[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pluripotent stem cells are a promising tool for mechanistic studies of tissue development, drug screening, and cell-based therapies. Here, we report an effective and mass-producing strategy for the stepwise differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs and hiPSCs, respectively) into osteoblasts using four small molecules (CHIR99021 [CHIR], cyclopamine [Cyc], smoothened agonist [SAG], and a helioxanthin-derivative 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrido[4',3':4,5]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide [TH]) under serum-free and feeder-free conditions. The strategy, which consists of mesoderm induction, osteoblast induction, and osteoblast maturation phases, significantly induced expressions of osteoblast-related genes and proteins in mESCs, miPSCs, and hiPSCs. In addition, when mESCs defective in runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a master regulator of osteogenesis, were cultured by the strategy, they molecularly recapitulated osteoblast phenotypes of Runx2 null mice. The present strategy will be a platform for biological and pathological studies of osteoblast development, screening of bone-augmentation drugs, and skeletal regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of tetrapod-shaped alpha tricalcium phosphate granules (Tetrabones(®) [TB]) in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-binding ion complex gel (f-IC gel) on bone defect repair was examined. Bilateral segmental defects 20-mm long were created in the radius of 5 dogs, stabilized with a plate and screws, and implanted with 1 of the following: TB (TB group), TB and bFGF solution (TB/f group), and TB and f-IC gel (TB/f-IC group). Dogs were euthanized 4 weeks after surgery. Radiographs showed well-placed TB granules in the defects and equal osseous callus formation in all the groups. Histomorphometry revealed that the number of vessels and volume of new bone in the TB/f-IC group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. However, no significant differences in neovascularization and new bone formation were observed between the TB/f and TB groups. Furthermore, no significant difference in the lamellar bone volume or rate of mineral apposition was observed among groups. These results suggest that increased bone formation might have been because of the promotion of neovascularization by the f-IC gel. Therefore, the combinatorial method may provide a suitable scaffold for bone regeneration in large segmental long bone defects.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 03/2014; · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of tetrapod-shaped alpha tricalcium phosphate granules (TB) as a scaffold combined with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-binding ion complex gel (f-IC gel) on neovascularization and bone regeneration was evaluated in segmental femoral defects of rabbits. The defects were stabilized using a plate with a polypropylene mesh cage (PMC) containing one of the following: PMC alone (PMC group), TB (TB group), TB and bFGF (TB/f group), TB and IC gel (TB/IC group), or TB and f-IC gel (TB/f-IC group). Four rabbits from each group were euthanized at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Histomorphometry showed that the number of vessels and the volume of new bone in the TB/f-IC group were significantly higher than those in the other groups at all time points. There were no differences in the extent of neovascularization and new bone formation between the TB and TB/f groups. These findings suggest that the combination of TB and f-IC gel facilitated both neovascularization and new bone formation in segmental femoral defects of rabbits. This combination may be of considerable use for treating segmental long bone defects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoscaled drug-loaded carriers are of particular interest for efficient tumor therapy as numerous studies have shown improved targeting and efficacy. Nevertheless, most of these studies have been performed against allograft and xenograft tumor models, which have altered microenvironment features affecting the accumulation and penetration of nanocarriers. Conversely, the evaluation of nanocarriers on genetically engineered mice, which can gradually develop clinically relevant tumors, permits the validation of their design under normal processes of immunity, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Therefore, considering the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, we used the elastase 1-promoted luciferase and Simian virus 40 T and t antigens transgenic mice, which develop spontaneous bioluminescent pancreatic carcinoma, and showed that long circulating micellar nanocarriers, incorporating the parent complex of oxaliplatin, inhibited the tumor growth as a result of their efficient accumulation and penetration in the tumors. The reduction of the photon flux from the endogenous tumor by the micelles correlated with the decrease of serum carbohydrate-associated antigen 19-9 marker. Micelles also reduced the incidence of metastasis and ascites, extending the survival of the transgenic mice.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage is a permanent tissue, with poor self-regenerative capacity. Consequently, a tissue engineering approach to cartilage regenerative therapy could greatly advance the current treatment options for patients with cartilage degeneration and/or defects. A successful tissue engineering approach would require not only induction of chondrogenic differentiation, but also suppression of subsequent endochondral ossification and chondrocyte dedifferentiation. We previously reported that direct injection of the thienoindazole derivative, TD-198946, into the knee joints of mice halted the progression of osteoarthritis; the compound induced chondrogenic differentiation without promoting endochondral ossification. In the present study, we applied TD-198946 to a cell-based cartilage reconstruction model, taking advantage of the cell-sheet technology. Cartilaginous cell-sheets were generated by culturing mouse and canine costal chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells with TD-198946 on temperature-responsive dishes. The transplanted cell-sheets were then successfully used to promote the reconstruction of permanent cartilage, with no evidence of chondrocyte hypertrophy in the knee articular cartilage defects created in mice and canines. Thus, TD-198946 is a promising candidate for cell-based cartilage reconstruction therapies, enabling us to avoid any concern surrounding the use of scaffolds or cytokines to stimulate regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although bone grafts and prosthetic implants have shown some clinical success in the treatment of bone defects, the graft availability, biocompatibility, function, and longevity still remain to be improved. One possible solution to these problems is to develop bone implants acting on host cells to induce rapid bone regeneration. Here, we demonstrate bone healing by means of a sterilizable and osteogenic molecule-eluting implant system in which two small molecules, a smoothened agonist (SAG) and a helioxanthin derivative (TH), are loaded onto tetrapod-shaped calcium phosphate granules (Tetrabone). We succeeded in directing progenitor cells toward mature osteoblasts with the combined application of the two small molecules acting on different stages of osteogenesis. Tetrabone released SAG and TH for prolonged periods when loaded with these molecules. EOG sterilization did not affect the osteogenic activity of the SAG- and TH-loaded Tetrabones. The combinatorial use of SAG- and TH-loaded Tetrabones achieved bone healing without cell transplantation in a rat femur bone defect model within two weeks. This system will allow us to vary the combination rate of implants loaded with different osteogenic factors depending on the types and sizes of defects, potentially allowing full temporal and spatial control of the bone regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Specification of progenitors into the osteoblast lineage is an essential event for skeletogenesis. During endochondral ossification, cells in the perichondrium give rise to osteoblast precursors. Hedgehog (Hh) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) are suggested to regulate the commitment of these cells. However, properties of perichondrial cells and regulatory mechanisms of the specification process are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the machineries by combining a novel organ culture system and single-cell expression analysis with mouse genetics and biochemical analyses. In a metatarsal organ culture reproducing bone collar formation, activation of BMP signaling enhanced the bone collar formation cooperatively with Hh input, while the signaling induced ectopic chondrocyte formation in the perichondrium without Hh input. Similar phenotypes were also observed in compound mutant mice, where signaling activities of Hh and BMP were genetically manipulated. Single-cell RT-qPCR analyses showed heterogeneity of perichondrial cells in terms of natural characteristics and responsiveness to Hh input. In vitro analyses revealed that Hh signaling suppressed BMP-induced chondrogenic differentiation; Gli1 inhibited the expression of Sox5, Sox6, and Sox9 as well as transactivation by Sox9. Indeed, ectopic expression of chondrocyte maker genes were observed in the perichondrium of metatarsals in Gli1-/- fetuses, and the phenotype was more severe in Gli1-/-;Gli2-/- newborns. These data suggest that Hh-Gli activators alter the function of BMP to specify perichondrial cells into osteoblasts; the timing of Hh input and its target populations are critical for BMP function.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are a promising cell source for cartilage regenerative medicine; however, the methods for chondrocyte induction from iPSC are currently developing and not yet sufficient for clinical application. Here, we report the establishment of a fluorescent indicator system for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation from iPSC to simplify screening for effective factors that induce chondrocytes from iPSC. We generated iPSC from embryonic fibroblasts of Col2a1-EGFP transgenic mice by retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Among the 30 clones of Col2a1-EGFP iPSC we established, two clones showed high expression levels of embryonic stem cell (ESC) marker genes, similar to control ESC. A teratoma formation assay showed that the two clones were pluripotent and differentiated into cell types from all three germ layers. The fluorescent signal was observed during chondrogenic differentiation of the two clones concomitant with the increase in chondrocyte marker expression. In conclusion, Col2a1-EGFP iPSC are useful for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation and will contribute to research in cartilage regenerative medicine.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74137. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tenomodulin (Tnmd) is a type II transmembrane protein characteristically expressed in dense connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments. Its expression in the periodontal ligament (PDL) has also been demonstrated, though the timing and function remain unclear. We investigated the expression of Tnmd during murine tooth eruption and explored its biological functions in vitro. Tnmd expression was related to the time of eruption when occlusal force was transferred to the teeth and surrounding tissues. Tnmd overexpression enhanced cell adhesion in NIH3T3 and human PDL cells. In addition, Tnmd-knockout fibroblasts showed decreased cell adhesion. In the extracellular portions of Tnmd, the BRICHOS domain or CS region was found to be responsible for Tnmd-mediated enhancement of cell adhesion. These results suggest that Tnmd acts on the maturation or maintenance of the PDL by positively regulating cell adhesion via its BRICHOS domain.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60203. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify a new disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) candidate that can effectively repair cartilage by promoting chondrogenic differentiation and halt osteoarthritis (OA) progression by suppressing aberrant hypertrophy. METHODS: We screened 2500 natural and synthetic small compounds for chondrogenic agents via four steps using the Col2GFP-ATDC5 system and identified a small thienoindazole derivative compound, TD-198946, as a novel DMOAD candidate. We tested its efficacy as a DMOAD via intra-articular injections directly into the joint space in a surgically-induced mouse model of OA both at the onset (prevention model) and 4 weeks after (repair model) OA induction. The downstream molecules were screened by microarray analysis. We further investigated the mechanism of the drug action and its molecular target using in vitro and in vivo assays. RESULTS: TD-198946 strongly induced chondrogenic differentiation without promoting hypertrophy in cell and metatarsal organ cultures. When administered directly into the joint space, TD-198946 successfully prevented and repaired degeneration of the articular cartilage. TD-198946 exerted its effect through the regulation of Runx1 expression, which was downregulated in both mouse and human OA cartilage compared with normal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TD-198946 is a novel class of DMOAD candidate, and that targeting Runx1 will provide a promising new approach in the development of disease-modifying drugs against OA.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 10/2012; · 8.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: THERE ARE THREE COMPONENTS FOR THE CREATION OF NEW TISSUES: cell sources, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. Unlike conventional medical strategies, regenerative medicine requires not only analytical approaches but also integrative ones. Basic research has identified a number of bioactive factors that are necessary, but not sufficient, for organogenesis. In skeletal development, these factors include bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor β TGF-β, Wnts, hedgehogs (Hh), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), SRY box-containing gene (Sox) 9, Sp7, and runt-related transcription factors (Runx). Clinical and preclinical studies have been extensively performed to apply the knowledge to bone and cartilage regeneration. Given the large number of findings obtained so far, it would be a good time for a multi-disciplinary, collaborative effort to optimize these known factors and develop appropriate drug delivery systems for delivering them.
Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal. 07/2012; 2(3):193-203.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With regard to Hedgehog signaling in mammalian development, the majority of research has focused on Gli2 and Gli3 rather than Gli1. This is because Gli1(-/-) mice do not show any gross abnormalities in adulthood, and no detailed analyses of fetal Gli1(-/-) mice are available. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of Gli1 in osteogenesis. Histological analyses revealed that bone formation was impaired in Gli1(-/-) fetuses compared with WT fetuses. Gli1(-/-) perichondrial cells expressed neither runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) nor osterix, master regulators of osteogenesis, in contrast to WT cells. In vitro analyses showed that overexpression of Gli1 up-regulated early osteogenesis-related genes in both WT and Runx2(-/-) perichondrial cells, and Gli1 activated transcription of those genes via its association with their 5'-regulatory regions, underlying the function of Gli1 in the perichondrium. Moreover, Gli1(-/-);Gli2(-/-) mice showed more severe phenotypes of impaired bone formation than either Gli1(-/-) or Gli2(-/-) mice, and osteoblast differentiation was impaired in Gli1(-/-);Gli3(-/-) perichondrial cells compared with Gli3(-/-) cells in vitro. These data suggest that Gli1 itself can induce early osteoblast differentiation, at least to some extent, in a Runx2-independent manner. It also plays a redundant role with Gli2 and is involved in the repressor function of Gli3 in osteogenesis. On the basis of these findings, we propose that upon Hedgehog input, Gli1 functions collectively with Gli2 and Gli3 in osteogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(21):17860-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mass is regulated by osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We previously reported that harmine, a β-carboline alkaloid, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. Harmine promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MC3T3-E1 cells without affecting their proliferation. Harmine also increased the mRNA expressions of the osteoblast marker genes ALP and Osteocalcin. Furthermore, the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells was enhanced by treatment with harmine. Harmine also induced osteoblast differentiation in primary calvarial osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 cells. Structure-activity relationship studies using harmine-related β-carboline alkaloids revealed that the C3-C4 double bond and 7-hydroxy or 7-methoxy group of harmine were important for its osteogenic activity. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist noggin and its receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 attenuated harmine-promoted ALP activity. In addition, harmine increased the mRNA expressions of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Bmp-6, Bmp-7 and its target gene Id1. Harmine also enhanced the mRNA expressions of Runx2 and Osterix, which are key transcription factors in osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, BMP-responsive and Runx2-responsive reporters were activated by harmine treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that harmine enhances osteoblast differentiation probably by inducing the expressions of BMPs and activating BMP and Runx2 pathways. Our findings suggest that harmine has bone anabolic effects and may be useful for the treatment of bone-decreasing diseases and bone regeneration as a lead compound.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2011; 409(2):260-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aiming at regeneration of articular cartilage, we have established stable lines of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of type II collagen promoter fused with four repeats of a SOX9 enhancer (COL2A1-GFP) , as a monitoring system for chondrogenic differentiation. A screening of natural and synthetic compound libraries using the system identified some novel compounds. Combined with cell-sheet technology, a novel small compound was applied to the treatment of full-thickness knee cartilage defects in murine and canine models.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian bones have three distinct origins (paraxial mesoderm, lateral plate mesoderm, and neural crest) and undergo two different modes of formation (intramembranous and endochondral). Bones derived from the paraxial mesoderm and lateral plate mesoderm mainly form through the endochondral process. During this process, hypertrophic chondrocytes play a vital role in inducing osteogenesis. So far, a number of published papers have provided evidence that chondrocyte hypertrophy and osteoblast differentiation are controlled by a variety of signaling pathways and factors; however, little is known about their hierarchy (which are upstream? which are most potent?). In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways and transcriptional factors regulating chondrocyte hypertrophy and osteoblast differentiation based on the evidence that has been reported and confirmed by multiple independent groups. We then discuss which factor would provide the most coherent evidence for its role in endochondral ossification.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 09/2010; 28(5):489-502. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To effectively treat serious bone defects using bone-regenerative medicine, a small chemical compound that potently induces bone formation must be developed. We previously reported on the osteogenic effect of 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrido[40,30:4,5]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide (TH), a helioxanthin-derivative, in vitro. Here, we report on TH's osteogenic effects ex vivo and in vivo. TH-induced new bone formation in both calvarial and metatarsal organ cultures. A novel monitoring system of osteoblastic differentiation using MC3T3-E1 cells revealed that TH was released from alpha-TCP bone cement and this release continued for more than one month. Lastly, the implantation of the alpha-TCP carrier containing TH into defects in mouse skull resulted in increased new bone areas within the defects after 4 weeks. A TH-containing scaffold may help establish a more efficient bone regeneration system.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2010; 395(4):502-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To effectively treat degenerative joint diseases including osteoarthritis (OA), small chemical compounds need to be developed that can potently induce chondrogenic differentiation without promoting terminal differentiation. For this purpose, we screened natural and synthetic compound libraries using a Col2GFP-ATDC5 system and identified oxytetracycline (Oxy) as a chondrogenic compound. Oxy induced cartilaginous matrix synthesis and mRNA expressions of chondrocyte markers in ATDC5 cells. In addition, Oxy suppressed mineralization and mRNA expressions of terminal chondrocyte differentiation markers in ATDC5 cells, primary chondrocytes, and cultured metatarsal bones. Oxy's induction of Col2 mRNA expression was decreased by the addition of Noggin and was increased by the addition of BMP2. Furthermore, Oxy increased mRNA expression of Id1, Bmp2, Bmp4, and Bmp6. These data suggest that Oxy induces chondrogenic differentiation in a BMP-dependent manner and suppresses terminal differentiation. Oxy may be useful for treatment of OA and also for regeneration of cartilage tissue.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 04/2010; 28(6):627-33. · 2.22 Impact Factor