Mellissa R W Mann

The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (35)228.74 Total impact

  • Reproduction Fertility and Development 09/2014; · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • William A Macdonald, Mellissa R W Mann
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process that distinguishes parental alleles, resulting in parent-specific expression of a gene or cluster of genes. Imprints are acquired during gametogenesis when genome-wide epigenetic remodeling occurs. These imprints must then be maintained during preimplantation development, when another wave of genome-wide epigenetic remodeling takes place. Thus, for imprints to persist as parent-specific epigenetic marks, coordinated factors and processes must be involved to both recognize an imprint and protect it from genome-wide remodeling. Parent-specific DNA methylation has long been recognized as a primary epigenetic mark demarcating a genomic imprint. Recent work has advanced our understanding of how and when parent-specific DNA methylation is erased and acquired in the germ line as well as maintained during preimplantation development. Epigenetic factors have also been identified that are recruited to imprinted regions to protect them from genome-wide DNA demethylation during preimplantation development. Intriguingly, asynchrony in epigenetic reprogramming appears to be a recurrent theme with asynchronous acquisition between male and female germ lines, between different imprinted genes, and between the two parental alleles of a gene. Here, we review recent advancements and discuss how they impact our current understanding of the epigenetic regulation of genomic imprinting. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 07/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Michelle M Denomme, Mellissa R W Mann
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic imprinting is a specialized transcriptional phenomenon that employs epigenetic mechanisms to facilitate parental-specific expression. Perturbations in parental epigenetic asymmetry can lead to the development of imprinting disorders, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. DNA methylation is one of the most widely studied epigenetic marks that characterizes imprinted regions. During gametogenesis and early embryogenesis, imprinted methylation undergoes a cycle of erasure, acquisition and maintenance. Gamete and embryo manipulations for the purpose of assisted reproduction are performed during these reprogramming events and may lead to their disruption. Recent studies point to the role of maternal-effect proteins in imprinted gene regulation. Studies are now required to increase understanding of how these factors regulate genomic imprinting as well as how assisted reproduction technologies may alter their function. Assisted reproductive technologies have been linked to the development of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. This may relate to the fact that the use of assisted reproduction technology coincides with crucial events that establish and maintain gene expression during egg and early embryo development. Recent studies have identified several proteins that are found in the egg that may play a role in gene expression in the early embryo. Studies are now required to increase understanding of how these factors work as well as how assisted reproductive technologies may alter their function.
    Reproductive biomedicine online 06/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Michelle M Denomme, Mellissa R W Mann
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    ABSTRACT: Gamete and early embryo development are important stages when genome-scale epigenetic transitions are orchestrated. The apparent lack of remodeling of differential imprinted DNA methylation during preimplantation development has lead to the argument that epigenetic disruption by assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is restricted to imprinted genes. We contend that aberrant imprinted methylation arising from assisted reproduction or infertility may be an indicator of more global epigenetic instability. Here, we review the current literature on the effects of ARTs, including ovarian stimulation, in vitro oocyte maturation, oocyte cryopreservation, IVF, ICSI, embryo culture, and infertility on genomic imprinting as a model for evaluating epigenetic stability. Undoubtedly, the relationship between impaired fertility, ARTs, and epigenetic stability is unquestionably complex. What is clear is that future studies need to be directed at determining the molecular and cellular mechanisms giving rise to epigenetic errors.
    Reproduction 09/2012; 144(4):393-409. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, the stage of embryo development has been proposed as one of many criteria for identifying healthy embryos in infertility clinics with the fastest embryos being highlighted as the healthiest. However the validity of this as an accurate criterion with respect to genomic imprinting is unknown. Given that embryo development in culture generally requires an extra day compared to in vivo development, we hypothesized that loss of imprinting correlates with slower rates of embryonic development. To evaluate this, embryos were recovered at the 2-cell stage, separated into four groups based on morphological stage at two predetermined time points, and cultured to blastocysts. We examined cell number, embryo volume, embryo sex, imprinted Snrpn and H19 methylation, imprinted Snrpn, H19, and Cdkn1c expression, and expression of genes involved in embryo metabolism-Atp1a1, Slc2a1, and Mapk14-all within the same individual embryo. Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed that faster developing embryos exhibited greater cell numbers and embryo volumes as well as greater perturbations in genomic imprinting and metabolic marker expression. Embryos with slower rates of preimplantation development were most similar to in vivo derived embryos, displaying similar cell numbers, embryo volumes, Snrpn and H19 imprinted methylation, H19 imprinted expression, and Atp1a1 and Slc2a1 expression. We conclude that faster development rates in vitro are correlated with loss of genomic imprinting and aberrant metabolic marker expression. Importantly, we identified a subset of in vitro cultured embryos that, according to the parameters evaluated, are very similar to in vivo derived embryos and thus are likely most suitable for embryo transfer.
    Biology of Reproduction 01/2012; 86(5):143, 1-16. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth and maturation of healthy oocytes within follicles requires bidirectional signaling and intercellular gap junctional communication. Aberrant endocrine signaling and loss of gap junctional communication between the oocyte and granulosa cells leads to compromised folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, and oocyte competency, consequently impairing fertility. Given that oocyte-specific DNA methylation establishment at imprinted genes occurs during this growth phase, we determined whether compromised endocrine signaling and gap junctional communication would disrupt de novo methylation acquisition using ERβ and connexin37 genetic models. To compare mutant oocytes to control oocytes, DNA methylation acquisition was first examined in individual, 20-80 μm control oocytes at three imprinted genes, Snrpn, Peg3, and Peg1. We observed that each gene has its own size-dependent acquisition kinetics, similar to previous studies. To determine whether compromised endocrine signaling and gap junctional communication disrupted de novo methylation acquisition,individual oocytes from Esr2- and Gja4-deficient mice were also assessed for DNA methylation establishment. We observed no aberrant or delayed acquisition of DNA methylation at Snrpn, Peg3, or Peg1 in oocytes from Esr2-deficient females, and no perturbation in Snrpn or Peg3de novo methylation in oocytes from Gja4-null females. However, Gja4 deficiency resulted in a loss or delay in methylation acquisition at Peg1. One explanation for this difference between the three loci analyzed is the late establishment of DNA methylation at the Peg1 gene. These results indicate that compromised fertility though impaired intercellular communication can lead to imprinting acquisition errors. Further studies are required to determine the effects of subfertility/infertility originating from impaired signaling and intercellular communication during oogenesis on imprint maintenance during preimplantation development.
    Frontiers in Genetics 01/2012; 3:129.
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    ABSTRACT: During preimplantation development, major epigenetic reprogramming occurs, erasing gametic modifications, and establishing embryonic epigenetic modifications. Given the plasticity of these modifications, they are susceptible to disruption by assisted reproductive technologies, including embryo culture. The current state of evidence is presented for the effects of embryo culture on global DNA methylation and histone modifications, retroviral silencing, X-inactivation, and genomic imprinting. Several salient points emerge from the literature; that culture in the absence of other procedures can lead to epigenetic perturbations; that all media are suboptimal; and that embryo response to in vitro culture is stochastic. We propose that embryos adapt to the suboptimal environment generated by embryo culture, including epigenetic adaptations, and that "quiet" embryos may be the least epigenetically compromised by in vitro culture.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 912:399-421. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Michelle M Denomme, Liyue Zhang, Mellissa R W Mann
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetics encompasses all heritable and reversible modifications to chromatin that alter gene accessibility, and thus are the primary mechanisms for regulating gene transcription. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that acts predominantly as a repressive mark. Through the covalent addition of a methyl group onto cytosines in CpG dinucleotides, it can recruit additional repressive proteins and histone modifications to initiate processes involved in condensing chromatin and silencing genes. DNA methylation is essential for normal development as it plays a critical role in developmental programming, cell differentiation, repression of retroviral elements, X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting. One of the most powerful methods for DNA methylation analysis is bisulfite mutagenesis. Sodium bisulfite is a DNA mutagen that deaminates cytosines into uracils. Following PCR amplification and sequencing, these conversion events are detected as thymines. Methylated cytosines are protected from deamination and thus remain as cytosines, enabling identification of DNA methylation at the individual nucleotide level. Development of the bisulfite mutagenesis assay has advanced from those originally reported towards ones that are more sensitive and reproducible. One key advancement was embedding smaller amounts of DNA in an agarose bead, thereby protecting DNA from the harsh bisulfite treatment. This enabled methylation analysis to be performed on pools of oocytes and blastocyst-stage embryos. The most sophisticated bisulfite mutagenesis protocol to date is for individual blastocyst-stage embryos. However, since blastocysts have on average 64 cells (containing 120-720 pg of genomic DNA), this method is not efficacious for methylation studies on individual oocytes or cleavage-stage embryos. Taking clues from agarose embedding of minute DNA amounts including oocytes, here we present a method whereby oocytes are directly embedded in an agarose and lysis solution bead immediately following retrieval and removal of the zona pellucida from the oocyte. This enables us to bypass the two main challenges of single oocyte bisulfite mutagenesis: protecting a minute amount of DNA from degradation, and subsequent loss during the numerous protocol steps. Importantly, as data are obtained from single oocytes, the issue of PCR bias within pools is eliminated. Furthermore, inadvertent cumulus cell contamination is detectable by this method since any sample with more than one methylation pattern may be excluded from analysis. This protocol provides an improved method for successful and reproducible analyses of DNA methylation at the single-cell level and is ideally suited for individual oocytes as well as cleavage-stage embryos.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: In May 2011, the Canadian Conference on Epigenetics: Epigenetics Eh! was held in London, Canada. The objectives of this conference were to showcase the breadth of epigenetic research on environment and health across Canada and to provide the catalyst to develop collaborative Canadian epigenetic research opportunities, similar to existing international epigenetic initiatives in the US and Europe. With ten platform sessions and two sessions with over 100 poster presentations, this conference featured cutting-edge epigenetic research, presented by Canadian and international principal investigators and their trainees in the field of epigenetics and chromatin dynamics. An EpigenART competition included ten artists, creating a unique opportunity for artists and scientists to interact and explore their individual interpretations of this scientific discipline. The conference provided a unique venue for a significant cross-section of Canadian epigenetic researchers from diverse disciplines to meet, interact, collaborate and strategize at the national level.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 10/2011; 6(10):1265-71. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the complex regulation of genomic imprinting it is important to determine how early embryos establish imprinted gene expression across large chromosomal domains. Long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been associated with the regulation of imprinting domains, yet their function remains undefined. Here, we investigated the mouse Kcnq1ot1 ncRNA and its role in imprinted gene regulation during preimplantation development by utilizing mouse embryonic and extra-embryonic stem cell models. Our findings demonstrate that the Kcnq1ot1 ncRNA extends 471 kb from the transcription start site. This is significant as it raises the possibility that transcription through downstream genes might play a role in their silencing, including Th, which we demonstrate possesses maternal-specific expression during early development. To distinguish between a functional role for the transcript and properties inherent to transcription of long ncRNAs, we employed RNA interference-based technology to deplete Kcnq1ot1 transcripts. We hypothesized that post-transcriptional depletion of Kcnq1ot1 ncRNA would lead to activation of normally maternal-specific protein-coding genes on the paternal chromosome. Post-transcriptional short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion in embryonic stem, trophoblast stem and extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells had no observable effect on the imprinted expression of genes within the domain, or on Kcnq1ot1 imprinting center DNA methylation, although a significant decrease in Kcnq1ot1 RNA signal volume in the nucleus was observed. These data support the argument that it is the act of transcription that plays a role in imprint maintenance during early development rather than a post-transcriptional role for the RNA itself.
    Development 09/2011; 138(17):3667-78. · 6.60 Impact Factor
  • Michelle M Denomme, Liyue Zhang, Mellissa R W Mann
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether superovulation disrupts maternal imprint acquisition in oocytes. Animal model. Academic institute. Spontaneously ovulated and superovulated mice. Low and high hormone dosage treatments were administered to females, and ovulated metaphase II oocytes were collected. Imprinted DNA methylation was analyzed at Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, and H19 in individual oocytes. Examination of 125 individual oocytes derived from females subjected to low and high hormone treatments revealed normal imprinted methylation patterns that were comparable to oocytes derived from spontaneously ovulated females. Maternal imprint acquisition was not affected by superovulation. Given its aberrant effects during preimplantation development, superovulation must instead disrupt maternal-effect gene products that are required after fertilization for imprint maintenance. These results eliminate imprint acquisition per se as the initial stage of imprint loss and point to the importance of analyses on early embryos after procedures involving oocyte manipulation.
    Fertility and sterility 07/2011; 96(3):734-738.e2. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    M C Golding, M R W Mann
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    ABSTRACT: The two main challenges facing retroviral transgenesis are variable expression and epigenetic silencing. Although modern lentiviral vectors incorporate several elements to increase transgene expression and reduce position effect variegation and silencing, therapeutic research in stem cells, as well as production of transgenic animals, is still hampered by these two key problems. On the basis of recent studies demonstrating the chromatin insulating properties of divergent promoters, we sought to develop a bidirectional lentiviral vector with which to conduct RNA interference (RNAi)-based genetic screens in embryonic and extraembryonic stem cells. To this end, we designed and tested a series of synthetic bidirectional promoters, combining the mouse phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1) promoter with other strong mammalian and viral promoters. Here, we demonstrate that a back-to-back configuration of the mouse Pgk1 and human eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 promoters provided a substantive increase in both transgene expression and RNAi-based transcript depletion as compared with previous designs and other promoter combinations. Using this vector, we were able to achieve stable and robust depletion of a transfected luciferase reporter, as well as an endogenous non-coding RNA. The described constructs are an improved transgene delivery system capable of conducting RNAi screens in stem cells at single copy.
    Gene therapy 03/2011; 18(8):817-26. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are becoming increasingly prevalent and are generally considered to be safe medical procedures. However, evidence indicates that embryo culture may adversely affect the developmental potential and overall health of the embryo. One of the least studied but most important areas in this regard is the effects of embryo culture on epigenetic phenomena, and on genomic imprinting in particular, because assisted reproduction has been linked to development of the human imprinting disorders Angelman and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes. In this study, we performed side-by-side comparisons of five commercial embryo culture systems (KSOMaa, Global, Human Tubal Fluid, Preimplantation 1/Multiblast, and G1v5PLUS/G2v5PLUS) in relation to a best-case (in vivo-derived embryos) and a worst-case (Whitten culture) scenario. Imprinted DNA methylation and expression were examined at three well-studied loci, H19, Peg3, and Snrpn, in mouse embryos cultured from the 2-cell to the blastocyst stage. We show that embryo culture in all commercial media systems resulted in imprinted methylation loss compared to in vivo-derived embryos, although some media systems were able to maintain imprinted methylation levels more similar to those of in vivo-derived embryos in comparison to embryos cultured in Whitten medium. However, all media systems exhibited loss of imprinted H19 expression comparable to that using Whitten medium. Combined treatment of superovulation and embryo culture resulted in increased perturbation of genomic imprinting, above that from culture alone, indicating that multiple ART procedures further disrupt genomic imprinting. These results suggest that time in culture and number of ART procedures should be minimized to ensure fidelity of genomic imprinting during preimplantation development.
    Biology of Reproduction 12/2010; 83(6):938-50. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imprinted genes are expressed in a monoallelic, parent-of-origin-specific manner. Clusters of imprinted genes are regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs) characterized by DNA methylation of one allele. This methylation is critical for imprinting; a reduction in the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 causes a widespread loss of imprinting. To better understand the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of imprinting, we characterized the effects of Dnmt1 mutations on the expression of a panel of imprinted genes in the embryo and placenta. We found striking differences among imprinted domains. The Igf2 and Peg3 domains showed imprinting perturbations with both null and partial loss-of-function mutations, and both domains had pairs of coordinately regulated genes with opposite responses to loss of DNMT1 function, suggesting these domains employ similar regulatory mechanisms. Genes in the Kcnq1 domain were less sensitive to the absence of DNMT1. Cdkn1c exhibited imprinting perturbations only in null mutants, while Kcnq1 and Ascl2 were largely unaffected by a loss of DNMT1 function. These results emphasize the critical role for DNA methylation in imprinting and reveal the different ways it controls gene expression.
    Molecular and cellular biology 08/2010; 30(16):3916-28. · 6.06 Impact Factor
  • Michael C Golding, Liyue Zhang, Mellissa R W Mann
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    ABSTRACT: To prevent insertional mutagenesis arising from retroviral reactivation, cells of embryonic origin possess a unique capacity to silence retroviruses. Given the distinct modes of X chromosome inactivation between embryonic and extraembryonic lineages, we investigated paradigms of viral extinction. We show that trophectoderm stem cells do not silence retroviral transcription, whereas extraembryonic endoderm stem cells aggressively extinguish proviral transcription, even more rapidly than do embryonic stem cells. By using a short hairpin RNA library, we identified epigenetic modifiers of retroviral extinction in extraembryonic endoderm stem cells. Multiple chromatin remodeling and polycomb repressor complex proteins act to modulate integrated, as well as endogenous, retroviral element silencing, with a subset of factors displaying differential effects between stem cell types. Furthermore, our data suggest that small RNAs play a role in this process through interactions with the Argonaute family. Our results further the understanding of mechanisms regulating retroviral transcription in different stem cell lineages.
    Cell stem cell 05/2010; 6(5):457-67. · 23.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human developmental disorders caused by chromatin dysfunction often display overlapping clinical manifestations, such as cognitive deficits, but the underlying molecular links are poorly defined. Here, we show that ATRX, MeCP2, and cohesin, chromatin regulators implicated in ATR-X, RTT, and CdLS syndromes, respectively, interact in the brain and colocalize at the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) with preferential binding on the maternal allele. Importantly, we show that ATRX loss of function alters enrichment of cohesin, CTCF, and histone modifications at the H19 ICR, without affecting DNA methylation on the paternal allele. ATRX also affects cohesin, CTCF, and MeCP2 occupancy within the Gtl2/Dlk1 imprinted domain. Finally, we show that loss of ATRX interferes with the postnatal silencing of the maternal H19 gene along with a larger network of imprinted genes. We propose that ATRX, cohesin, and MeCP2 cooperate to silence a subset of imprinted genes in the postnatal mouse brain.
    Developmental Cell 02/2010; 18(2):191-202. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superovulation or ovarian stimulation is currently an indispensable assisted reproductive technology (ART) for human subfertility/infertility treatment. Recently, increased frequencies of imprinting disorders have been correlated with ARTs. Significantly, for Angelman and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndromes, patients have been identified where ovarian stimulation was the only procedure used by the couple undergoing ART. In many cases, increased risk of genomic imprinting disorders has been attributed to superovulation in combination with inherent subfertility. To distinguish between these contributing factors, carefully controlled experiments are required on spontaneously ovulated, in vivo-fertilized oocytes and their induced-ovulated counterparts, thereby minimizing effects of in vitro manipulations. To this end, effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting were evaluated in a mouse model, where subfertility is not a confounding issue. This work represents the first comprehensive examination of the overall effects of superovulation on imprinted DNA methylation for four imprinted genes in individual blastocyst stage embryos. We demonstrate that superovulation perturbed genomic imprinting of both maternally and paternally expressed genes; loss of Snrpn, Peg3 and Kcnq1ot1 and gain of H19 imprinted methylation were observed. This perturbation was dose-dependent, with aberrant imprinted methylation more frequent at the high hormone dosage. Superovulation is thought to primarily affect oocyte development; thus, effects were expected to be limited to maternal alleles. Our study revealed that maternal as well as paternal H19 methylation was perturbed by superovulation. We postulate that superovulation has dual effects during oogenesis, disrupting acquisition of imprints in growing oocytes, as well as maternal-effect gene products subsequently required for imprint maintenance during pre-implantation development.
    Human Molecular Genetics 10/2009; 19(1):36-51. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most mouse embryos developing in the absence of the oocyte-derived DNA methyltransferase 1o (DNMT1o-deficient embryos) have significant delays in development and a wide range of anatomical abnormalities. To understand the timing and molecular basis of such variation, we studied pre- and post-implantation DNA methylation as a gauge of epigenetic variation among these embryos. DNMT1o-deficient embryos showed extensive differences in the levels of methylation in differentially methylated domains (DMDs) of imprinted genes at the 8-cell stage. Because of independent assortment of the methylated and unmethylated chromatids created by the loss of DNMT1o, the deficient embryos were found to be mosaics of cells with different, but stable epigenotypes (DNA methylation patterns). Our results suggest that loss of DNMT1o in just one cell cycle is responsible for the extensive variation in the epigenotypes in both embryos and their associated extraembryonic tissues. Thus, the maternal-effect DNMT1o protein is uniquely poised during development to normally ensure uniform parental methylation patterns at DMDs.
    Developmental Biology 10/2008; 324(1):139-50. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic imprinting has dramatic effects on placental development, as has been clearly observed in interspecific hybrid, somatic cell nuclear transfer, and uniparental embryos. In fact, the earliest defects in uniparental embryos are evident first in the extraembryonic trophoblast. We performed a microarray comparison of gynogenetic and androgenetic mouse blastocysts, which are predisposed to placental pathologies, to identify imprinted genes. In addition to identifying a large number of known imprinted genes, we discovered that the Polycomb group (PcG) gene Sfmbt2 is imprinted. Sfmbt2 is expressed preferentially from the paternal allele in early embryos, and in later stage extraembryonic tissues. A CpG island spanning the transcriptional start site is differentially methylated on the maternal allele in e14.5 placenta. Sfmbt2 is located on proximal chromosome 2, in a region known to be imprinted, but for which no genes had been identified until now. This possibly identifies a new imprinted domain within the murine genome. We further demonstrate that murine SFMBT2 protein interacts with the transcription factor YY1, similar to the Drosophila PHO-RC.
    Gene Expression Patterns 02/2008; 8(2):107-16. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is necessary for the silencing of endogenous retrotransposons and the maintenance of monoallelic gene expression at imprinted loci and on the X chromosome. Dynamic changes in DNA methylation occur during the initial stages of primordial germ cell development; however, all consequences of this epigenetic reprogramming are not understood. DNA demethylation in postmigratory primordial germ cells coincides with erasure of genomic imprints and reactivation of the inactive X chromosome, as well as ongoing germ cell differentiation events. To investigate a possible role for DNA methylation changes in germ cell differentiation, we have studied several marker genes that initiate expression at this time. Here, we show that the postmigratory germ cell-specific genes Mvh, Dazl and Scp3 are demethylated in germ cells, but not in somatic cells. Premature loss of genomic methylation in Dnmt1 mutant embryos leads to early expression of these genes as well as GCNA1, a widely used germ cell marker. In addition, GCNA1 is ectopically expressed by somatic cells in Dnmt1 mutants. These results provide in vivo evidence that postmigratory germ cell-specific genes are silenced by DNA methylation in both premigratory germ cells and somatic cells. This is the first example of ectopic gene activation in Dnmt1 mutant mice and suggests that dynamic changes in DNA methylation regulate tissue-specific gene expression of a set of primordial germ cell-specific genes.
    Development 10/2006; 133(17):3411-8. · 6.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
228.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • • Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2010
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Cell and Development Biology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1999–2004
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • Med-Assist School of Hawaii
      • Department of Anatomy and Reproductive Biology
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1994–1995
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Cell and Systems Biology
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada