[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study mood and behavioral effects of unilateral and staged bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD).
There are numerous reports of mood changes following DBS, however, most have focused on bilateral simultaneous STN implants with rapid and aggressive post-operative medication reduction.
A standardized evaluation was applied to a subset of patients undergoing STN and GPi DBS and who were also enrolled in the NIH COMPARE study. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), the Hamilton depression (HAM-D) and anxiety rating scales (HAM-A), the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive rating scale (YBOCS), the Apathy Scale (AS), and the Young mania rating scale (YMRS) were used. The scales were repeated at acute and chronic intervals. A post-operative strategy of non-aggressive medication reduction was employed.
Thirty patients were randomized and underwent unilateral DBS (16 STN, 14 GPi). There were no baseline differences. The GPi group had a higher mean dopaminergic dosage at 1-year, however the between group difference in changes from baseline to 1-year was not significant. There were no differences between groups in mood and motor outcomes. When combining STN and GPi groups, the HAM-A scores worsened at 2-months, 4-months, 6-months and 1-year when compared with baseline; the HAM-D and YMRS scores worsened at 4-months, 6-months and 1-year; and the UPDRS Motor scores improved at 4-months and 1-year. Psychiatric diagnoses (DSM-IV) did not change. No between group differences were observed in the cohort of bilateral cases.
There were few changes in mood and behavior with STN or GPi DBS. The approach of staging STN or GPi DBS without aggressive medication reduction could be a viable option for managing PD surgical candidates. A study of bilateral DBS and of medication reduction will be required to better understand risks and benefits of a bilateral approach.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114140. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114140 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective target regions for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been well characterized. We sought to study whether the measured Cartesian coordinates of an implanted DBS lead are predictive of motor outcome(s). We tested the hypothesis that the position and trajectory of the DBS lead relative to the mid-commissural point (MCP) are significant predictors of clinical outcomes. We expected that due to neuroanatomical variation among individuals, a simple measure of the position of the DBS lead relative to MCP (commonly used in clinical practice) may not be a reliable predictor of clinical outcomes when utilized alone.
55 PD subjects implanted with subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS and 41 subjects implanted with globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS were included. Lead locations in AC-PC space (x, y, z coordinates of the active contact and sagittal and coronal entry angles) measured on high-resolution CT-MRI fused images, and motor outcomes (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) were analyzed to confirm or refute a correlation between coordinate-based lead locations and DBS motor outcomes.
Coordinate-based lead locations were not a significant predictor of change in UPDRS III motor scores when comparing pre- versus post-operative values. The only potentially significant individual predictor of change in UPDRS motor scores was the antero-posterior coordinate of the GPi lead (more anterior lead locations resulted in a worse outcome), but this was only a statistical trend (p<.082).
The results of the study showed that a simple measure of the position of the DBS lead relative to the MCP is not significantly correlated with PD motor outcomes, presumably because this method fails to account for individual neuroanatomical variability. However, there is broad agreement that motor outcomes depend strongly on lead location. The results suggest the need for more detailed identification of stimulation location relative to anatomical targets.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93524. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093524 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. Health comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular risk factors, are well known to pose risks for cognitive decline in older adults. To date, little attention has focused on the impact of these comorbidities on Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examined the prevalence and contribution of comorbidities on cognitive status in PD patients, above and beyond the effects of disease severity. Methods. A cross sectional design was used, including neuropsychological data on 341 PD patients without severe cognitive decline. Comorbidity data were collected via medical chart review. Data were analyzed using a series of multiple hierarchical regressions, controlling for PD-related disease variables. Results. Overall sample characteristics are 69% male, disease duration 9.7 years, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale 26.4, and age 64.7 years. Hypercholesterolemia (41.6%), hypertension (38.1%), and hypotension (30.2%) were the most reported comorbidities. The presence of hypertension significantly contributed to domains of executive function and verbal memory. The cooccurrence of orthostatic hypotension moderated the relationship between hypertension and executive function. Conclusions. This study on a large cohort of PD patients provides evidence for a detrimental influence of health comorbidities, particularly hypertension, on cognitive domains that have traditionally been conceptualized as being frontally and/or temporally mediated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ObjectDespite numerous reports on the morbidity and mortality of deep brain stimulation (DBS), cerebral venous infarction has rarely been reported. We present four cases of venous infarct secondary to DBS surgery. Methods
The diagnosis of venous infarction was based on 1) delayed onset of new neurologic deficits on postoperative day 1 or 2; 2) significant edema surrounding the superficial aspect of the implanted lead, with or without subcortical hemorrhage on CT scan. ResultsFour cases (0.8% per lead, 1.3% per patient) of symptomatic cerebral venous infarction were identified out of 500 DBS lead implantation procedures between July 2002 and August 2009. All four patients had Parkinson's disease. Their DBS leads were implanted in the subthalamic nucleus (n = 2), and the globus pallidus internus (n = 2). Retrospective review of the targeting confirmed that the planned trajectory passed within 3mm of a cortical vein in two cases for which contrast-enhanced preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was available. In the other two cases, contrasted targeting images were not obtained preoperatively. Conclusion
Cerebral venous infarction is a potentially avoidable, but serious complication. To minimize its incidence, we propose the use of high-resolution, contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted MR images to delineate cerebral venous anatomy, along with careful stereotactic planning of the lead trajectory to avoid injury to venous structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sinemet, a combination drug containing carbidopa and levodopa is considered the gold standard therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). When approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1988, a maximum daily dosage limit of 800 mg (eight tablets) of the 25/100 carbidopa/levodopa formulation was introduced. Overall, the FDA approval was a historic success; however, the pill limit has been hardcoded into many online medical record systems. This study investigates the 800 mg threshold by using a prospectively collected database of patient information.
A retrospective cohort study: (Part I) cross-sectional, (Part II) longitudinal.
PD patients at a Movement Disorders Center in a large academic, tertiary medical setting.
An analysis was performed using carbidopa/levodopa at dosages below and above the 800 mg threshold. A secondary analysis was then performed using two consecutive clinic visits to determine the effects of crossing the 800 mg threshold. Comparisons were made on standardised scales.
There was no significant difference in motor, mood and quality-of-life scores in patients consuming below and above the 800 mg carbidopa/levodopa threshold, though a mild worsening in dyskinesia duration was noted without worsening in dyskinesia pain and disability. In PD patients who crossed the 800 mg threshold between two consecutive clinic visits, a significant improvement in depressive symptoms and quality-of-life measures was demonstrated, and in these patients there was no worsening of motor fluctuations or dyskinesia.
The data suggest that PD patients have the potential for enhanced clinical benefits when eclipsing the 800 mg carbidopa/levodopa threshold. Many patients will likely need to eclipse the 800 mg threshold and pharmacies and insurance companies should be aware of the requirements that may extend beyond approval limits.
BMJ Open 10/2012; 2(6). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001971 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gait performance is widely evaluated to assess health status in older adult populations. While several investigators have presented normative values for spatiotemporal gait parameters drawn from older adult populations, the literature has been void of large-scale cohort studies, which are needed in order to provide quantitative, normative gait data in persons with Parkinson's disease. The aim of this investigation was to provide reference values for clinically important gait characteristics in a large sample of ambulatory persons with Parkinson's disease to aid both clinicians and researchers in their evaluations and treatments of gait impairment.
Gait performance was collected in 310 individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease as they walked across a pressure sensitive walkway. Fourteen quantitative gait parameters were measured and evaluated with respect to Hoehn and Yahr disease staging and gender. Disease duration and age were controlled for in all analyses. Individuals with the greatest Parkinson's disability walked significantly slower with shorter steps and stride lengths than the mild and moderately affected groups. Further, the most affected patients spent more time with both feet on the ground, and walked with a wider base of support than the moderately disabled patients. No differences were detected between the mild and moderate disability groups on any of the gait parameters evaluated.
Reference values for 14 gait parameters in a large cohort of ambulatory patients with Parkinson's disease are provided and these may be highly useful for assessing and interpreting an individual's gait dysfunction. It is important for clinicians and researchers to appreciate the lack of change in quantitative parameters as PD patients move from mild to moderate gait impairment.
PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(8):e42337. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042337 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Many essential tremor patients continue to require tremor suppressing medications following deep brain stimulation. The true incidence of medication usage in the years following surgery remains unclear, and the use of medications has not been included in the post-operative analyses of tremor severity and also quality of life.
Among 28 essential tremor patients treated with deep brain stimulation at a single center between January 2002 and April 2010, we analyzed the prevalence and dosage of pre-operative tremor suppressing medications versus post-operative medications at 12 and 36 months following surgery. We also assessed the influence of medication continuation on clinical outcome measures, such as the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale, and the 36 item short-form health quality of life survey.
Both unilateral and bilateral deep brain stimulation resulted in a decrease in primidone use (p = 0.0082, 0.046, respectively), and bilateral deep brain stimulation patients used less tremor suppressing medications 36 months following surgery (p = 0.02). The decision to discontinue primidone after surgery resulted in a non-significant long-term improvement in tremor motor score (23 points versus 15 points, p = 0.19), and did not significantly influence the physical and mental composite quality of life scores (p = 0.81, 0.23, respectively).
Bilateral deep brain stimulation effectively eliminated the need for tremor suppressing medications, while unilateral stimulation was not as effective in reducing medication usage. Clinicians and patients should be aware that discontinuation of primidone after surgery may worsen tremor in unilateral deep brain stimulation cases, but discontinuation will not likely impact quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To screen for potentially underreported behavioral changes in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) pre- and post-deep brain stimulation (DBS), a retrospective data base review was performed.
Methods: In total, 113 patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral DBS at the University of Florida in either subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus internus for PD were screened for behavioral issues by asking about the presence or absence of seven neuropsychiatric symptoms (panic, fear, paranoia, anger, suicidal flashes, crying, and laughing).
Results: There was a high prevalence of fear (16.3%), panic (14.0%), and anger (11.6%) at baseline in this cohort. In the first six months following DBS implantation, anger (32.6%), fear (26.7%), and uncontrollable crying (26.7%) were the most frequent symptoms reported. Those symptoms also were present following six months of DBS surgery (30.2%, 29.1%, and 19.8%, respectively). New uncontrollable crying occurred more in the acute postoperative stage (less than or equal to six months) (p= 0.033), while new anger occurred more in the chronic postoperative stage (greater than six months) (p= 0.017). The frequency of uncontrollable laughing significantly increased with bilateral DBS (p= 0.033).
Conclusions: Many of the neuropsychiatric issues were identified at preoperative baseline and their overall occurrence was more than expected. There was a potential for worsening of these issues post-DBS. There were subtle differences in time course, and in unilateral vs. bilateral implantations. Clinicians should be aware of these potential behavioral issues that may emerge following DBS therapy, and should consider including screening questions in preoperative and postoperative interviews. Standardized scales may miss the presence or absence of these clinically relevant issues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatigue is a common and disabling nonmotor symptom seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). While deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS) improves motor symptoms, it has also been associated with non-motor side effects. To date no study has utilized standardized instruments to evaluate fatigue following DBS surgery. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of fatigue following DBS surgery in PD its impact on quality of life and explore predictive factors. We recruited 44 PD subjects. At least one year following DBS placement, we administered the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the UPDRS, and a neuropsychological battery. Fifty-eight percent of subjects had moderate to severe fatigue. Fatigue was significantly associated with quality of life, depression, and anxiety. Depression preoperatively was the only predictive factor of fatigue. Fatigue is common following DBS surgery and significantly impacts quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare subthalamic nucleus (STN) to globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for control of motor fluctuations and for potential dyskinesia-suppressing qualities.
We conducted a retrospective database review of all patients who underwent GPi or STN DBS for idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Direct dyskinesia suppression (dDS) was defined as improvement in dyskinesia subscore of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) part IV (items 32-34), despite lack of reduction in dopaminergic medication dosage. We analyzed the data using methods appropriate for a case-control study.
A total of 133 patients were evaluated. At the last evaluation Dyskinesia scores and motor fluctuations significantly improved in both the GPi (p < 0.0001) and STN groups (p < 0.0001). The GPi group was more likely than the STN group to experience dDS (odds ratio = 1.95, 95% CI = 0.556, 3.21). However, the association between DBS target and dDS was not statistically significant (Pearson chi-square = 2.286, p = 0.131).
The overall clinical outcome of STN and GPi DBS for control of dyskinesia and motor fluctuations was similar. STN and GPi DBS both had some direct dyskinesia suppression effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major concern regarding ventralis intermedius nucleus deep brain stimulation for essential tremor has been the loss of surgical efficacy over time in a minority of patients. Some experts have ascribed the worsening tremor to tolerance, while other evidence has suggested that disease progression may play a role. Suboptimal lead placement has also been reported to be a factor in worsening tremor following deep-brain stimulation; however, most authors consider this phenomenon to manifest within a few months of the actual surgery. We aimed to dissect the tolerance versus disease progression issue by analysing preoperative versus long-term post-surgical Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale scores both on and off stimulation among 28 patients who underwent ventralis intermedius nucleus deep brain stimulation and 21 age-matched controls. Of the 28 patients in the treatment arm of the cohort, seven (25%) demonstrated evidence of tremor progression, and had a 34% increase in the tremor score off stimulation at the 36 month follow-up compared with a 32% increase among controls (P = 0.67). In one of the seven patients there was evidence of suboptimal lead placement given the lateral position of the lead, and the motor side effects during threshold testing. This patient demonstrated a loss of stimulation benefit between 24 and 36 months, which may have been more indicative of tolerance. The other six subjects (86%) maintained stimulation benefit throughout the follow-up period, despite worsening tremor off stimulation (at a comparable rate to that of controls), making disease progression the most likely explanation. The data suggest that deep brain stimulation tolerance may be over-reported in the literature, and that a tolerance versus disease progression work-up should include: examining the trend in off stimulation scores, accounting for image based lead locations, and during programming sessions checking for thresholds which may elicit clinical benefits and side effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been observed that low-frequency stimulation (LFS) may be effective for dystonia, and the use of LFS may alleviate the need for frequent battery changes in a subset of patients. The aim of this study was to analyze LFS as a strategy to treat deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients with various dystonias.
Subjects had to receive a minimum of 6 months of clinical follow-up at the University of Florida, and were required to have a minimum of 3 months on a LFS trial. Twenty-seven dystonia DBS patients were retrospectively analyzed from the UF-INFORM database.
Thirteen subjects met inclusion criteria. Of the 13 subjects, all had bilateral internal pallidum (GPi) DBS, and five (38.5%) remained with at least one side on LFS settings at their last follow up (average follow up 24 months, range 6-46 months). Within the first 6 months, six (46%) subjects remained on LFS and seven (54%) were changed to high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Those who remained on LFS settings at 6 months were characterized by shorter disease durations than those on HFS settings. There were no significant differences in dystonia severity (Unified Dystonia Rating Scale and Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale) at baseline between the two settings. The estimated battery life for LFS (79.9±30.5) was significantly longer than for HFS settings (32.2±13.1, p<0.001).
LFS was ultimately chosen for 38.5% of all subjects. Although this study failed to yield solid predictive features, subjects on LFS tended to have shorter disease durations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) are important behavioral problems that affect a subpopulation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and typically result in markedly diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. We aimed to investigate the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on ICD/DDS frequency and dopaminergic medication usage.
A retrospective chart review was performed on 159 individuals who underwent unilateral or bilateral PD DBS surgery in either STN or GPi. According to published criteria, pre- and post-operative records were reviewed to categorize patients both pre- and post-operatively as having ICD, DDS, both ICD and DDS, or neither ICD nor DDS. Group differences in patient demographics, clinical presentations, levodopa equivalent dose (LED), and change in diagnosis following unilateral/bilateral by brain target (STN or GPi DBS placement) were examined.
28 patients met diagnostic criteria for ICD or DDS pre- or post-operatively. ICD or DDS classification did not differ by GPi or STN target stimulation. There was no change in DDS diagnosis after unilateral or bilateral stimulation. For ICD, diagnosis resolved in 2 of 7 individuals after unilateral or bilateral DBS. Post-operative development of these syndromes was significant; 17 patients developed ICD diagnoses post-operatively with 2 patients with pre-operative ICD developing DDS post-operatively.
Unilateral or bilateral DBS did not significantly treat DDS or ICD in our sample, even though a few cases of ICD resolved post-operatively. Rather, our study provides preliminary evidence that DDS and ICD diagnoses may emerge following DBS surgery.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29768. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029768 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) management has traditionally focused largely on motor symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) are effective treatments for motor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) may also profoundly affect the quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate NMS changes pre- and post-DBS utilizing two recently developed questionnaires. Methods. NMS-Q (questionnaire) and NMS-S (scale) were administered to PD patients before/after unilateral DBS (STN/GPi targets). Results. Ten PD patients (9 STN implants, 1 GPi implant) were included. The three most frequent NMS symptoms identified utilizing NMS-Q in pre-surgical patients were gastrointestinal (100%), sleep (100%), and urinary (90%). NMS sleep subscore significantly decreased (-1.6 points ± 1.8, P = 0.03). The three most frequent NMS symptoms identified in pre-surgical patients using NMS-S were gastrointestinal (90%), mood (80%), and cardiovascular (80%). The largest mean decrease of NMS scores was seen in miscellaneous symptoms (pain, anosmia, weight change, and sweating) (-7 points ± 8.7), and cardiovascular/falls (-1.9, P = 0.02). Conclusion. Non-motor symptoms improved on two separate questionnaires following unilateral DBS for PD. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine their clinical significance as well as to examine the strengths/weaknesses of each questionnaire/scale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory dyskinesia is a rare but disabling complication of levodopa therapy for Parkinson disease; however, its treatment has been limited to medication optimization.
A 72-year-old woman with a 6-year history of Parkinson disease presented with severe and debilitating levodopa-induced respiratory dyskinesia, which manifested with a short and shallow breathing pattern and panting. These symptoms were observed coincident with limb and truncal dyskinesias. Both respiratory and limb/trunk dyskinesias were addressed by the implantation of a unilateral globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulator (GPi-DBS).
Although the mechanism of involvement of the respiratory system in dyskinesia is unknown, GPi-DBS seems to be a potentially viable treatment option for these patients.
The Neurologist 09/2011; 17(5):282-5. DOI:10.1097/NRL.0b013e318217367b · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candidacy for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) is typically assessed by the preoperative motor response to levodopa along with an interdisciplinary evaluation. However, recent cases treated at our institution have achieved good outcomes with DBS despite a sub-30% improvement in motor scores. The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes of DBS in a subset of patients who failed to reach the 30% motor improvement threshold.
A review of all DBS patients treated at the University of Florida Movement Disorders Center between 2002 and 2009 was performed utilizing a DBS database. All patients with sub-30% improvement in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale Part III after dopaminergic medication administration were included.
Nine patients were identified; DBS was performed for severe dyskinesia (n=5), "on/off motor" fluctuations (n=1) and medication-refractory tremor (n=3). The target symptoms were improved in all patients. Postoperatively, scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale Part II and III and subscores on Parkinson disease questionnaire-39 improved (P<0.05).
Although motor response to levodopa remains the primary selection criteria for DBS candidacy in Parkinson disease, patients who do not meet the 30% threshold and have disabling symptoms may still benefit from DBS. Select patients with severe dyskinesia, "on/off" motor fluctuations, and/or medication-refractory tremor may experience significant benefits from DBS and should be considered on a case by case basis through an interdisciplinary team evaluation.
The Neurologist 09/2011; 17(5):263-8. DOI:10.1097/NRL.0b013e31822d1069 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Researchers have consistently observed in right-handed individuals across normal and disease states that the 'dominant' left hemisphere has greater ipsilateral control of the left side than the right hemisphere has over the right. We sought to determine whether this ipsilateral influence of the dominant hemisphere reported in Parkinson's disease extends to treatments such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and whether it affects outcome. We hypothesised that among Parkinson right-handers, unilateral left DBS would provide greater ipsilateral motor improvement compared with the ipsilateral motor improvement experienced on the right side.
A total of 73 Parkinson patients who underwent unilateral DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus palidus internus (GPi) participated. Left and right 'composite scores', were computed by separately adding all items on the left and right side from the motor section of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. The change in the pre- and 4-month post-implantation score was the primary outcome measure. The mean motor scores improved by 4.96 ± 11.79 points (p < 0.001) post-surgery on the ipsilateral side of the DBS implantation. Regression analyses revealed that the side (left vs. right) and target (STN vs. GPi) did not significantly contribute in the effect of ipsilateral motor improvement (p = 0.3557).
While DBS on the 'dominant' left side failed to exert a greater ipsilateral influence compared with DBS on the non-dominant right side, significant ipsilateral motor improvements were observed after unilateral stimulation regardless of site of implantation and laterality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) may be more debilitating than motor symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and corecognition of NMS among our advanced PD cohort (patients considered for deep brain stimulation (DBS)) and caregivers.
Methods. NMS-Questionnaire (NMS-Q), a self-administered screening questionnaire, and NMS Assessment-Scale (NMS-S), a clinician-administered scale, were administered to PD patients and caregivers. Results. We enrolled 33 PD patients (23 males, 10 females) and caregivers. The most frequent NMS among patients using NMS-Q were gastrointestinal (87.9%), sleep (84.9%), and urinary (72.7%), while the most frequent symptoms using NMS-S were sleep (90.9%), gastrointestinal (75.8%), and mood (75.8%). Patient/caregiver scoring correlations for NMS-Q and NMS-S were 0.670 (P < 0.0001) and 0.527 (P = 0.0016), respectively. Conclusion The frequency of NMS among advanced PD patients and correlation between patients and caregivers varied with the instrument used. The overall correlation between patient and caregiver was greater with NMS-Q than NMS-S.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present four cases where supplementary "rescue" deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads were added for patients who failed to obtain anticipated clinical benefits.
Nine patients out of 295 patients who underwent DBS between 2002 and 2009, were identified as rescue lead recipients. Of these nine cases, four cases were evaluated. Two had medication refractory tremor which was incompletely suppressed by Vim (nucleus ventralis intermedius) thalamic DBS, and supplemental rescue leads were implanted in either the VO (ventral oralis) thalamic nucleus or the STN (subthalamic nucleus). The remaining two cases were patients with severe dystonia who were initially treated with bilateral GPi (globus pallidus internus)-DBS, and following suboptimal clinical benefits, a second GPi rescue lead was added in a case, and bilateral STN rescue leads were added in the other case. Outcomes of scores collected included Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) for tremor cases and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) for dystonia cases and the symptom specific patient global impression scales (PGIS; 7 point scale).
In the tremor cases, the TRS scale improved by 34.1 ± 7.4% and the PGIS following rescue lead was "minimally improved" to "very much improved" (range 1-2). In dystonia cases, the UDRS improved by 50.0 ± 23.6% and the PGIS was "minimally improved" to "very much improved" (range 1-2) after rescue lead surgery.
This small retrospective case series demonstrated that, in appropriately selected patients with suboptimal results of standard DBS therapy, the addition of rescue lead(s) may provide meaningful clinical benefit.