Xiaorong Wu

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

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Publications (7)27.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This work aimed to evaluate pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, toxicity, and antitumor activities of a highly stable long-/medium-chain triglycerides (LCT/MCT)-based etoposide parenteral emulsion (EPE) in comparison to etoposide parenteral solution (EPS). Methods: Using high-pressure homogenization method, EPE was prepared and sterilized at 121°C for 10 min by autoclaving. The biological samples were analyzed using the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Results: Superior stability of EPE was verified with no significant changes in physicochemical properties in the accelerating and long-term stability tests. Similar pharmacokinetic behavior in beagle dogs was obtained and the AUC (0 - 12h) values were 1196.73 ± 320.85 and 1505.56 ± 617.93 µg·h/L for EPE and EPS (p > 0.5), respectively. Likewise, no remarkable difference in biodistribution profiles in mice was found for both formulations. Safety assessment studies including hemolysis test, rabbit ear vein test and injection anaphylaxis were undertaken and the EPE was proven to be safe for intravenous administration. Specifically, after consecutive 12 weeks administration in rats, systematic and local toxicity induced by EPE were alleviated relative to that of EPS. Furthermore, significant and comparable antitumor activities to EPS were also demonstrated by EPE with tumor suppression rate (TSR) of 66.63%, 55.94%, and 60.16% against H460, Hep G2, and BCAP-37 human cancer cell lines in nude mice at the dose of 15 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that this LCT/MCT-based lipid emulsion is a promising alternative intravenous carrier for etoposide with high stability, improved convenience, alleviated toxicity, and noncompromised antitumor efficacy.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 02/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two absorption enhancers, sodium caprate (C10) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC), in increasing the bioavailability of a poorly absorbed paracellar flux drug, berberine chloride, across the intestinal mucosae of rats in vivo, together with examination of their effects on mucosal damage. In addition, all four intestinal segments were collected after administration of the enhancers and sodium saline. The results of the bioavailability experiments showed the oral absorption of berberine chloride was poor and both C10 and SDC could significantly improve the very poor absorption of berberine chloride. After co-administration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine chloride was increased 41.1-fold by C10 (100 mg/kg) and 35.3-fold by SDC (100 mg/kg) compared with that in the absence of C10 and SDC, respectively. Local toxicity experiment indicated that both enhancers caused no specific damage to the intact intestine. This study demonstrates that C10 and SDC could significantly promote the absorption of berberine chloride from the gastrointestinal tract with few toxic effects, which might be due mainly to relaxing the absorption limitation while inhibiting the efflux transporter of berberine chloride by the enhancers. Besides, this could lead to the development of new drug-enhancers.
    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 10/2012; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study thiolated Eudragit L100 (Eul) based polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were employed to develop an oral insulin delivery system. Sulfydryl modification was achieved by grafting cysteine to the carboxylic acid group of Eudragit L100, which displayed maximum conjugate level of 390.3±13.4 μmol thiol groups per gram. Eudragit L100-cysteine (Eul-cys) and Eul nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method, in which reversible swelling of pH-sensitive material was used for insulin loading and release. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their particle size, morphology, loading efficiency (LE%) and in vitro insulin release behavior. The NPs had an average size of 324.2±39.0 nm and 308.8±35.7 nm, maximal LE% of 92.2±1.7% and 96.4±0.5% for Eul-cys and Eul, respectively. The release profile of NPs in vitro showed pH-dependent behavior. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy analysis proved that the secondary structure of the insulin released from NPs was unchanged compared with native insulin. The mucoadhesion study in vitro showed that Eul-cys NPs produced a 3-fold and 2.8-fold increase in rat jejunum and ileum compared with unmodified polymer NPs, respectively, which was due to the immobilization of thiol groups on Eudragit L100. Oral administration of insulin-loaded Eul-cys NPs produced a higher and prolonged hypoglycemic action, and the corresponding relative bioavailability of insulin was found to be 7.33±0.33%, an increase of 2.8-fold compared with Eul NPs (2.65±0.63%). This delivery system is a promising novel tool to improve the absorption of protein and peptide drugs in the intestinal tract.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 07/2012; 436(1-2):341-50. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The β2 subunit of class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) contains a diferric tyrosyl radical cofactor (Fe2III-Tyr•) that is essential for nucleotide reduction. The β2 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a heterodimer of Rnr2 (β) and Rnr4 (β′). Although only β is capable of iron binding and Tyr• formation, cells lacking β′ are either dead or exhibit extremely low Tyr• levels and RNR activity depending on genetic backgrounds. Here, we present evidence supporting the model that β′ is required for iron loading and Tyr• formation in β in vivo via a pathway that is likely dependent on the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3/Grx4 and the Fe-S cluster protein Dre2. rnr4 mutants are defective in iron loading into nascent β and are hypersensitive to iron depletion and the Tyr•-reducing agent hydroxyurea. Transient induction of β′ in a GalRNR4 strain leads to a concomitant increase in iron loading and Tyr• levels in β. Tyr• can also be rapidly generated using endogenous iron when permeabilized Δrnr4 spheroplasts are supplemented with recombinant β′ and is inhibited by adding an iron chelator prior to, but not after, β′ supplementation. The growth defects of rnr4 mutants are enhanced by deficiencies in grx3/grx4 and dre2. Moreover, depletion of Dre2 in GalDRE2 cells leads to a decrease in both Tyr• levels and ββ′ activity. This result, in combination with previous findings that a low level of Grx3/4 impairs RNR function, strongly suggests that Grx3/4 and Dre2 serve in the assembly of the deferric Tyr• cofactor in RNR.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(48):41499-41509. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The β(2) subunit of class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) contains a diferric tyrosyl radical cofactor (Fe(2)(III)-Tyr(•)) that is essential for nucleotide reduction. The β(2) subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a heterodimer of Rnr2 (β) and Rnr4 (β'). Although only β is capable of iron binding and Tyr(•) formation, cells lacking β' are either dead or exhibit extremely low Tyr(•) levels and RNR activity depending on genetic backgrounds. Here, we present evidence supporting the model that β' is required for iron loading and Tyr(•) formation in β in vivo via a pathway that is likely dependent on the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3/Grx4 and the Fe-S cluster protein Dre2. rnr4 mutants are defective in iron loading into nascent β and are hypersensitive to iron depletion and the Tyr(•)-reducing agent hydroxyurea. Transient induction of β' in a GalRNR4 strain leads to a concomitant increase in iron loading and Tyr(•) levels in β. Tyr(•) can also be rapidly generated using endogenous iron when permeabilized Δrnr4 spheroplasts are supplemented with recombinant β' and is inhibited by adding an iron chelator prior to, but not after, β' supplementation. The growth defects of rnr4 mutants are enhanced by deficiencies in grx3/grx4 and dre2. Moreover, depletion of Dre2 in GalDRE2 cells leads to a decrease in both Tyr(•) levels and ββ' activity. This result, in combination with previous findings that a low level of Grx3/4 impairs RNR function, strongly suggests that Grx3/4 and Dre2 serve in the assembly of the deferric Tyr(•) cofactor in RNR.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2011; 286(48):41499-509. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Xiaorong Wu, Lili Liu, Mingxia Huang
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    ABSTRACT: Methods are described here to monitor changes in protein level and subcellular localization during the cell cycle progression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell synchronization is achieved by an α-factor-mediated block-and-release protocol. Cells are collected at different time points for the first two cell cycles upon release. Cellular DNA contents are analyzed by flow cytometry. Trichloroacetic acid protein precipitates are prepared for monitoring levels of cell cycle regulated proteins by Western blotting. The dynamic changes in protein subcellular localization patterns are examined by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 782:47-57. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    Xiaorong Wu, Mingxia Huang
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    ABSTRACT: Fidelity in DNA replication and repair requires adequate and balanced deoxyribonucleotide pools that are maintained primarily by regulation of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR is controlled via transcription, protein inhibitor association, and subcellular localization of its two subunits, R1 and R2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sml1 binds R1 and inhibits its activity, while Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spd1 impedes RNR holoenzyme formation by sequestering R2 in the nucleus away from the cytoplasmic R1. Here we report the identification and characterization of S. cerevisiae Dif1, a regulator of R2 nuclear localization and member of a new family of proteins sharing separate homologous domains with Spd1 and Sml1. Dif1 is localized in the cytoplasm and acts in a pathway different from the nuclear R2-anchoring protein Wtm1. Like Sml1 and Spd1, Dif1 is phosphorylated and degraded in cells encountering DNA damage, thereby relieving inhibition of RNR. A shared domain between Sml1 and Dif1 controls checkpoint kinase-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of the two proteins. Abolishing Dif1 phosphorylation stabilizes the protein and delays damage-induced nucleus-to-cytoplasm redistribution of R2. This study suggests that Dif1 is required for nuclear import of the R2 subunit and plays an essential role in regulating the dynamic RNR subcellular localization.
    Molecular and cellular biology 11/2008; 28(23):7156-67. · 6.06 Impact Factor