standards. The method however can lead to significant deviation in age assessment, due to a variety of observers with different levels of training. The Greulich-Pyle atlas developed in the 1950s based on middle upper class white populations, is also not fully applicable for children of today, especially regarding the standard development in other racial groups. In this paper, we present our system design and initial implementation of a digital hand atlas and computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system for Web-based bone age assessment. The CAD system is built on top of existing picture archiving and communication system (PACS), as well as recent advances in Internet technology. It consists of a hand atlas database, a CAD module and a Java-based Web user interface. The digital atlas is based on a large new set of clinically normal hand images of diverse ethnic groups. A relational image database system is used to organize hand images, their extracted quantitative features and patient data. The digital atlas removes the disadvantages of the currently out-of-date Greulich-Pyle atlas and allows the bone age assessment to be computerized. The Java-based Web user interface allows users to interact with the hand image database from browsers. Users can use a Web browser to push a clinical hand image to the CAD server for a bone age assessment. Quantitative features on the examined image, which reflect the skeletal maturity, are then extracted and compared with patterns from the atlas database to assess the bone age. The digital atlas method based on open system Internet technology provides an alternative to supplement or replace the traditional one for a quantitative, accurate and cost-effective assessment of bone age.
    Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics 04/2000; 24(5):297-307. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the safety and efficacy of anabolic therapy to prevent or reverse wasting and malnutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pediatric patients. The anabolic steroid, oxandrolone, was evaluated because of its safe and effective use in other pediatric conditions. Nine HIV-positive children who were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition (4 females, 5 males; 4-14 years of age) took oxandrolone for 3 months (.1 mg/kg/day orally). Quantitative HIV ribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction and CD4(+) T-cell levels, complete blood cell count (CBC) and chemistry profile, endocrinologic studies, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, nutritional measures, body composition assessment with quantitative computed tomography, and skinfold body composition measurements were determined before treatment, during treatment (3 months), and for 3 months after treatment. Statistical analyses were completed using the Friedman two-way analysis of variance and Spearman correlation tests. No adverse clinical or laboratory events or changes in Tanner staging or virilization occurred. Quantitative HIV ribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction and CD4(+) T-cell levels did not change significantly. Insulin-like growth factor 1 increased, suggesting an anabolic effect of treatment. The rate of weight gain increased during treatment and was maintained after treatment. Linear growth continued and was maintained throughout treatment, whereas bone age did not increase significantly. Anthropometric assessments indicated an increase in muscle mass and a decrease in fat while patients were on treatment, and a mild decrease of muscle and increased fat posttreatment. Likewise, computed tomography scan results demonstrated similar changes in muscle mass. Resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient remained stable throughout treatment and follow-up. No significant changes were seen in the quality of life questionnaire. Treatment with oxandrolone for 3 months in HIV-infected children was well-tolerated, safe, and associated with markers of anabolism. The latter effect was maintained partially for 3 months after discontinuation of a 3-month course of therapy. Additional studies are needed to assess the potential benefits and risks of a longer course of therapy or a higher dose of oxandrolone in HIV-infected children.
    PEDIATRICS 01/2000; 104(6):e73. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone mass and biochemical markers of bone turnover increase significantly during puberty. We studied the possible relationships between markers of bone formation and bone resorption and increases in skeletal size, bone volume, and bone density in healthy children at different stages of sexual development. Serum concentrations of bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and osteocalcin (bone Gla protein, BGP), urinary levels of pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpyr) and computed tomography (CT) measurements of the cross-sectional areas of the vertebrae and the femurs, the apparent density of cancellous bone in the vertebrae, and the volume and the material density of cortical bone in the femurs were determined in 126 boys and 143 girls, ages 7-18 years. Serum levels of BALP and BGP and urinary concentrations of Pyr and Dpyr peaked in early puberty and were lowest in the later stages of puberty. CT measurements for the cross-sectional areas of the vertebrae and the femurs, the femoral cortical bone areas, and the apparent density of cancellous bone increased in all children during puberty, while values for material bone density did not change significantly with the stage of sexual development. BALP and BGP showed significant inverse correlations with the material density of bone (r = -0.23 and -0.24, respectively), but no association with bone volume in the appendicular or axial skeleton. In contrast, Pyr and Dpyr correlated with femoral cross-sectional area (r = -0.24 and -0.33, respectively) and cortical bone area (r = -0.29 and -0.33, respectively), and with the apparent density of vertebral cancellous bone (r = -0.26 and -0.19, respectively), but not with the material density of bone. We conclude that, during puberty, there is a differential association between the two components of bone mass and the markers of bone formation and bone resorption; while markers of bone formation are related to the material density of bone, markers of bone resorption are related to the volume of bone.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11/1999; 14(10):1664-71. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a major regulator of bone growth during childhood. However, beyond knowledge that IGF-I influences longitudinal growth, its associations to changes in the cross-sectional dimensions, the volume, or the material density of bone during growth are unknown. We assessed the relationships between serum IGF-I and measurements of cross-sectional area, cortical bone area, and cortical bone density at the midshaft of the femur in 197 normal healthy white children and adolescents (103 boys and 94 girls; aged 7.8-18.2 yr). Bone determinations were obtained using computed tomography, and levels of IGF-I were measured by RIA after an extraction procedure. IGF-I correlated significantly with both cross-sectional area (r = 0.49; P < 0.0001) and cortical bone area (r = 0.50; P < 0.0001), but did not correlate with the material density of cortical bone (r = -0.08). Multiple regression analyses showed that circulating levels of IGF-I were associated with cross-sectional area (P = 0.03) and cortical bone area (P = 0.04) values, even after correcting for the confounding effects of age, gender, weight, and femoral length. We conclude that IGF-I is a major determinant of the cross-sectional properties of bone, but does not influence the material density of bone, in the appendicular skeleton.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 09/1999; 84(8):2780-3. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by the development of nontraumatic fractures, most commonly in the vertebrae of elderly women. Approximately 500,000 elderly women in the United States are newly diagnosed with vertebral fractures every year, as the compressive strength of the vertebra, mainly determined by the density of cancellous bone and its cross-sectional area, declines with age. A recent study in women suggested that a polymorphism in the Sp1 binding site of the collagen type I gene (COLIA1) was related to decreased vertebral bone mass and vertebral fractures. Determining the phenotypic trait(s) responsible for this relationship and whether this association is manifested in childhood would further define the structural basis for decreased bone mass and help identify children "at risk" for fractures later in life. We therefore studied the COLIA1 gene polymorphism and measurements of the size and the density of vertebral bone in 109 healthy, prepubertal girls. On average, 22 girls with the Ss genotype and one girl with the ss genotype had 6.7% and 49.4% lower cancellous bone density in the vertebrae than girls with the SS genotype. In contrast, there was no association between the size of the vertebrae and the COLIA1 genotypes.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 04/1999; 84(3):853-5. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • Vicente Gilsanz
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    ABSTRACT: With the advent of quantitative techniques to measure bone mineral content a little more than a decade ago, our ability to quantify changes in bone mass and assess osteoporosis has markedly improved. For pediatric purposes, this development has awarded us the facility to diagnose and quantify the loss of bone mineral associated with the various disorders that cause osteopenia in children (1). It has also enhanced our understanding of the childhood antecedents of a condition that happens to manifest in elderly subjects: osteoporosis. Prior to the introduction of quantitative imagery analysis, the evaluation of bone mineral was done by conventional radiography, which provided a relatively insensitive depiction, as bone mass may have already decreased by as much as 40 percent by the time osteoporosis was appreciated (2).
    12/1998: pages 75-88;
  • Vicente Gilsanz
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    ABSTRACT: A top priority in osteoporosis research is the identification of the structural basis and the genetic factors that contribute to variations in the risk for fragility fractures. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the genetic determination of fragility fractures and bone mass measurements, and the complex phenotypes and genotypes of osteoporosis.
    Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/1998; · 8.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of osteoporosis and the incidence of fractures are substantially lower in black than in white subjects, a finding generally attributed to racial differences in adult bone mass. Whether these racial differences are present in childhood is the subject of considerable interest, as the amount of bone gained during growth is a major determinant of future susceptibility to fractures. We measured the density and size of the vertebrae and femurs of 80 black and 80 white healthy children, 8-18 yr of age, matched for age, gender, height, weight, and stage of sexual development, using computed tomography. Race had a significant and differential effect on the bones in the axial and appendicular skeletons. In the axial skeleton, black children had greater cancellous bone density, but similar cross-sectional area of the vertebral bodies. In contrast, in the appendicular skeleton, black children had greater femoral cross-sectional area, but similar cortical bone area and cortical bone density. Compared to white children, vertebral bone density and femoral cross-sectional area at sexual maturity were, on the average, 10.75% and 5.7% higher, respectively, in black children. Such significant variations may contribute to the racial differences in the prevalence of osteoporosis between black and white adults.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 06/1998; 83(5):1420-7. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • V Gilsanz
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    ABSTRACT: The recent development of methods for measuring bone mineral content in children has markedly improved our ability to determine changes in bone mass during growth. Currently, the three most generally accepted techniques for measuring the bones of children are dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS). These techniques vary considerably in their acquisition of data and comparisons between them are difficult and, more often than not, judgment regarding their value has been, at least partially, subjective. DXA is, by far, the most widely used technique for bone measurements. It is low in cost, accessible, easy to use, and provides an accurate and precise quantitation of bone mass in adults. Unfortunately, DXA is unable to account for the large changes in body and skeletal size that occur during growth, limiting its use in longitudinal studies in children. QCT can asses both the volume and the density of bone in the axial and appendicular skeletons, without influence from body or skeletal size, giving it a major advantage over other modalities for bone measurements in children. The cost and inaccessibility of CT scanners, however, has significantly limited its use for bone measurements. Measuring the bones of children by QUS is appealing because ultrasound is low in cost, portable, easy to use and does not emit radiation. In adults, this technique is able to predict fracture risk independent of bone mass determinations in patients with osteoporosis and, therefore, its measurements must be related to certain aspects of bone strength. However, ultrasound values are dependent on so many structural properties not yet fully understood, that it is difficult to use the information meaningfully in children.
    European Journal of Radiology 02/1998; 26(2):177-82. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone mass is under strong genetic control, and recent studies in adults have suggested that allelic differences in the gene for the vitamin D receptor may account for inherited variability in bone mass. We studied the relations of the vitamin D-receptor genotype to skeletal development and variation in the size, volume, and density of bone in children. We identified three allelic variants of the vitamin D-receptor gene using the polymerase chain reaction and three restriction enzymes (ApaI, BsmI, and TaqI) in 100 normal prepubertal American girls of Mexican descent. We then determined the relations of the different vitamin D-receptor genotypes (AA, Aa, aa, BB, Bb, bb, TT, Tt, and tt) to the cross-sectional area, cortical area, and cortical bone density of the femoral shaft and the cross-sectional area and density of the lumbar vertebrae. The vitamin D-receptor genotype was associated with femoral and vertebral bone density. Girls with aa and bb genotypes had 2 to 3 percent higher femoral bone density (P=0.008 and P=0.04, respectively) and 8 to 10 percent higher vertebral bone density (P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively) than girls with AA and BB genotypes. There was no association between the cross-sectional area of the vertebrae or the cross-sectional or cortical area of the femur and the vitamin D-receptor genotype. The chronologic age, bone age, height, weight, body-surface area, and body-mass index did not differ significantly among girls with different vitamin D-receptor genotypes. Vitamin D-receptor gene alleles predict the density of femoral and vertebral bone in prepubertal American girls of Mexican descent.
    New England Journal of Medicine 08/1997; 337(2):77-82. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent observations suggest that throughout life the size of the vertebral bodies in females is smaller than that in males even after accounting for differences in body size. To confirm these reports and to determine whether similar differences exist in the appendicular skeleton, detailed measurements of the sizes of the vertebrae and the femur were obtained using computed tomography in 30 pairs of prepubertal boys and girls matched for age, height, and weight. Anthropometric parameters as well as gender influenced the cross-sectional area of the vertebrae. Heavier children had greater vertebral cross-sectional area than slender children regardless of gender, and the vertebral bodies were found to be significantly smaller in girls than in matched boys (approximately 11%), both using Student's t test (P < 0.0001) and its multivariate analog, the Hotelling's T2 test (P < 0.0001). In contrast to these findings in the axial skeleton, gender status did not influence the size of the bones in the appendicular skeleton, and neither the cross-sectional area (3.28 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.10 +/- 0.56 cm2) nor the cortical bone area (1.80 +/- 0.37 vs. 1.85 +/- 0.36 cm2) at the midshaft of the femur differed between boys and girls. These values, however, correlated strongly with all anthropometric indexes, and multiple regression analyses indicated that both measurements were primarily related to weight. The results suggest that although increases in mechanical loading associated with growth are the main determinant of the cross-sectional properties of the appendicular skeleton in children, factors other than body mass and related to gender have a significant role in the regulation of the sizes of the bones in the axial skeleton.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 05/1997; 82(5):1603-7. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the value of computed tomographic (CT) measurements of cortical bone in children with osteopenia. The area and density of cortical bone in the midshaft of the femur were measured with CT in 37 children with osteopenia. Twenty had osteoporosis in one leg, nine had osteogenesis imperfecta (IO), and eight had vitamin D-resistant rickets. Comparisons were made between the CT measurements of the normal and abnormal extremities and between patients with OI or rickets and a group of 17 healthy, matched children. Sex, age, height, and weight did not influence cortical bone density; values were similar for the 17 control subjects. Children with osteoporosis and IO had reduced bone area but normal bone density. Compared with control subjects, patients with rickets had similar bone area but reduced bone density (869 mg/cm3 K2HPO4 +/- 79 [standard deviation] vs 1,132 mg/cm3 K2HPO4 +/- 41). CT measurements of area and density of cortical bone aided the differentiation of the various disorders that cause osteopenia in children.
    Radiology 04/1996; 198(3):781-4. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The basis for this study is two children with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) who radiographically manifested both marked subperiosteal resorption and prominent osteosclerosis. We hypothesize that the parathyroid hormone (PTH) elevation not only increased osteoclastic resorption of cortical bone but also simultaneously enhanced cancellous bone formation, giving rise to osteosclerosis. In this report, we describe the changes in trabecular and cortical bone density, as measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), in these two young patients with severe PHPT, before and after removal of a parathyroid adenoma. Before surgery, the radiographic findings of subperiosteal resorption and osteosclerosis were associated with low cortical and high cancellous bone density values in both children. Within 1 week of surgery, both cortical and cancellous bone density values increased and serum concentrations of calcium and, to a lesser degree, phosphorus decreased due to the "hungry bone syndrome." Twelve weeks after parathyroidectomy, QCT bone density values and skeletal radiographs were normal in both patients. The findings suggest that in patients with severe PHPT, the catabolic effect of PTH on cortical bone may be associated with a simultaneous anabolic effect on cancellous bone, and PTH may cause a significant redistribution of bone mineral from cortical to cancellous bone.
    Metabolism 02/1996; 45(1):76-81. · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • C Formica, M L Loro, V Gilsanz, E Seeman
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    ABSTRACT: When bone mineral content (BMC) is measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the X-ray beam is attenuated by bone and soft tissue. Since the component of the attenuation caused by the soft tissue overlying bone cannot be measured, the attenuation caused by soft tissue adjacent to bone is measured and is used in the calculation of BMC. the assumption underlying this approach is that the amount and composition of this adjacent soft tissue is the same as overlying bone. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of this assumption by determining whether fat distribution over and adjacent to bone differ and whether this introduces accuracy errors in the measurement of BMC by postero-anterior (PA) and lateral scanning. BMC (posterior processes plus vertebral body, g) of the third lumbar vertebra was 17.3 +/- 0.7 by PA and 17. +/- 0.7 by lateral scanning in 27 premenopausal women (p = NS), but 2.7 g or 20% higher by PA than scanning in 27 postmenopausal women (14.4 +/- 0.7, 11.7 +/- 0.5, p<0.01). Thus, the respective diminutions across age by PA scanning was about half that by lateral scanning (16.8 +/- 3.9%, 31.2 +/- 3.0%, p<0.01). Percent fat in the soft tissue baseline (anterior to bone, ST-ant) used to derive BMC by lateral scanning by 2.6 +/- 0.7% in premenopausal women and 7.5 +/- 1.0% in postmenopausal women (both p<0.01). After adjusting for these differences in percent fat, BMC by PA and lateral scanning no longer differed.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11/1995; 10(10):1504-11. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reductions in bone density are a major determinant of vertebral fractures in the elderly population. However, women have a greater incidence of fractures than men, although their spinal bone densities are comparable. Recent observations indicate that women have 20-25% smaller vertebrae than men after accounting for differences in body size. To assess whether elderly women with vertebral fractures have smaller vertebrae than women who do not experience fractures, we reviewed 1,061 computed tomography bone density studies and gathered 32-matched pairs of elderly women, with reduced bone density, whose main difference was absence or presence of vertebral fractures. Detailed measurements of the dimensions of unfractured vertebrae and the moment arm of spinal musculature from T12 to L4 were calculated from computed tomography images in the 32 pairs of women matched for race, age, height, weight, and bone density. The cross-sectional area of unfractured vertebrae was 4.9-11.5% (10.5 +/- 1.4 vs 9.7 +/- 1.5 cm2; P < 0.0001) smaller and the moment arm of spinal musculature was 3.2-7.4% (56.4 +/- 5.1 vs 53.1 +/- 4.4 mm; P < 0.0001) shorter in women with fractures, implying that mechanical stress within intact vertebral bodies for equivalent loads is 5-17% greater in women with fractures compared to women without fractures. Such significant variations are very likely to contribute to vertebral fractures in osteoporotic women.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/1995; 95(5):2332-7. · 12.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
476.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002
    • Silesian University of Technology
      • Institute of Electronics
      Gliwice, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1990–2001
    • University of Southern California
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1985–2001
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      • • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2000
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute
      Chantilly, Virginia, United States
  • 1986–1997
    • Wolfson Childrens Hospital
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
  • 1986–1988
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Radiology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States