[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, several studies addresses the novel link between sleep and dopaminergic neurotransmission, focusing most closely on the mechanisms by which Parkinson's disease (PD) and sleep may be intertwined. Therefore, variations in the activity of afferents during the sleep cycles, either at the level of DA cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) or at the level of dopamine (DA) terminals in limbic areas may impact functions such as memory. Accordingly, we performed striatal and hippocampal neurochemical quantifications of DA, serotonin (5-HT) and metabolites of rats intraperitoneally treated with haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg) or piribedil (8 mg/kg) and submitted to REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) and sleep rebound (REB). Also, we evaluated the effects of REMSD on motor and cognitive parameters and SNpc c-Fos neuronal immunoreactivity. The results indicated that DA release was strongly enhanced by piribedil in the REMSD group. In opposite, haloperidol prevented that alteration. A c-Fos activation characteristic of REMSD was affected in a synergic manner by piribedil, indicating a strong positive correlation between striatal DA levels and nigral c-Fos activation. Hence, we suggest that memory process is severely impacted by both D2 blockade and REMSD and was even more by its combination. Conversely, the activation of D2 receptor counteracted such memory impairment. Therefore, the present evidence reinforce that the D2 receptor is a key player in the SNpc neuronal activation mediated by REMSD, as a consequence these changes may have direct impact for cognitive and sleep abnormalities found in patients with PD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a continuous process and might be implicated in the progression of neuronal degeneration. Taking this into account, we proposed a new protocol with multiple and consecutive intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration in order to analyze its effects on cognitive behavior. Additionally, striatal concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin and their respective metabolites were assessed in three different time-points with the purpose of identifying the consecutive and cumulative effects of LPS infusions. We demonstrated that with a minimum administered dose there was stabilization of neuronal damage as revealed by absence of synergic effect on DA concentration. Although the DA decrease (-40%) generates an animal model of early phase of PD, without apparent motor impairment, the LPS group exhibited deficit in episodic-like memory behavior from the first time-point until the last one, indicating persisted disturbances in memory-recognition responses. These findings provide evidence that multiple intranigral LPS infusions are not sufficient to cause cumulative and progressive damage to dopaminergic neurons, but confirm that the LPS model can be adopted as a useful tool providing insight about the cognitive impairment observed in pre-motor phase of PD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted an experiment in which hedonia, salience and prediction error hypotheses predicted different patterns of dopamine (DA) release in the striatum during learning of conditioned avoidance responses (CARs). The data strongly favor the latter hypothesis. It predicts that during learning of the 2-way active avoidance CAR task, positive prediction errors generated when rats do not receive an anticipated footshock (which is better than expected) cause DA release that reinforces the instrumental avoidance action. In vivo microdialysis in the rat striatum showed that extracellular DA concentration increased during early CAR learning and decreased throughout training returning to baseline once the response was well learned. In addition, avoidance learning was proportional to the degree of DA release. Critically, exposure of rats to the same stimuli but in an unpredictable, unavoidable, and inescapable manner, did not produce alterations from baseline DA levels as predicted by the prediction error but not hedonic or salience hypotheses. In addition, rats with a partial lesion of substantia nigra DA neurons, which did not show increased DA levels during learning, failed to learn this task. These data represent clear and unambiguous evidence that it was the factor positive prediction error, and not hedonia or salience, which caused increase in the tonic level of striatal DA and which reinforced learning of the instrumental avoidance response.
Behavioural brain research 07/2012; · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were the first antidepressant drugs to be prescribed and are still used today with great success, especially in patients resistant to other antidepressants. In this study, we evaluated the MAO inhibitory properties and the potential antidepressant action of 2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole (2-DMPI) in mice. We found that 2-DMPI inhibited both MAO isoforms (K(i) values were 1.53 (1.3-1.8) μM and 46.67 (31.8-68.4) μM for MAO-A and MAO-B, respectively) with 30-fold higher selectivity toward MAO-A. In relation to the nature of MAO-A inhibition, 2-DMPI showed to be a mixed and reversible inhibitor. The treatment with 2-DMPI (100-1000 μmol/kg, s.c.) caused a significant decrease in immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST) without affecting locomotor activity, motor coordination or anxiety-related activities. Conversely, moclobemide (1000 μmol/kg, s.c.) caused a significant increase in immobility time in the TST, which appeared to be mediated by a nonspecific effect on motor coordination function. 2-DMPI (300 μmol/kg, s.c.) decreased serotonin turnover in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, whereas dopamine turnover was diminished only in the striatum, and norepinephrine turnover was not changed. The antidepressant-like effect of 2-DMPI was inhibited by the pretreatment of mice with methysergide (2 mg/kg, s.c., a non-selective serotonin receptor antagonist), WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) or haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist). These results suggest that 2-DMPI is a prototype reversible and preferential MAO-A inhibitor with potential antidepressant activity, due to its modulatory effect on serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2012; 39(1):31-9. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotenone exposure in rodents provides an interesting model for studying mechanisms of toxin-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury. However, several aspects remain unclear regarding the effects and the accuracy of rotenone as an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to counteract these limitations, this study characterized a precise neurotoxin-delivery strategy employing the bilateral intranigral administration protocol of rotenone as a reliable model of PD. We performed bilateral intranigral injections of rotenone (12 μg) and subsequent general activity (1, 10, 20, and 30 days after rotenone) and cognitive (7, 8, 15, and 30 days after rotenone) evaluations followed by neurochemical and immunohistochemical tests. We have observed that rotenone was able to produce a remarkable reduction on the percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons (about 60%) within the substantia nigra pars compacta. Dopamine (DA) was severely depleted at 30 days after rotenone administration, similarly to its metabolites. In addition, an increase in DA turnover was detected at the same time-point. In parallel, striatal serotonin and its metabolite were found to be increased 30 days after the neurotoxic insult, without apparent modification in the serotonin turnover. Besides, motor behavior was impaired, mainly 1 day after rotenone. Furthermore, learning and memory processes were severely disrupted in different time-points, particularly at the training and test session (30 days). We now provide further evidence of a time-dependent neurodegeneration associated to cognitive impairment after the single bilateral intranigral administration of rotenone. Thus, it is proposed that the current rotenone protocol provides an improvement regarding the existing rotenone models of PD.
Neurotoxicity Research 09/2011; 21(3):291-301. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Motor impairments of Parkinson's disease (PD) appear only after the loss of more than 70% of the DAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). An earlier phase of this disease can be modeled in rats that received a unilateral infusion of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine (MPTP) into the SNc. Though these animals do not present gross motor impairments, they rotate towards the lesioned side when challenged with DAergic drugs, like amphetamine and apomorphine. The present study aimed to test whether these effects occur because the drugs disrupt compensatory mechanisms that keep extracellular levels of dopamine in the striatum (DA(E)) unchanged. This hypothesis was tested by an in vivo microdialysis study in awake rats with two probes implanted in the right and left striatum. Undrugged rats did not present turning behaviour and their basal DA(E) did not differ between the lesioned and sham-lesioned sides. However, after apomorphine treatment, DA(E) decreased in both sides, but to a larger extent in the lesioned side at the time the animals started ipsiversive turning behaviour. After amphetamine challenge, DA(E) increased in both sides, becoming significantly higher in the non-lesioned side at the time the animals started ipsiversive turning behaviour. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that absence of gross motor impairments in this rat model of early phase PD depends on maintenance of extracellular DA by mechanisms that may be disrupted by events demanding its alteration to higher or lower levels.
Behavioural brain research 12/2010; 215(1):63-70. · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current investigation compared intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) administrations, in the light of neurochemical, behavioral and endogenous antioxidant glutathione alterations. All the results were collected 1, 3 and 7 days after the lesions. LPS produced a delayed reduction of striatal dopamine, whereas homovanillic acid was drastically increased at the first time-point. Comparatively, MPTP promoted dopamine reduction 3 and 7 days with increase of homovanillic acid. Whilst, 6-OHDA generated initial increase of dopamine and homovanillic acid followed by subsequent decrease of this neurotransmitter accompanied by reductions of dopamine metabolites at the same periods. Furthermore, nigral glutathione demonstrated to be a far more sensitive target for LPS than for MPTP or 6-OHDA. Behavioral data indicated impairments induced by MPTP, 6-OHDA but not LPS. In conclusion, it is suggested that intranigral LPS can provide new insights about neuroinflammation, simulating features of the pre-motor phase of Parkinson's disease.
Neurochemical Research 10/2010; 35(10):1620-7. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) targets nuclei in the basal ganglia, including the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), in which neuronal loss occurs in Parkinson's disease, a condition in which patients show cognitive as well as motor disturbances. Partial loss and functional abnormalities of neurons in the PPTg are also associated with Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that the interaction of PPTg and SNc might be important for cognitive impairments and so investigated whether disrupting the connections between the PPTg and SNc impaired learning of a conditioned avoidance response (CAR) by male Wistar rats. The following groups were tested: PPTg unilateral; SNc unilateral; PPTg-SNc ipsilateral (ipsilateral lesions in PPTg and SNc); PPTg-SNc contralateral (contralateral lesions in PPTg and SNc); sham lesions (of each type). SNc lesions were made with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine HCl (MPTP, 0.6micromol); PPTg lesions with ibotenate (24nmol). After recovery, all rats underwent 50-trial sessions of 2-way active avoidance conditioning for 3 consecutive days. Rats with unilateral lesions in PPTg or SNc learnt this, however rats with contralateral (but not ipsilateral) combined lesions in both structures presented no sign of learning. This effect was not likely to be due to sensorimotor impairment because lesions did not affect reaction time to the tone or footshock during conditioning. However, an increased number of non-responses were observed in the rats with contralateral lesions. The results support the hypothesis that a functional interaction between PPTg and SNc is needed for CAR learning and performance.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 09/2010; 94(2):229-39. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is a frequently encountered non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it can have a significant impact on patient's quality of life. Considering the differential pathophysiology of depression in PD, it prompts the idea that a degenerated nigrostriatal system plays a role in depressive-like behaviors, whilst animal models of PD are employed. Therefore, we addressed the question of whether dopamine (DA) depletion, promoted by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and rotenone are able to induce depressive-like behaviors and neurotransmitters alterations similarly that encountered in PD. To test this rationale, we performed intranigral injections of each neurotoxin, followed by motor behavior, depressive-like behaviors, histological and neurochemical tests. After the motor recovery period, MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone were able to produce anhedonia and behavioral despair. These altered behavioral responses were accompanied by reductions of striatal DA, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) restricted to the 6-OHDA group. Additionally, decreases on the hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) content were detected for the MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone groups. Notably, strong correlations were detected among the groups when 5-HT and DA were correlated with swimming (r=+0.97; P=0.001) and immobility (r=-0.90; P=0.012), respectively. Our data indicate that MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone, but not LPS were able to produce depressive-like behaviors accompanied primarily by hippocampal 5-HT reductions. Moreover, DA and 5-HT strongly correlated with "emotional" impairments suggesting an important participation of these neurotransmitters in anhedonia and behavioral despair after nigral lesions promoted by the neurotoxins.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 08/2010; 34(6):1104-14. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previous study from our laboratory revealed that moderate nigral dopaminergic degeneration caused emotional and cognitive deficits in rats, paralleling early signs of Parkinson's disease. Recent evidence suggests that the blockade of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors might be beneficial to alleviate motor inhibition typical of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated whether antagonism of CB(1) receptors would improve emotional and cognitive deficits in a rat model of premotor Parkinson's disease. Depression-like behavior and cognition were assessed with the forced swim test and the social recognition test, respectively. Confirming our previous study, rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine in striatum presented emotional and cognitive alterations which were improved by acute injection of SR141716A. HPLC analysis of monoamine levels demonstrated alterations in the striatum and prefrontal cortex after SR141716A injection. These findings suggest a role for CB(1) receptors in the early symptoms caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum, as observed in Parkinson's disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that sodium fluoride (NaF) can impair performance in some memory tasks, such as open-field habituation and two-way active avoidance. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of NaF intake (100 ppm in drinking water for 30 days) and its short-term (15 days) withdrawal on open-field habituation and brain monoamine level. Adult male rats were allocated to three groups: tap water (NaF 1.54 ppm) for 45 days (control group); 15 days of tap water followed by NaF for 30 days; and NaF for 30 days followed by 15 days of tap water. The results showed that NaF impairs open-field habituation and increases noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the striatum, hippocampus and neocortex. Dopamine (DA) increase was restricted to the striatum. Short-term NaF withdrawal did not reverse these NaF-induced changes, and both NaF treatments led to a mild fluorosis in rat incisors. No treatment effect was seen in body weight or fluid/water consumption. These results indicate that sodium fluoride induces memory impairment that outlasts short-term NaF withdrawal (2 weeks) and may be associated with NA and 5-HT increases in discrete brain regions.
Neurotoxicity Research 12/2009; 19(1):55-62. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles of the nigrostriatal pathway are far beyond the simple control of motor functions. The tonic release of dopamine in the dorsal and ventral striatum controls the choice of proper actions toward a given environmental situation. In the striatum, a specific action is triggered by a specific stimulus associated with it. When the subject faces a novel and salient stimulus, the phasic release of dopamine allows synaptic plasticity in the cortico-striatal synapses. Neurons of different regions of cortical areas make synapses that converge to the same medium spine neurons of the striatum. The convergent associations form functional units encoding body parts, objects, locations, and symbolic representations of the subject's world. Such units emerge in the striatum in a repetitive manner, like a mosaic of broken mirrors. The phasic release of dopamine allows the association of units to encode an action of the subject directed to an object or location with the outcome of this action. Reinforced stimulus-action-outcome associations will affect future decision making when the same stimulus (object, location, idea) is presented to the subject in the future. In the absence of a minimal amount of striatal dopamine, no action is initiated as seen in Parkinson's disease subjects. The abnormal and improper association of these units leads to the initiation of unpurposeful and sometimes repetitive actions, as those observed in dyskinetic patients. The association of an excessive reinforcement of some actions, like drug consumption, leads to drug addiction. Improper associations of ideas and unpleasant outcomes may be related to traumatic and depressive symptoms common in many diseases, including Parkinson's disease. The same can be said about the learning and memory impairments observed in demented and nondemented Parkinson's disease patients.
Journal of neural transmission. Supplementum 01/2009; · 1.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) are yet to be understood. We examined the behavioral, immunohistochemical, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and neurochemical parameters after an intranigral administration of L-DOPA (10 microM) in rats. L-DOPA elicited a 30.5% reduction in dopaminergic neurons, while 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (100 microg microL(-1)) produced a 53.6% reduction. A combined infusion of MPTP and L-DOPA generated a 42% reduction of nigral neurons. Motor parameters revealed that both the MPTP and L-DOPA groups presented impairments; however, the concomitant administration evoked a partial restorative effect. In addition, MPTP and L-DOPA separately induced reductions of TH protein expression within the substantia nigra. In contrast, the coadministration of MPTP and L-DOPA did not demonstrate such difference. The striatal levels of dopamine were reduced after MPTP or L-DOPA, with an increased turnover only for the MPTP group. In view of such results, it seems reasonable to suggest that L-DOPA could potentially produce dopaminergic neurotoxicity.
Journal of neural transmission. Supplementum 01/2009; · 1.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) are yet to be understood. We examined
the behavioral, immunohistochemical, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and neurochemical parameters after an intranigral
administration of L-DOPA (10 μM) in rats.. L-DOPA elicited a 30.5% reduction in dopaminergic neurons, while 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
(MPTP) (100 μg μL−1) produced a 53.6% reduction. A combined infusion of MPTP and L-DOPA generated a 42% reduction of nigral neurons. Motor parameters
revealed that both the MPTP and L-DOPA groups presented impairments; however, the concomitant administration evoked a partial
restorative effect. In addition, MPTP and L-DOPA separately induced reductions of TH protein expression within the substantia
nigra. In contrast, the coadministration of MPTP and L-DOPA did not demonstrate such difference. The striatal levels of dopamine
were reduced after MPTP or L-DOPA, with an increased turnover only for the MPTP group. In view of such results, it seems reasonable
to suggest that L-DOPA could potentially produce dopaminergic neurotoxicity.
KeywordsAnimal model–L-DOPA–MPTP–Neurotoxicity–Parkinson’s disease–Tyrosine hydroxylase
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present review we propose a model to explain the role of the basal ganglia in sensorimotor and cognitive functions based on a growing body of behavioural, anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical evidence accumulated over the last decades. This model proposes that the body and its surrounding environment are represented in the striatum in a fragmented and repeated way, like a mosaic consisting of the fragmented images of broken mirrors. Each fragment forms a functional unit representing articulated parts of the body with motion properties, objects of the environment which the subject can approach or manipulate, and locations the subject can move to. These units integrate the sensory properties and movements related to them. The repeated and widespread distribution of such units amplifies the combinatorial power of the associations among them. These associations depend on the phasic release of dopamine in the striatum triggered by the saliency of stimuli and will be reinforced by the rewarding consequences of the actions related to them. Dopamine permits synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal synapses. The striatal units encoding the same stimulus/action send convergent projections to the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) that stimulate or hold the action through a thalamus-frontal cortex pathway. According to this model, this is how the basal ganglia select actions based on environmental stimuli and store adaptive associations as nondeclarative memories such as motor skills, habits, and memories formed by Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning.
Behavioural brain research 11/2008; 199(1):157-70. · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to classic motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by cognitive and emotional deficits, which have been demonstrated to precede motor impairments. The present study addresses the question of whether a partial degeneration of dopaminergic neurons using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats is able to induce premotor behavioral signs. The time-course of nigrostriatal damage was evaluated by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-HT in various brain regions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Behavioral tests that assessed a variety of psychological functions, including locomotor activity, emotional reactivity and depression, anxiety and memory were conducted on 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Bilateral infusion of 6-OHDA in the striatum of rats caused early (1 week) damage of dopaminergic terminals in striatum and in cell bodies in substantia nigra pars compacta. The nigrostriatal lesion was accompanied by early loss of dopamine in the striatum, which remained stable through a 3-week period of observation. In addition, a late (3 weeks) loss of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus, was seen. Additional noradrenergic and serotonergic alterations were observed after 6-OHDA administration. The results indicated that 6-OHDA lesioned rats show decreased sucrose consumption and an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test, an anhedonic-depressive-like effect. In addition, an anxiogenic-like activity in the elevated plus maze test and cognitive impairments were observed on the cued version of the Morris water maze and social recognition tests. These findings suggest that partial striatal dopaminergic degeneration and parallel dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic alterations in striatum and prefrontal cortex may have caused the emotional and cognitive deficits observed in this rat model of early phase PD.