R Arquet

French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (23)32.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections have an important negative impact on small ruminant production. The selection of genotypes resistant to these parasitic infections is a promising alternative control strategy. Thus, resistance against GIN is an important component of small ruminant breeding schemes, based on phenotypic measurements of resistance in immune mature infected animals. In this study we evaluated both the impact of the post-weaning parasitism history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection of resistant and susceptible Creole kids chosen on the basis of their estimated breeding value, and the interaction with the kid's genetic status. During the post-weaning period (from 3 months until 7 months of age) Creole kids were reared at pasture according to four different levels of a mixed rotational stocking system with Creole cattle: 100% (control), 75% (GG75), 50% (GG50), and 25% (GG25) of the total stocking rate of the pasture. The level of infection of the kids decreased significantly at 50% and 25% of the total stocking rate. After the post-weaning period at pasture, at 11 months of age kids were experimentally infected with H. contortus. The faecal egg counts (FEC) were significantly lower in the groups showing the highest FEC at pasture. This result suggests that a degree of protection against an experimental H. contortus infection occurred during the post-weaning period and was dependant on the level of parasitism. Interestingly, no interaction was observed between this level of protection and the genetic status. In conclusion, the level of post-weaning natural parasitism history at pasture would not influence the genetic status evaluation. More generally our results suggest that it would be better to expose kids to a high level of gastrointestinal parasitism during the post-weaning period in order to increase the basal level of resistance thereafter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Veterinary Parasitology 11/2014; 207(1-2). · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A specific breeding goal definition was developed for Creole goats in Guadeloupe. This local breed is used for meat production. To ensure a balanced selection outcome, the breeding objective included two production traits, live weight (BW11) and dressing percentage (DP) at 11 months (the mating or selling age), one reproduction trait, fertility (FER), and two traits to assess animal response to parasite infection: packed cell volume (PCV), a resilience trait, and faecal worm eggs count (FEC), a resistance trait. A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to calculate the economic values based on the description of the profit of a Guadeloupean goat farm. The farm income came from the sale of animals for meat or as reproducers. The main costs were feeding and treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites. The economic values were 7.69€ per kg for BW11, 1.38€ per % for FER, 3.53€ per % for DP and 3 × 10-4€ per % for PCV. The economic value for FEC was derived by comparing the expected profit and average FEC in a normal situation and in an extreme situation where parasites had developed resistance to anthelmintics. This method yielded a maximum weighting for FEC, which was -18.85€ per log(eggs per gram). Alternative scenarios were tested to assess the robustness of the economic values to variations in the economic and environmental context. The economic values of PCV and DP were the most stable. Issues involved in paving the way for selective breeding on resistance or resilience to parasites are discussed.
    animal 07/2012; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify regions of the genome affecting resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in a Creole goat population naturally exposed to a mixed nematode infection (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum) by grazing on irrigated pasture. A genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) scan was performed on 383 offspring from 12 half-sib families. A total of 101 microsatellite markers were genotyped. Traits analysed were faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophil count and bodyweight (BW) at 7 and 11 months of age. Levels of activity of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and activity of immunoglobulin E (IgE) anti-Haemonchus contortus L3 crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESPs) were also analysed. Using interval mapping, this study identified 13 QTL for parasite resistance. Two QTL linked with FEC were found on chromosomes 22 and 26. Three QTL were detected on chromosomes 7, 8 and 14 for eosinophil counts. Three QTL linked with PCV were identified on chromosomes 5, 9 and 21. A QTL for BW at 7 months of age was found on chromosome 6. Lastly, two QTL detected on chromosomes 3 and 10 were associated with IgE anti-L3, and IgE anti-ESP was linked with two QTL on chromosomes 1 and 26. This study is the first to have identified regions of the genome linked with nematode resistance in a goat population using a genome scan. These results provide useful tools for the understanding of parasite resistance in small ruminants.
    Animal Genetics 04/2012; 43(6):768-75. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small ruminants are affected by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection. A promising alternative strategy for control of GIN infection is to increase the level of resistance in the population by taking advantage of the host's immune response. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and E (IgE) are known to be involved in immune response to GIN. The aim of this study was thus to investigate genetic parameters of IgA and IgE responses against Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids naturally challenged at pasture and to determine the relationship with other resistance criteria such as faecal egg counts, packed-cell volume, eosinophil counts and bodyweight. Variance and covariance components for genetic and residuals effects for each trait were estimated on 3862 males at 11 months of age. Heritability estimates for IgA and IgE ranged between 0.15 and 0.57. Strong positive genetic correlations were observed between either IgE or IgA responses against L3 and adult excretory/secretory products (ESP) antigens of H. contortus, suggesting that the humoral immune response is not specific to the life cycle stage of the parasite suggesting that there is substantial cross recognition between the different parasite antigens. Heritability estimates for faecal egg count (FEC), packed-cell volume (PCV) and bodyweight (BW) were in accordance with previous results in Creole kids. Blood eosinophil counts were found moderately heritable and negatively correlated with FEC, suggesting that this cell population plays a role in resistance to nematode parasite infection in Creole goats. IgA response was positively correlated to FEC, in contrast with the negative correlation between IgE against L3 of H. contortus and FEC. In Creole goats, IgA response against L3 or ESP of H. contortus would rather be associated with the worm burden than an immune protective response. The immune response involving activity of IgE against L3 of H. contortus may be one important pathway for development of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in Creole goats.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2011; 186(3-4):337-43. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We estimated the genetic parameters for BW, reproduction, and parasite resistance traits to implement a breeding program for the Creole goat. The traits were preweaning BW at 70 d of age (BW70d), BW at 11 mo of age (BW11), fecal egg count at 11 mo of age (FEC11) for all animals, packed cell volumes of lactating does (PCV), and their fertility (FER) and litter size (LS). We analyzed about 30 yr of data, which included 18,450 records on 11,970 animals from the INRA experimental flock in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Heritability estimates were low for reproduction traits (0.11 ± 0.02 for LS and FER) to moderate for production traits (0.32 ± 0.03 for BW11; 0.20 ± 0.03 and 0.08 ± 0.02 for the direct and maternal heritability estimates of BW70d, respectively). Heritability estimates for gastrointestinal nematode resistance traits were situated in an intermediate range (0.13 ± 0.05 for PCV and 0.18 ± 0.04 for FEC11). Genetic correlations between FER, PCV, BW11, and the maternal effect of BW70d were altogether positive, whereas LS and FEC11 were almost uncorrelated phenotypically and genetically. These correlations are very favorable for setting up a breeding program, making it possible to improve BW, reproduction, and parasite resistance traits simultaneously.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2011; 89(11):3443-51. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids. One trial with three replicates involved a total of 154 female kids that were chosen from three successive cohorts of the Creole flock of INRA-Gardel in 2007. The kids were placed into four treatments according to the amount of concentrate they received: G0 (no concentrate and a quality Dichantium spp. hay ad libitum, HAY), G1 (HAY+100g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G2 (HAY+200 g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G3 (HAY+300 g commercial concentrate d(-1)). The G0-G3 groups were infected with a single dose of 10,000 H. contortus third stage larvae (L(3)) at Day 0 (D0). Each infected group was comprised of one half resistant and one half susceptible genetically indexed kids. The average breeding values on egg excretion at 11 months of age were distant of 0.70, 0.65, 0.61 and 0.61 genetic standard deviations in G0, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophilia (EOSI) and dry matter intake (DMI) indices were monitored weekly until 42 days post-infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out on serum samples to determine the level of IgA anti-H. contortus L(3) crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESP). The 10,000 L(3) dose received by the kids induced a severe infection: 8000 eggs per gram at the FEC peak, a PCV less than 15% and mortality. Interestingly, the supplemented animals in G3 showed a higher level of EOSI but a lower level of IgA anti-L3 and IgA anti-ESP than non-supplemented animals (G0). Resistant and susceptible kids had significantly different FEC variations within the groups. Susceptible kids had a 1.6 times higher egg output than resistant kids in G0. This difference was not found in the supplemented groups. The results of this study showed that supplementary feeding improved resistance of Creole kids to H. contortus experimental infection.
    Veterinary Parasitology 06/2011; 178(3-4):279-85. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Creole goat is a local meat breed well adapted to the tropical environment of Guadeloupe, a French island in the Caribbean. A survey of 47 goat farmers was conducted in May 2008 to describe the Guadeloupean goat farming systems. It was the preliminary step for the implementation of a breeding programme for Creole goats. Farmers had 31 does on average. A small number (4%) kept only Creole goats. Most of them (62%) had a mixed herd of Creole and crossbreds. One-third of them (34%) reared only crossbred goats. Farmers appreciate the rusticity and resistance of the Creole goat but consider its growth as too slow. The most desired traits for goat selection were conformation and growth for males (77% of the answers). These traits were also important for females (30% of the answers). Maternal qualities were also frequently cited (maternal behaviour 23%, reproduction 20% and milk production 17%). Disease resistance was not seen as an important trait (10% and 7% of the answers for bucks and does, respectively). A typology constituted of five groups of farmers was also created. Farmers of three groups were retained to participate at a selection programme. They kept Creole goats and have expressed a strong willingness to join a selection programme. The results of the survey suggest that a breeding programme should mostly focus on the Creole goat as a maternal breed. Real consideration should be given to disease resistance. The Creole goat has indeed a key role to play in the sustainability of local farming systems.
    animal 12/2010; 4(12):2099-105. · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Advances in Animal Biosciences. 11/2010; 1(02).
  • Advances in Animal Biosciences. 10/2010; 1(02):413 - 414.
  • Advances in Animal Biosciences. 10/2010; 1(02):408 - 409.
  • Advances in Animal Biosciences. 10/2010; 1(02):407 - 408.
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    ABSTRACT: Carcass data base of 164 Creole male goats was used in order to provide factual data on the carcass conformation. Standardised procedures of carcass measuring and cutting were followed. The European official grid of light lamb is implemented for meat goat in the French West Indies and included five levels. Weights of carcass, cuts and tissues, quality scores and linear measurements were analysed. Feeding system, age at slaughter and weight were taken into account for statistical analysis. There were significant differences among carcass conformation classes (CC) for many traits except for the fat score, leg length and compactness ratio (carcass width on length): 2.2, 34.5 cm and 0.30 on average, respectively. The values of chilled carcass weight and yield and the carcass linear measurements steadily increased until conformation class 4 or 5: 6.7 to 11.2 kg, 49% to 55% and 52.4 to 58.0 cm carcass length. For the weights of carcass cuts, significant differences appeared between two groups: classes 1 and 2 vs. classes 3, 4 and 5. Regardless of the carcass weight, the distribution of prime cuts remained similar. The indices calculated on a weight basis (kg/cm), either for the carcass or the leg, increased significantly (P<0.01): with 54% and 63% difference between the two extreme classes, respectively. The muscle, bone and fat proportions in the shoulder did not vary between CC with 0.72, 0.22 and 0.06, respectively. Corresponding traits in leg were 0.74, 0.23 and 0.03; the last two were different (P<0.05) from class 1 to class 5. The muscle/bone ratios calculated either in shoulder or in leg ranged from 3.1 to 3.6 (P>0.05).
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 09/2009; 42(3):507-14. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of infection with Haemonchus contortus on feed intake, digestibility, fecal egg count, circulating eosinophils, and packed cell volume in Creole kids differing in genetic resistance (susceptible, S; resistant, R) to gastrointestinal parasitism and maintained on a similar level of nutrition. The experiment was carried out during 2 periods of 6 wk each differing in immunity development stage. In the first period (acquisition of immunity; period I), 22 naïve male kids (23.4 +/- 0.65 kg of BW) were housed in individual boxes and fed a hay-based diet, and a primary infection was induced. In the second period (expression of immunity; period II), 15 of the initial 22 kids (28.4 +/- 0.77 kg of BW) were submitted to a secondary infection. Housing and management were uniform throughout the experiment. For each period, measurements of intake and digestibility were made at 0, 2, and 4 wk postinfection (WPI) with a single dose of 10,000 infective larvae (L(3)). The DMI and total-tract DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibilities were determined using the total feces collection and ad libitum forage supply method. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly to measure fecal egg count, circulating eosinophils, and packed cell volume. Infection with Haemonchus contortus decreased feed intake during period I. The absence of anorexia in period II was probably due to the acquired immunity of kids. The DMI was affected (P = 0.05) by genetic predisposition to resistance (626 vs. 583 +/- 26 g/d, for R vs. S) and WPI, being greatest in the second WPI (693 vs. 614 and 657 g/d, for WPI-2 vs. WPI-0 and WPI-4, respectively). The latter was related to worm establishment phase and was linked to the lower total tract digestibilities at this point. Digestibilities were least at WPI-2. The fecal egg counts were greater (P < 0.001) in period I than II, and differences between S and R were evident after the fifth WPI in period II. Circulating eosinophils were greater (P < 0.001) in S vs. R. The results suggest that effects of these parasites on intake and digestibility are influenced by the individual genetic resistance and the immunological stage, and the strongest impact occurs between the second and the third WPI, a period during which the immune response is more pronounced, probably due to parasite maturation.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2009; 87(7):2367-75. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize the peripheral immune response during haemonchosis in goats by comparing genetically resistant and susceptible animals. We analyzed the changes of circulating lymphocyte populations after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in nematode resistant and susceptible Creole kids. Kinetics of faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophilia, as well as body weight (BW), were weekly monitored. The average breeding values on egg excretion at 7 months of age were distant of 1.16 genetic standard deviation. Flow cytometry was used to follow changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations at days 0, 3 and 35 days post-infection (d.p.i.). Data of FEC, PCV, eosinophilia and BW were analyzed by non-orthogonal contrast of SAS, while evolution of lymphocytes populations and relative proportion of T lymphocyte (LT) sub-populations were compared across time by using REML and GLIMMIX respectively (SAS, 2000). No significant differences in eosinophil count and PCV values were observed between resistant and susceptible animals during the course of the experiment. Nonetheless, from 28 to 35d.p.i., FEC in resistant animals were significantly lower than in susceptible. Thus, at the end of the infection, susceptible animals showed a FEC 11 times higher than resistant (P=0.031). However, no evolution across time and no difference between resistant and susceptible kids were evidenced in circulating activated sub-populations of LTCD8+ and LTCD4+. The levels of B lymphocyte (LB) were lower in susceptible animals across time (P
    Small Ruminant Research 03/2009; 82(1):34-39. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of parasite-specific serum antibodies with the resistance status of Creole kids. The average breeding values on egg output predicted in a context of natural infection at 11 months of age were distant of 1.07 genetic standard deviation between resistant and susceptible animals. After drenching the animals were maintained worm-free during 1 month until experimental infection with 10,000 Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out in serum samples to determine the level of IgG, IgA and IgE anti-H. contortus L3 crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESP). Parasitological and blood immunological parameters were measured on the 2 extreme groups. Despite the absence of any typical signs of haemonchosis, susceptible kids had more than 11 times higher faecal egg counts (FEC) at 35 days post-infection (d.p.i.) than resistant kids had. Levels of immunoglobulin against H. contortus L3 and ESP increased significantly after infection in both groups. However, no difference in the host immune response mediated by immunoglobulin against H. contortus was evidenced between groups. This finding suggests that, in goats previously infected by H. contortus, a degree of protection occurred and the phenotypic and genetic segregation in resistant and susceptible animals were not related to the humoral immune response. The correlation coefficients between FEC and IgE anti-ESP (r=0.593; P<0.05 was significant in both resistant and susceptible animals. Such correlation suggesting a hypersensitivity reaction dependent on worm prolificacy has never been described. This result needs further studies to understand the mechanisms underlying this observation.
    Veterinary Parasitology 09/2008; 158(4):311-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haemonchus infection was monitored for 2 years (six kidding periods) in a Creole goat flock grazing under oceanic-tropical climate. Two hundred and thirty individual does were involved from late pregnancy to weaning. Anaemia diagnoses using Famacha method and packed cell volume (PCV) were compared. The best agreement (Kappa=0.33) was found if anaemia was declared when PCV values fell to 16 or below and Famacha score was 4 or 5. Drenching policy according to Famacha method was compared to systematic drenching policy. Using the Famacha method allowed a dramatic decrease in anthelmintic use during the periparturient period (0.57 individual dose instead of three doses for the control). The proportion of the nematode population on the pasture not derived from previously-treated goats (in refugia) was estimated to about 79% (65-90%) of the pasture contamination derived from the Famacha group. On the average, goats which needed to be drenched produced less than the control or undrenched goats (kid average daily gain was decreased by about 15%). The repeatability of the need for drenching individual does was estimated to 0.41. The older goats or the goats in poorer body condition at kidding needed more drenching than the younger animals and the animals in good body condition. Consequently the Famacha method may be used as an additional tool for the culling management.
    Veterinary Parasitology 06/2007; 146(1-2):135-47. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study was undertaken in a Creole goat flock at INRA-Gardel in Guadeloupe, to evaluate the opportunity to use artificial selection as a means of controlling gastro-intestinal infection during early lactation. The flock grazed all year on Digitaria decumbens pastures. Faecal and blood samples were taken from kids at 11 months of age and from does at kidding before drenching (week 0) and at weeks 4 and 6 after kidding. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were estimated using a modified McMaster method. Blood samples were used to determine packed cell volume (PCV) and eosinophil concentrations (EOS) values. Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum were the main strongyle species identified in faecal cultures. The data came from 1092 litters obtained from 688 does sired by 142 bucks and 413 dams. Variance and covariance components for genetic and residual effects were estimated with multivariate animal models using the restricted maximum likelihood VCE package. Repeatability and overall heritability for FEC during the post-partum period were 0·17 and 0·10±0·02. The genetic correlations between FEC and PCV were −0·56±0·11 at 4 weeks after kidding and −0·79±0·13 at 6 weeks after kidding. The genetic correlations between FEC and EOS were 0·37±0·15 at 4 weeks after kidding and 0·68±0·17 at 6 weeks after kidding. Hence, does that contributed least to pasture contamination during the postpartum period also had low EOS and high PCV breeding values. The genetic correlations between FEC measured at 11 months of age and FEC during periparturient period ranged from 0·57±0·12 to 0·76±0·16. Therefore, breeding goats for increased resistance during the post-weaning period will lead to a less marked and less persistent rise in doe FEC during early lactation. The epidemiological implications of this selection have to be quantified in terms of lower pasture contamination, lower kid parasitism, and higher milk production of does.
    Animal Science. 05/2006; 82(03):283 - 287.
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    ABSTRACT: The control of gastrointestinal nematodes requires an understanding of their epidemiology so that particular parasite stages can be targeted. Dam infection during early lactation is one example of this in ruminant nematode infections. The existence of the peri-parturient relaxation in immunity and its impact on productivity were examined in a Creole goat flock from Guadeloupe, exposed to mixed natural infection (predominantly Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis). A total of 1,511 l were obtained from 909 does resulting from 463 dams and 150 sires. Fecal and blood samples were collected at kidding before anthelmintic drenching, 4 and 6 weeks after kidding. The traits analyzed were logarithm transformed fecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), and logarithm transformed blood eosinophilia counts (EOS) for does at each sampling point and changes in these during the postpartum period. With the exception of the PCV values measured at kidding, lactating does had significantly higher FEC and lower PCV than control dry does at every sampling point. Geometric means of FEC in lactating does were 819 +/- 174, 677 +/- 146 and, 699 +/- 160 eggs per gram (EPG) at kidding, 4 and 6 weeks after kidding respectively. Geometric means of FEC in dry does were 187 +/- 57, 89 +/- 28, 133 +/- 43 at these time points, respectively. EOS differences were not consistent between groups and probably not specific enough for variations in Creole goats' peri-parturient rise to be discussed. As does aged, their egg output decreased and primiparous does always had greater egg output than multiparous ones. Overall, does' FEC at 4 weeks after kidding decreased by 1.3% each year. The higher the litter size, the higher the FEC at kidding and inverse applied for PCV measurements. Does that stopped lactating had significantly lower FEC and higher PCV values than lactating does with low milk yields. Higher infection rates during early lactation in Creole goats were recorded in does with lower maternal ability assessed by the average daily weight gain of kids between 10 and 30 days of age. Kids from dams with higher FEC (i.e. >600 EPG higher than corresponding does) had 17% lower average daily weight gain between 30 and 70 days postpartum and were approximately 1 kg lighter at weaning than kids from dams with lower FEC. Thus, it is clear that a peri-parturient rise in FEC exists in Creole goats. By controlling the intensity of this peri-parturient rise in FEC, herd health and productivity could be substantially improved.
    Veterinary Parasitology 01/2006; 134(3-4):249-59. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results of 5732 records of kids born between 1985 and 1996 at Gardel Agricultural Experiment Station (INRA) in Guadeloupe, were used in order to estimate the effect of kidding day (KD) on individual preweaning growth performances, total productivity of Creole goats and litter size. The flock was subjected to a restricted mating season for a long time, by using male effect. The results of the fixed linear model showed a highly significant (P<0.001) effect of KD on growth rate and total productivity of does. Live weights of kids born around the 21st day of the kidding period (KP) was 4% to 7% higher than those of kids born the first day of the KP. For total productivity of does, this ratio did not reached more than 4%. The optimum at 70 days of age occurred around 14th day of the KD with 3% of improvement of total productivity. No effect was observed upon litter size. The genetic (co)variance components were estimated by six different Individual Animal Models. The heritability (h2) estimated from the best model, was hD2=0.25±0.05 for genetic direct effect; hM2=0.09±0.04 for genetic maternal effect and the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects was −0.86±0.12. The use of KD could be highly recommended in a breeding program in this population of Creole meat goats, since it is quite easy to record under commercial conditions as a character related to reproductive performance.
    Livestock Production Science 03/2005; 92(3):241-247.
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    ABSTRACT: In Guadeloupe, small ruminants are reared for meat production under pasture conditions. Intensive rotative grazing systems (irrigated, fertilized and high-stocked tropical pastures) allow satisfactory levels of production but generate high post-grazing residues. Experiments were designed to control these. A system in which residuals were mown (RM) was tested in comparison to the control system (residuals remained, RR). The same design was carried out over two years with Creole goats and Martinik sheep. An accelerated reproductive rate (3 parturitions over 2 years) was carried out. Systems were compared at three parturition seasons per year (dry, intermediate and rainy seasons). Each group was composed of 20 goats (36.0+/-2.5 kg) or 20 ewes (46.8+/-2.4 kg). The systems exhibited high levels of productivity in both species compared to other results in the tropics: more than 50 and 30 offspring born alive per hectare and per reproductive season for the goat and ewe flocks, respectively. The annual production at birth was 110 kg kids/ha per year and 133 kg lambs/ha per year (i.e. 21% more). Corresponding values at weaning were 630 kg kids/ha per year and 785 kg lambs/ha per year (i.e. 25% more). The RM system produced 10% more than the RR system in Creole goats, while it produced 35% more in Martinik sheep. Seasonal effects and other factors of variation are discussed.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 03/2005; 37(2):151-65. · 0.97 Impact Factor