ABSTRACT: The effects of etonogestrel (ETG)-releasing contraceptive implant during the immediate postpartum period on maternal safety are unknown.
Forty healthy women exclusively breastfeeding were randomized to receive either ETG-releasing implant 24-48 h after delivery (n=20) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA group; n=20) at the sixth week postpartum. We measured blood pressure, maternal and neonatal weight, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC), complete blood count, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), lipid profile, fasting serum glucose and maintenance of exclusive lactation up to the 12th week postpartum.
Decreases in mean maternal weight, BMI (kg/m(2)) and WC were significantly greater in the ETG-releasing implant group than in the DMPA group during the first 6 weeks postpartum (-4.64+/-2.71 kg vs. -2.6+/-2.45 kg mean+/-SD, p=.017; -1.77+/-1.06 kg/m(2) vs. -0.97+/-0.95 kg/m(2), p=.026; -15.3+/-6.72 cm vs. -9.05+/-5.84 cm, p=.003, respectively). In addition, total cholesterol and HDL, were lower in DMPA users, and TNF-alpha and leukocytes were higher in DMPA users compared to in the implant group, between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. The newborns of implant users showed a trend towards gaining more weight, as compared with the infants of the DMPA mothers during the first 6 weeks of life (implant group: +1460.50+/-621.34 g vs. DMPA group: +1035.0+/-562.43 g, p=.05). The remaining variables, including the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, were similar between the groups.
The insertion of ETG-releasing contraceptive implant during the immediate postpartum period was not associated with deleterious maternal clinical effects or with significant maternal metabolic alterations or decreased infant weight gain.
Contraception 12/2009; 80(6):519-26. · 2.72 Impact Factor
Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 10/2009; 31(10):477-9.
ABSTRACT: Adequate postpartum contraception is recommended in order to prevent mother and infant morbidity. The mother-infant benefits of lactation are well recognized, and exclusive, regular and frequent breastfeeding is an effective contraceptive method for amenorrheic patients. However, the resumption of fertility varies among women and access to health services is not guaranteed in many regions of the world. We searched the articles in Medline (PubMed) related to the subject published between 1971 to April 2008 and selected the most relevant articles in the literature about postpartum contraception. Short interpregnancy intervals increase maternal and fetal complications and therefore effective postpartum contraception is imperative. The ideal method prescribed should be effective and safe, id est, should not interfere with lactation or alter the hemostatic system. During the postpartum period, ideally non-hormonal methods should be used because they do not alter lactation or hemostasis. However, in populations with difficult access to health or with an early start of calorie supplementation to the newborn, the option should be for progestogens-only contraceptives, ideally initiated after six weeks or earlier in special situations.
Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 10/2008; 30(9):470-9.