Ruth Belostotsky

Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel

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Publications (10)54.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The primary hyperoxalurias are a group of recessive kidney diseases, characterised by extensive accumulation of calcium oxalate that progressively coalesces into kidney stones. Oxalate overproduction is facilitated by perturbations in the metabolism of glyoxylate, the product of glycolate oxidation, and the immediate precursor of oxalate. Glycolic aciduria associated with hyperoxaluria is regarded as the hallmark of type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. The genetic basis of isolated glycolic aciduria is reported here.
    Journal of medical genetics. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria type 3 (PH3) is a recently identified inborn error of 4-hydroxyproline metabolism causing kidney stone disease. Diagnosis to date has relied on mutation detection. The excretion of 4-hydroxyglutamate (4OHGlu) was investigated in controls and a cohort of nine patients with PH3 and their parents using flow injection tandem mass spectrometry. 4OHGlu was stable in acidified urine samples and was not influenced by diet. Its measurement was readily incorporated into an existing multi-analyte panel for comprehensive screening for inborn errors of metabolism. There was a steady decline with age in 4OHGlu levels, expressed as μmol/mmol of creatinine, in controls. Levels in patients with PH3 ranged from 6.5 to 98 μmol/mmol of creatinine and were all significantly increased when compared to age-matched controls (<4.2). Levels in eight parents (obligatory carriers of the corresponding mutation) were moderately, but significantly increased, ranging from 0.6 to 2.5 (age-matched controls <1.4, p = 0.03). Urine 4OHGlu screening was used to prospectively diagnose PH3 in an 18-month-old boy with calcium oxalate kidney stone disease associated with hyperoxaluria. 4OHGlu was also increased in a stored newborn screening dried blood spot sample from this child (37 μmol/L, controls <2.53). 4OHGlu testing provides a robust and high-throughput biochemical screen for PH3.
    JIMD reports. 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Perturbations in glyoxylate metabolism lead to the accumulation of oxalate and give rise to primary hyperoxalurias, recessive disorders characterized by kidney stone disease. Loss-of-function mutations in HOGA1 (formerly DHDPSL) are responsible for primary hyperoxaluria type III. HOGA1 is a mitochondrial 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase catalyzing the fourth step in the hydroxyproline pathway. We investigated hydroxyproline metabolites in the urine of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type III using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Significant increases in concentrations of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate and its precursor and derivative 4-hydroxyglutamate and 2,4-dihydroxyglutarate, respectively, were found in all patients as compared to carriers of the corresponding mutations or healthy controls. Despite a functional block in the conversion of hydroxyproline to glyoxylate-the immediate precursor of oxalate-the production of oxalate increases. To explain this apparent contradiction, we propose a model of glyoxylate compartmentalization in which cellular glyoxylate is normally prevented from contact with the cytosol where it can be oxidized to oxalate. We propose that HOGA1 deficiency results in the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate in the mitochondria and its transport into the cytosol where it is converted to glyoxylate by a different cytosolic aldolase. In human hepatocyte cell lines, we detected a cytosolic 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase activity not due to HOGA1. These studies provide a diagnostic tool for primary hyperoxaluria type III and shed light on glyoxylate metabolism and the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxalurias.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 06/2012; · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    Ruth Belostotsky, Yaacov Frishberg, Nina Entelis
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in human mitochondrial tRNA genes are associated with a number of multisystemic disorders. These single nucleotide substitutions in various domains of tRNA molecules may affect different steps of tRNA biogenesis. Often, the prominent decrease of aminoacylation and/or steady-state levels of affected mitochondrial tRNA have been demonstrated in patients' tissues and in cultured cells. Similar effect has been observed for pathogenic mutations in nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetases, while over-expression of mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases or elongation factor EF-Tu rescued mutated tRNAs from degradation. In this review we summarize experimental data concerning the possible regulatory mechanisms governing mitochondrial tRNA steady-state levels, and propose a hypothesis based on the tRNA channelling principle. According to this hypothesis, interaction of mitochondrial tRNA with proteins ensures not only tRNA synthesis, maturation and function, but also protection from degradation. Mutations perturbing this interaction lead to decreased tRNA stability.
    RNA biology 01/2012; 9(1):33-9. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria types I and II (PHI and PHII) are rare monogenic causes of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Recently, we described type III, due to mutations in HOGA1 (formerly DHDPSL), hypothesized to cause a gain of mitochondrial 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase activity, resulting in excess oxalate. To further explore the pathophysiology of HOGA1, we screened additional non-PHI-PHII patients and performed reverse transcription PCR analysis. Postulating that HOGA1 may influence urine oxalate, we also screened 100 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Of 28 unrelated hyperoxaluric patients with marked hyperoxaluria not due to PHI, PHII, or any identifiable secondary cause, we identified 10 (36%) with two HOGA1 mutations (four novel, including a nonsense variant). Reverse transcription PCR of the stop codon and two common mutations showed stable expression. From the new and our previously described PHIII cohort, 25 patients were identified for study. Urine oxalate was lower and urine calcium and uric acid were higher when compared with PHI and PHII. After 7.2 years median follow-up, mean eGFR was 116 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). HOGA1 heterozygosity was found in two patients with mild hyperoxaluria and in three of 100 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. No HOGA1 variants were detected in 166 controls. These findings, in the context of autosomal recessive inheritance for PHIII, support a loss-of-function mechanism for HOGA1, with potential for a dominant-negative effect. Detection of HOGA1 variants in idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis also suggests HOGA1 may be a predisposing factor for this condition.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2011; 6(9):2289-95. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An uncharacterized multisystemic mitochondrial cytopathy was diagnosed in two infants from consanguineous Palestinian kindred living in a single village. The most significant clinical findings were tubulopathy (hyperuricemia, metabolic alkalosis), pulmonary hypertension, and progressive renal failure in infancy (HUPRA syndrome). Analysis of the consanguineous pedigree suggested that the causative mutation is in the nuclear DNA. By using genome-wide SNP homozygosity analysis, we identified a homozygous identity-by-descent region on chromosome 19 and detected the pathogenic mutation c.1169A>G (p.Asp390Gly) in SARS2, encoding the mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthetase. The same homozygous mutation was later identified in a third infant with HUPRA syndrome. The carrier rate of this mutation among inhabitants of this Palestinian isolate was found to be 1:15. The mature enzyme catalyzes the ligation of serine to two mitochondrial tRNA isoacceptors: tRNA(Ser)(AGY) and tRNA(Ser)(UCN). Analysis of amino acylation of the two target tRNAs, extracted from immortalized peripheral lymphocytes derived from two patients, revealed that the p.Asp390Gly mutation significantly impacts on the acylation of tRNA(Ser)(AGY) but probably not that of tRNA(Ser)(UCN). Marked decrease in the expression of the nonacylated transcript and the complete absence of the acylated tRNA(Ser)(AGY) suggest that this mutation leads to significant loss of function and that the uncharged transcripts undergo degradation.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2011; 88(2):193-200. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is an autosomal-recessive disorder of endogenous oxalate synthesis characterized by accumulation of calcium oxalate primarily in the kidney. Deficiencies of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) or glyoxylate reductase (GRHPR) are the two known causes of the disease (PH I and II, respectively). To determine the etiology of an as yet uncharacterized type of PH, we selected a cohort of 15 non-PH I/PH II patients from eight unrelated families with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis for high-density SNP microarray analysis. We determined that mutations in an uncharacterized gene, DHDPSL, on chromosome 10 cause a third type of PH (PH III). To overcome the difficulties in data analysis attributed to a state of compound heterozygosity, we developed a strategy of "heterozygosity mapping"-a search for long heterozygous patterns unique to all patients in a given family and overlapping between families, followed by reconstruction of haplotypes. This approach enabled us to determine an allelic fragment shared by all patients of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and bearing a 3 bp deletion in DHDPSL. Overall, six mutations were detected: four missense mutations, one in-frame deletion, and one splice-site mutation. Our assumption is that DHDPSL is the gene encoding 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase, catalyzing the final step in the metabolic pathway of hydroxyproline.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2010; 87(3):392-9. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dent's disease is an X-linked proximal tubulopathy. It often manifests in childhood with symptoms of Fanconi syndrome and low-molecular-weight proteinuria. We describe four boys from three unrelated families whose only presenting symptoms of Dent's disease were nephrotic-range proteinuria and histological findings of focal segmental and/or global glomerulosclerosis. In all families, a causal mutation in the CLCN5 gene, encoding a voltage-gated chloride transporter and chloride-proton exchanger, was identified. All three mutations are pathogenic: two are novel (p.Asp727fs and p.Trp122X), and one is a recurrent mutation, p.R648X. Given the atypical phenotype of these patients with Dent's disease, it is possible that this clinical entity is markedly underdiagnosed and that our report represents only the tip of the iceberg. The diagnosis of Dent's disease should be considered in all patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria without hypoalbuminemia or edema. Establishing the diagnosis of Dent's disease will prevent the administration of unnecessary immunosuppressive medications with their undesirable side effects.
    Pediatric Nephrology 10/2009; 24(12):2369-73. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia [SMED] short limb-hand type [SMED-SL] is a rare autosomal-recessive disease, first reported by Borochowitz et al. in 1993.(1) Since then, 14 affected patients have been reported.(2-5) We diagnosed 6 patients from 5 different consanguineous Arab Muslim families from the Jerusalem area with SMED-SL. Additionally, we studied two patients from Algerian and Pakistani ancestry and the parents of the first Jewish patients reported.(1) Using a homozygosity mapping strategy, we located a candidate region on chromosome 1q23 spanning 2.4 Mb. The position of the Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) gene within the candidate region and the similarity of the ddr2 knockout mouse to the SMED patients' phenotype prompted us to study this gene(6). We identified three missense mutations c.2254 C > T [R752C], c. 2177 T > G [I726R], c.2138C > T [T713I] and one splice site mutation [IVS17+1g > a] in the conserved sequence encoding the tyrosine kinase domain of the DDR2 gene. The results of this study will permit an accurate early prenatal diagnosis and carrier screening for families at risk.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 12/2008; 84(1):80-4. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital analbuminemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease in which albumin is not synthesized. Patients with this disorder generally have minimal symptoms despite complete absence of the most abundant serum protein. We report a family in which the proband presented with acute glomerulonephritis and was found to have underlying congenital analbuminemia. Consequently, the patient's two older sisters were diagnosed with the same condition. Sequencing of the human serum albumin gene was performed, and a homozygous mutation in exon 3 was found in all three patients. Together with these three patients of Arab ethnicity, this mutation, known as Kayseri, is the most frequently described mutation in congenital analbuminemia. This article discusses clinical features and diagnostic challenges of this disorder, particularly in this case, where concomitant renal disease was present.
    Pediatric Nephrology 10/2008; 24(2):403-6. · 2.94 Impact Factor